Science Journal

 

 World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537; Quarterly

Volume 8 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 27), March 25, 2016
Cover (print), Cover (online), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, wro0801
 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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1

Bioremediation of organic xenobiotics (Review)

 

Mona S. Zaki1, Nabila El Battrawy2, Samy I. Shalaby3 and Refat A. Youssef 4

 

1Department of Hydrobiology, National Research centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Department of Microbiology, Reproduction research Institute Egypt

3Department of Reproduction, National Research centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

4Department of Soil and Water Use, National Research centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Ligninolytic fungi or white rot fungi are found on wood and have lignolytic enzymes capable of oxidizing lignin and other organic material present in wood. Peroxidases and laccases are two types of ligninolytic enzymes secreted extracellularly and oxidise organic matter via a non-specific radical based reaction. Lignin Peroxidase (LP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) are two types of peroxidase enzyme both of which are capable of oxidising PAHs. Lacassesare basically phenol oxidase enzymes and are also capable of oxidizing PAHs, There is significant interest surrounding the use of ligninolytic fungi to degrade PAHs, owing to their low substrate specificity and hence the capability to degrade even the most recalcitrant of compounds. Also, the enzymes involved are extracellular, and are theoretically able to diffuse into the soil or sediment matrix and potentiallyoxidise PAHs with low bioavailability.

[Mona S. Zaki, Nabila El Battrawy, Samy I. Shalaby and Refat A. Youssef. Bioremediation of organic xenobiotics (Review). World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):1-2]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.01.

 

Keywords: fungi; wood; enzymes; lignin; peroxidases; laccases; bioavailability

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Assessment of Economic Viability of Fluted Pumpkin Farming in Ikorodu LGA, Lagos State.

 

Olowa Olatomide Waheed1, Olowa Omowumi Ayodele2

 

1&2Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka, Lagos

olowa1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study assessed the profitability of growing fluted pumpkin on commercial scale in Ikorodu Local Government Area (ILGA).To achieve this, primary data were obtained from a sample of 100 fluted pumpkin farmers selected by multi-staged sampling from four Local Council Development Areas in the Local Government. Since farmers practice both rain-fed and irrigated farming, data were collected to assess the most profitable practice for growing this vegetable on commercial basis. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentages, means, gross margin, net profit, benefit-cost and Shepherd-Future analyses, and exponential regression model of combined profit function for irrigation and rain-fed systems. Results showed that fluted pumpkin farming was equally undertaken by both male and female mostly between 41-50 years old, with no formal education and average family size of 6 per household. Further, analysis showed net profit of ₦380,150 and ₦207,150; economic efficiencies of 36.64 per cent and 28.57 per cent; and benefit-cost ratios of 2.7 and 3 for rain-fed and dry season/irrigated practice respectively. Farm size and level of education have positive correlation while age and costs of fertilizer, labour and planting materials were negatively related to farmer’s profit at 1% and 5% significant level. Needless for farmers to invest in irrigation for fluted pumpkin production. Also, increased access to land, fertilizers and improved seeds would promote profitability and commercialization of fluted pumpkin enterprises in Nigeria.

[Olowa OW, Olowa OA. Assessment of Economic Viability of Fluted Pumpkin Farming in Ikorodu LGA, Lagos State. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):3-8]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.02.

 

Key words: Fluted Pumpkin, Ikorodu, Farmers, Profitability, Commercialization, rain-fed Practice, Dry season

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3

River Ganga Routinely Receiving Sewage from Ashrams and Hotels in Rishikesh and Haridwar Cities-A Case Study

 

Jiban Singh, M., Biswas, M. K., Suneel Dave and Akolkar, A. B.

 

Central Pollution Control Board, Parivesh Bhawan, East Arjun Nagar, New Delhi-110032, India.

mjscholar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: From how many Ashrams and Hotels, how much quality of sewage loaded into main stem of river Ganga in Rishikesh and Haridwar is main intention of this study. Total number of people in individual Ashram and Hotel and water demand per person per day, have measured the quantity of fresh water consumed. In Rishikesh and Haridwar, 150 to 200 litters of fresh water required per person per day and bore well and Jall Sanstha are the sources of fresh water. Individual Ashrams and Hotels, which consumed fresh water from bore well and Jall Sanstha also have not installed flow meter, confirmed loaded over sewage into main stem of river Ganga routinely. Total 68 and 84% of individuals Ashrams and Hotels are connected with STPs for sewage disposal. But Identified 12 sewage carrying Nallahs and 46 MLD of over flow raw sewage falling into main stem of river Ganga routinely in both Rishikesh and Haridwar and suggested year of the STP established and performance of the STP is inversely proportional.

[Jiban Singh, M., Biswas, M. K., Suneel Dave and Akolkar, A. B. River Ganga Routinely Receiving Sewage from Ashrams and Hotels in Rishikesh and Haridwar Cities-A Case Study. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):9-13]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.03.

 

Keyword: Ashrams, Hotels, Pollution load, River Ganga, Sewage, Trapping, Upper stream and Water demand

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4

Farmers’ use of Banana instead of Plantain as Shade Crop in Cocoa Establishment: A Case of Cross River State, Nigeria

 

Agbongiarhuoyi, A.E., Ayegboyin, K., Ogunlade, M.O. and Orisajo, S.B.

 

Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) P.M.B. 5244 Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Email: toniagbons@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study focused on why farmers use banana shade crop instead of plantain for cocoa establishment. A systematic simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 cocoa farmers from four villages in two Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data collected. Results revealed that the mean age of farmers was 42 with farming experience of 15-21 years. Most of the farmers were youths who had secondary education which is a good factor in adoption of technology. Information on cocoa farm establishment was sourced by 63% of the farmers mainly from fellow farmers. Majority (71.7%) used banana as shade crop regularly in planting cocoa in their farms while 44.2 % adopted plantain which CRIN recommended. Farmers use more of banana shade crop due to its high economic benefits and weather related reasons. They believe that the practice does not economically restrict the growth and yield of cocoa. Soil analyses showed that soil nutrient and acidity levels in areas planted with banana/plantain were similar. Plant-parasitic nematodes distribution was not different in places where banana/cocoa and plantain/cocoa intercrops were planted. The literacy level of farmers had significant influence on the use of banana shade crop. The study recommends that farmers should be educated on good farm management practices that could enhance yield and income. Research on the use of banana suckers in young cocoa farms should be revisited by farming system scientists to cope with the current adoption of banana shade crop in Cross River State.

[Agbongiarhuoyi, A.E., Ayegboyin, K., Ogunlade, M.O. and Orisajo, S.B. Farmers’ use of Banana instead of Plantain as Shade Crop in Cocoa Establishment: A Case of Cross River State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):14-22]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.04.

 

Key words: Cocoa establishment, banana, plantain, shade crops, farmers

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5

Intestinal Helminth Parasite of Cattle Slaughtered in Abbatiors in Gwagwalada

 

Oyedeji, Funmilayo Nike

 

Department of Biology, Federal Capital Territory College of Education, P.M.B. 61, Abuja-Nigeria.

Email: deleijigbade@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A survey on the prevalence of intenstinal helminthes parasites in cattle slaughtered in Gwagwalada was carried out between the month of May and July, 2015. A total of fifty-five (55) helminth parasites belonging to four (4) genera were observed in this study. The highest number of parasites were observed from the samples collected from Gwako 17(30.91 %) followed by the samples collected from Giri with 16 parasites (29.09 %), Agwandodo with 12 (21.82 %) and Kutunku recorded the least number of helminth parasites of 10 (18.18 %). Among all the helminth parasites in the intestinal tracts of slaughtered cattle examined in Gwagwalada, Ascaris sp was the most common helminthes species observed with 40 % of the total parasites observed followed by Taenia sp with 30.91 % of the total helminthic parasites, Trichuris,sp was observed, equivalent to 16.36 % and Toxocara sp 12.73 %. The prevalence of intenstinal helminth parasites in cattle slaughtered in Gwagwalada abattoirs were significantly different at P < 0.05 level of significant. There is a need to monitor intestinal parasites of cattle to promote animal production and public health in Nigeria.

[Oyedeji, Funmilayo Nike. Intestinal Helminth Parasite of Cattle Slaughtered in Abbatiors in Gwagwalada. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):23-26]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.05.

 

Keywords: Helminth, Parasites, Intestinal

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6

Spatial Patterns Of Community Conflicts (1990-2015) And Its Implication To Rural Development In Rivers State

 

Samuel Bankole Arokoyu and *Evangeline Nkiruka Ochulor

 

Department of Geography and Environmental Science, Faculty of Social Science, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State

angelicnkie01@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Community conflict patterns and frequency vary in space and thus the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in conflict management is highly required in contemporary time. This study therefore investigated the spatial pattern and variations in the frequency of community conflict in Rivers State, Nigeria between 1990 and 2015. The locations of all communities that have experienced conflict were mapped with global positioning system. Imageries of rural development indices (infrastructural poverty index and accessibility) and land sat images of 2014 for land use patterns were acquired for the study from United States Geological Survey. The spatial pattern of communal conflicts was analysed using nearest neighbour statistic while the relationship between frequency of community conflicts and rural development was analysed using Spearman rank correlation. Findings reveal that the pattern of distribution of communities that have experienced communal conflicts is random (Nearest Neighbour Ratio = 1.0). More communal conflicts occurred in the upland areas (65.5%) while the swamp areas experienced comparatively lower communal conflicts (34.5%). Inter community conflict was highest in Khana and Gokana LGAs while intra community conflict was highest in Obio Akpor LGA. The community conflict hotspots were in Ogbogoro, Okrika Town, Egbema and Ogbakiri. The correlation coefficient between frequency of conflict and infrastructural poverty was negative and low. The study recommended that awareness programmes on peace-building to educate and sensitize individuals in the LGAs affected by community conflict should be encouraged.

[Arokoyu SB, Ochulor EN. Spatial Patterns of Community Conflicts (1990-2015) and Its Implication To Rural Development In Rivers State. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):27-37]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.06.

 

Keywords: Spatial patterns, Communal conflict, Rural development, Rivers State, Nigeria

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7

Impact Of Improved Rural Roads On Agricultural Production In Rwanda’S Rural Maize Farming Cooperatives: Evidence From Three Maize Farming Cooperatives In Kirehe District.

 

Alphonsine Vedasto Mutako1, Jaya Shukla2, Peter Mbabazi3

 

1 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kigali, Rwanda. {mutako11@gmail.com}

2 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kigali, Rwanda. {js.jayashukla@gmail.com}

3 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kigali, Rwanda. {mbabazimbabazize@yahoo.com}

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of improved rural roads on agricultural production in Rwanda’s rural maize farming cooperatives: evidence from three maize farming cooperatives in Kirehe district. The specific objectives of the study were: to examine the impact of improved rural roads on crop intensification in maize production; to evaluate the impact of improved rural roads on level of maize output and; and to assess the impact of improved rural roads on maize markets access and participation. The research design that was used in this study was Descriptive Research Design. The researcher attempted to describe and explain conditions of improved rural roads on agricultural production using questionnaires to fully describe the impact on agriculture inputs use, level of maize production and maize market access and participation. Simple Random Sampling technique was used to get 67 respondents randomly selected from three maize farming cooperatives located at various distance intervals from Kigali-Rusumo main road in Gatore sector (Cyunuzi center) rural wards to 35 kilometers far through Cyunuzi center to Remera village in Gahara Sector and to Musaza Sector. The researcher constructed time-distance variable to the inputs supplier and to the nearest big markets in Kirehe District (Kirehe market) as measurements of road accessibility. The data that were used covered the period of time in 2014 season A. The researcher used the multiple regression and correlation models to fully explain the relationship. The data collected from the field were coded then presented in forms of frequencies, tables and charts through the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 6.0) and MS-Excel. The findings from this analysis showed that the R2 is 0.248 (24.8%) which showed that the variables contributes to the market access and participation at 24.8%, this means that the factor of markets access and participation count only 24.8 percent and the remaining depend on other factors. From the ANOVA table with F-test statistic of 6.880248 with p-value of 1.06E-05, since the p-value is less than 0.05 (p-value <0.05), the researcher could accept the null hypothesis hence there is no significance impact of improved roads on markets access and participations for maize farmers at 0.05 level of significance and 95% of confidence interval. In other words being adjacent to rural roads does not guarantee to market participation, the results are in relation to the determined points of disposing the maize produce mentioned above whereby farmers sell most of their maize produce mostly to cooperatives 41(61.19%), to the traders in local markets 15(22.39%) to mobile traders10 (14.93) and to neighbors 1 (1.49%), this make them not find the necessity of participating to the nearby big markets for selling maize produces.

[Alphonsine Vedasto Mutako, Jaya Shukla, Peter Mbabazi. Impact Of Improved Rural Roads On Agricultural Production In Rwanda’S Rural Maize Farming Cooperatives: Evidence From Three Maize Farming Cooperatives In Kirehe District. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):38-51]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.07.

 

Key Words: Rural roads, crop intensification, maize production

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8

Quantitative and qualitative estimation of waste water discharge from Ghazipur city

 

Sandeep K. Pandey*, Suman Yadav#

 

*Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.G. College, Ghazipur-233001 U.P. India.# M.Sc. Fellow, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.G. College, Ghazipur-233001 U.P. India.

environ_disaster53@rediffmail.com; +91-9918561915, Fax: +91-548-222087

 

Abstract: Ghazipur a sub-urban area situated on the bank of river Ganga is affected by water pollution by municipal raw waste water discharge; few small scale industries & two industrial sources. The significant sewage water pollution taking place through five major drains are Badamahadeva, Peernagar, Collectorghat, Navapura and Dadrighat. The experiment was carried out during March to May 2009; in the P.G. College, Ghazipur laboratory, the quantity of waste water discharged from the city is 3,70,000,00 l/day, qualitatively; except chloride most of the parameters have the higher value obtained than prescribed for sewage water quality standard, sites like Bada Mahadeva and Dadri Ghat are mostly affected by organic wastes and remaining three are inorganic as well as organic river water pollution, sewage treatment plant is required to reduce the load of the river Ganga to curb the impacts.

[Sandeep K. Pandey, Suman Yadav. Quantitative and qualitative estimation of waste water discharge from Ghazipur city. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):52-56]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.08.

 

Keywords: Waste Water, MLD, C.O.D., D.O., River Water Quality

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9

The Role of Urban Planning to Reduce the Vulnerability against Earthquake: A Review

 

Vahid Reza Mardani1, Maryam Brumand 2, Elham Amini1, Saeed Hashemi Tabatabaei1

 

1. PhD student in Urban Design, National Academy of Science in Armenia

2. MA in Urban Planning, Lecturer at the Department of Urban Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Pardis Branch and Member of the Young Researcher Club in the Central Branch of the Islamic Azad University. Tehran, Iran

3. PhD in Urban Planning, Assistant Professor, and Head of the Department of Urban Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Pardis Branch. Tehran, Iran

4. PhD in Geotechnique, Faculty Member of Road, Housing 1nd Urban Development Research Center, Tehran, Iran

maryambromand371@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During the last few decades, the world has become increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters such as earthquakes. The new reality is that population growth and increased concentration of physical assets in high- risk areas are leading to increased exposures to adverse natural events. Earthquakes, when they happen in an urban area, may result in serious consequences as disasters to damage urban life and infrastructure. The impact of such disasters could be enormous and hamper the process toward the development of sustainable cities. To reduce the damage and ease difficulties in the recovery process, many studies have been performed. This paper reviews some of this research, has tried to emphasize the perspective of urban planning. The results indicated that using strategic city planning aimed at decreasing focus and too much congestion, optimizing communication networks, fortifying and adding equipments to vital constructions and emergency services, developing detailed seismic micro zoning map of earthquake prone regions, making use of geology maps such as PGA[1] and appropriate distribution of clear ground spaces in town regions seem to be effective solution for decreasing human susceptibility against earthquakes and increasing city stability. 

[Mardani, Brumand, Amini Tabatabaei. The Role of Urban Planning to Reduce the Vulnerability against Earthquake: A Review. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):57-69]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.09.

 

Keywords: Earthquake, urban planning, vulnerability, prone regions

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10

The Urban Fabric and Its Impact on Reducing the Vulnerability against Earthquake

 

Maryam Broumand 1, Vahid Reza Mardani 2

 

1. MSc. in Urbanism, Department of Urbanism and Urban Planning, Azad Islamic University, Pardis Branch; Member of Young Researchers Club- Central Tehran Branch'

2. PhD. Student in Urban Planning; Armenian Academy of Science

maryambromand371@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In spite of human’s wondrous advances in technology, the earthquake has still been an unpredictable phenomenon that any negligence to how to deal with it will lead to catastrophic damages to the human habitations. Due to the diversity of its topics, urbanism knowledge can play an effective role in decreasing damages of the earthquake. The main objective of this article is to recognize the current available problems and difficulties in the common patterns of urban fabric and to find a solution for earthquake-related problems. The methodology of this research has been designed according to the results of descriptive- inductive and library surveys; and its analysis method is inductive-modeling. Additionally, modern knowledge of GIS (Geographic Information System) and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is used along with urbanism criteria to assess the vulnerability of two common patterns of urban fabric including chess and organic fabrics. Results demonstrate that the chess fabric provides better conditions in decreasing earthquake-based damages rather than organic fabric.

[Maryam Broumand, Vahid Reza Mardani. The Urban Fabric and Its Impact on Reducing the Vulnerability against Earthquake. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):70-79]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.10.

 

Keywords: Earthquake, Pattern, Urban Fabric, Urbanism

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11

Phytoplakton Bio-Indicators Of Water Quality Situations In The Iyagbe Lagoon, South-Western Nigeria.

 

I.C. Onyema

 

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.

ionyema@unilag.edu.ng, iconyema@gmail.com

 

Abstract: An investigation into the use of phytoplankton species as bio-diagonistic tools and in relation to associated water quality conditions were carried out from October, 2004 to September, 2006 for the Iyagbe lagoon in South-western Nigeria. Water chemistry conditions ranged from fresh, through brackish to sea situations. Other water chemical parameters showed marked variations and trends. For instance salinity ranged from 1.06 – 35.1‰. The phytoplankton spectrum (76 species) was represented by six divisions namely Bacillariophyta (diatoms, 38 taxa), Cyanophyta (blue-green algae, 18 taxa), Chlorophyta (green algae, 10 taxa), Euglenophyta (euglenoid, 4 taxa), Pyrrophyta (dinoflagellate, 3 taxa) and Chrysophyta (chrysophytes, 2 taxa). Diatoms formed the dominant group and represented a wider array of conditions than any other group. Water quality characteristics reflected notably by the phytoplankton crop in this study include levels for salinity, pH, cations, depth, nutrients and pollution. Further exactitudes on the bio-diagnostic characteristics of specific organisms are detailed within.

[I.C. Onyema. Phytoplakton Bio-Indicators Of Water Quality Situations In The Iyagbe Lagoon, South-Western Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):80-89]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.11.

 

Keywords: Water chemistry, creek, lagoon, Iyagbe, algae, pollution, mangrove.

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12

Territory of Properties and its Laws

 

Negar Dehqani

 

Department of Law, Islamic Azad University, Iran

Dehqaninegar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The Territory of Properties is that part of the land, subterranean canal, etc. which is necessary for perfect profiting from the property. Nowadays, regarding that, lands are non-producible goods and due to the population growth, the need for land continuously grows. Since, an extent of surrounding areas of a property is considered as its territory and its dependent part, therefore the issue of the Territory of Properties has been widely discussed. Although, in the recent years, changes have been made in types of buildings and their schemes such as benefiting the height have been considered, but these issues also has created new problems like air territory. Many of the jurisprudents have specified the existence of territory and their documentations is the jurisprudence that has directly or indirectly referred to the issue as well as consensus. In addition, they considered territory as rational problems. Moreover, existence of a real estate and surrounding waste lands are the components of a property. Some of the jurisprudents have considered the basis of territory as the principle of no harm and believe that, the purpose of distinguishing the territory is preventing the loss of its owner. In order to ensure the perfect benefit of the land by its owner and preventing his/her loss, it is not necessary to absolutely prohibit the others from possessing it, but it is enough to prevent the possession which will incur loss to the owner, although the fulfillment of this viewpoint can cause the restrictions to the others. For example, cultivation of a waste land that is required to deplete soil around the well or place the wheel and engine is inconsistent with the existence of territory and prevents the full benefit of the well owner.

[Negar Dehqani. Territory of Properties and its Laws. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):90-94]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.12.

 

Keywords: territory, wasteland, cultivation, principle of no harm, jurisprudential paradigms of territory, modern paradigms of territory, Iranian Law

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Evaluation Of Heavy Metal And Total Hydrocarbon Levels In Hydrocarbons Polluted Ecosystem in the Niger Delta Region

 

1Iwatt G.D., 1Antai S.P and 1Agbor R.B

 

1Department of Microbiology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State- Nigeria

2Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State- Nigeria

 

Abstract: These present study assessed the heavy metal and total hydrocarbon level in hydrocarbons polluted ecosystem in the Niger Delta region. GPS coordinates of each location was obtained using GPS 72H equipment (Garmin, Taiwan). Water samples were collected using sterile 250ml capacity media bottles. Sediment samples were obtained using Ponar grab sampler and aseptically transferred into 40z capacity Whirl- Pak bags (Nasco, USA). With the aid of sterile plastic hand trowel, mixed surface and subsurface soil samples were collected in duplicates and transported in ice-chest to the laboratory within six hours of collection. Data were analysed using SPSS and significant mean separated using LSD test at 5% probability level. The result shows that the concentration of heavy metals varied significantly among locations studied. The mean Lead (Pb) and Nickel (Ni) concentrations were significantly higher in polluted water samples than in the pristine samples whereas the mean Ni, V and Zn values were higher in the underlying sediment. The mean Cr, Co, Cd, Ni, V and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in polluted soil than in the pristine samples. It was concluded from the result that the level of heavy metal in polluted samples were significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the pristine samples.

[Iwatt G.D., Antai S.P and Agbor R.B. Evaluation Of Heavy Metal And Total Hydrocarbon Levels In Hydrocarbons Polluted Ecosystem in the Niger Delta Region. World Rural Observ 2016;8(1):95-102]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13. doi:10.7537/marswro080116.13.

 

Keywords: Heavy metal, hydrocarbon, water, sediment, soil

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The above manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 12, 2016. 

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