Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537; Quarterly

Volume 8 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 29), September 25, 2016
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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No.

1

Levels, Trends and Determinants of Under-Five Mortality in Amhara Region, Ethiopia Using EDHS (2000 -2011)

 

Belete Debebe1 and Tariku Dejene2

 

1Department of Population Studies, College of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Gondar, Ethiopia, belebete@yahoo.com

2 Department of Population Studies, Centre for Population Studies, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia,

tariku-dejene@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Children are the human resource banks of every nation. Above all, the first five years of life are the most crucial to the physical and intellectual development of children and can determine their potential to learn and thrive for a life time. Under-five mortality is a key indicator of social and economic development and has received attention as a part of United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This is due to more than any other age group of a population, children survival depends on the socio-economic condition. In Amhara region under-five mortality remains one of the public health problems. Although the region has made remarkable progress in reducing under-five mortality over decades it still remains high. The objective of this study is thus to assess the levels, trends and determinants of under-five mortality in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. The source of data comes from the three nationally representative Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2011. A total of 8,479 children included in this study. Of these children 3,202, 2,621 and 2,656 were from 2000, 2005 and 2011 surveys, respectively. The analysis tools used include both descriptive and inferential statistics. The finding of the descriptive statistics indicates that under-five mortality was declining over the period 2000 to 2011. Moreover, the result of multivariable analysis revealed that the hazards of under-five mortality were found to be significant for male, children born from illiterate and primary school mothers, children born outside marital union, mothers who do not use contraceptive and household without access to improved water. Thus, the result suggests that support system geared towards improving access and choices to women secondary educational training, integrating family planning with child survival programmes and improving sources of drinking water can reduce the existing high under-five mortality rate in the region.

[Belete Debebe and Tariku Dejene. Levels, Trends and Determinants of Under-Five Mortality in Amhara Region, Ethiopia Using EDHS (2000 -2011). World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):1-11]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.01.

 

Keywords: Amhara Region; Under-five Mortality; Hazard, Hazard Model; Determinants; Survival

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Aggregate Import Demand Analysis of Rice in Nigeria (1970-2012)

 

Okeowo, T. A

 

Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, School of Agriculture, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria

Email: biodunokeowo@gmail.com; +2348027282978

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the aggregate import demand for rice in Nigeria. This study was based on time series secondary data obtained from various sources covering 1970 to 2012. The data were subjected to Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and co-integration tests to measure stability of data for likely inclusion in the model. Import price, export earnings and import earnings had t-values at the trended first difference ADF test that were greater than critical values. The series are generally I (1) series except for price and export earnings I (>1). Trace test and Maximum Eigenvalue test reveal that the series in rice import demand model are co-integrated, with more than 1 co-integrating equation existing between them. The import demand function has both import price and income from export earnings being statistically significant at 1 percent level. Result shows that the Error Correction Model (ECM) term is associated with the desired negative coefficients which however are significant (p < 0.10). This result suggests stable long run relationships. However, the speed of adjustment is rather too slow but insignificant. The coefficient of the time trend was positive. This means that time was relevant in explaining variation in rice import. The findings and conclusion from this study led to the policy implications which if implemented will ensure the designing of consistent and welfare maximising import plan capable of stimulating the domestic growth of domestic rice production.

[Okeowo, T. A. Aggregate Import Demand Analysis of Rice in Nigeria (1970-2012). World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):12-18]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.02.

 

Keywords: Aggregate, Co-integration, Import demand, Nigeria, Rice

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Study on the Prevalence of Trypanosomes Affecting Bovine in Tsetse Infested Asossa District of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia

 

Asmamaw Aki Jano

 

Regional veterinary Diagnostic, Surveillance, Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O. Box: 326, Asosa, Ethiopia. Email: asmamawaki@gmail.com; Telephone; 251 577751541

 

Abstract: A cross sectional study was carried out in Asosa district of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia between October to December, 2015 to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis, prevailing species of trypanosomes, associated risks and its vector density. Blood samples collected from (n= 458) randomly sampled cattle (Bos indicus) was examined using parasitological (buffy coat technique) and hematological (measurement of packed cell volume) procedures. An overall, 21 (4.58%) prevalence was recorded. The infection was caused by Trypanosoma congolense 17/21 (80.95%) and Trypanosoma vivax 4/21(19.04%). The infection rate difference amongst trypanosomes was statistically significant (P<0.000). Mean packed cell volume (PCV) value of the parasitaemic animals was lower ( 21.76% + 1.7) than aparasitaemic animals (24.71% + 1.04) and the variation was statistically significant (P<0.04). Overall, anemia prevalence of 39.52 % (181/458 was recorded and it was significantly higher (66.66%) in infected cattle than in non-infected (38.21%). Higher prevalence (5.16%) was registered in medium body conditioned animals. Significant association was not recorded within study sites, sex groups, age categories and body conditions (P> 0.05). Glossina morsitan sub morsitans was the only tsetse fly caught and its mean apparent density measured as f/t/d was 2.84. In addition, other mechanical vectors such as 0.071 f/t/d tabanids, 0.56 f/t/d Stomoxys and 0.11 f/t/d Haematopota were recorded. In conclusion, the result of the current study showed the economical importance of trypanosomosis in the area calling for devising strategic control efforts.

[Asmamaw Aki Jano. Study on the Prevalence of Trypanosomes Affecting Bovine in Tsetse Infested Asossa District of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia. World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):19-27]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.03.

 

Key words: Asosa district, PCV, Risk factor, Trypanosome, Trypanosomosis, tsetse fly

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Bactericidal Capacity Of Some Local Herbs On Ralstonia solanacearum. A Bacterium Wilt Pathogen Of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

 

Ijato, J. Y

 

Department Of Plant Science, Faculty Of Science, Ekiti State   University, Ado-Ekiti P.M.B 5363, Ekiti State, Nigeria

E-mail: considerureternity@gmail.com GSM: 08067335124

 

Abstract: The antibacterial effects of aqueous leaf extracts of five plants: Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas, Vernonia amygdalina, Moringa oleifera, Bauhinia monandra were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on R. solanacearum. Fresh leaves of the test plant were collected, air dried and pulverized. Hundred grams of powdered leaves of each test plant was mixed with 200ml of distilled cold water at room temperature and left over night. These were filtered and the filtrate served as extracts. The antibacterial activities of the test plants were determined using agar diffusion method. Bauhinia monandra had the highest inhibition at 5%-20% on R. solanaceraum by 2.27cm and 2.84cm respectively, followed by inhibitory effects of cold water leaf extracts of A. indica which ranged from 2.41-2.50cm. A. indica extracts at 5%-20% concentration reduced the growth of R. solanacearum by 2.41-2.50cm. The effects of cold water leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera ranged from 0.92-2.13cm. The growth of R. solanacearum (0.93cm) was reduced by 10% with the least antibacterial effect at 5% by 2.13cm. The effects of cold water leaf extracts of V. amygdalina ranged from 1.08-1.72 cm, while J. curcas had the lowest inhibition at 5%-20% on R. solanacearum by 0.81-1.17cm and at 5%-20% on R. solanacearum. All the effects of varied concentrations of aqueous leaf extracts on R. solanacearum were significantly different from the standard (streptomycin) and control. Similarly, the test plants can play significant roles in containing phytobacterial infection on agricultural produce.

[Ijato JY. Bactericidal Capacity Of Some Local Herbs On Ralstonia solanacearum. A Bacterium Wilt Pathogen Of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):28-31]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.04.

 

Keyword: R. solanacearum, phytobacterial infection, local herbs, bactericidal

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Spatial Distribution Pattern of Trafficking in Persons Sources in Southern Nigeria

 

Ezinneka Eunice Okodudu

 

Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

nneokodudu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study investigated the spatial distribution of trafficking in persons (TIPs) in Southern Nigeria. Periodic data of human trafficking between 2010 and 2014 were collected from National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic in Person (NAPTIP). Nearest neighbour analysis (NNA) was used to determine the distribution pattern of TIPs while Getis-Ord G statistics was used to determine the pattern of TIP incidence clusters in the Southern Nigeria. Centrographic analysis was carried out on the sources of TIP and the number of incidences recorded using weighted mean center; weighted standard deviational ellipse; and standard distance. The highest number of TIP victims was observed in Akwa Ibom State with 47.8% while Cross River State had 15.2%, and Imo State had 6.7%. NNA revealed that the spatial distribution of TIP sources was clustered (Z=2.75; <0.05) while Gestis-Ord statistics revealed that there is high cluster pattern of TIP in Southern Nigeria (Z=2.09; p=0.036). Centrographic analysis revealed that the weighted mean centre for the TIPs sources across Southern Nigeria can be found at Umuahia North in Abia State and the directional distribution of the total TIP incidences collated is orientated towards the South eastern regions at an angle of 118.72 degrees. The dispersion analysis of TIP incidences shows that 68% of the total number of incidences was distributed around eight states namely Anambra, Enugu, Imo, Rivers Abia, Ebonyi, Akwa Ibom and Cross River States. Mbo, Udung Uko, Oron, Okobo, Ikono, Obot Akara, Ibiono Ibom, Uyo and Itu LGAs in Akwa Ibom State; and Abi, Odukpani, Yakurr and Obubra LGAs in Cross River State were found as hotspots for TIP in the Southern Nigeria. The study recommended that the border should be effectively controlled and handled by NAPTIP, Nigeria Immigration Service and Nigeria Custom.

[Okodudu EE. Spatial Distribution Pattern of Trafficking in Persons Sources in Southern Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):32-42]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.05.

 

Keywords: Centrographic, Nearest neighbour, Trafficking in persons, Spatial, Southern Nigeria

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6

Evaluation of M5 Tree Model Using Water Vapor to Estimate the Solar Radiation

 

Narges Kefayati1, Ali rahimi khob2, Aliakbar Noroozi3

 

1 *Aburayhan Campus, Tehran University, Iran

2 Associate professor, Departeman of irrigation and drainage, Aburayhan Campus, Tehran University, Iran.

3 Institute of Soil and Water Conservation. Tehran, Iran

narges.kefayati@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study, M5 tree model with input data of water vapor product MOD05_L2 MODIS were used to estimate the solar radiation. To determine the radiation, the six stations with different climates for a period of three-year were used as the actual data. The observed radiation was obtained by the Meteorology Organization and extraterrestrial radiation obtained mathematically. Water vapor was received from MODIS images of Terra satellite. The available images changed into input parameters using GIS and Envi softwares. The results showed that the tree model M5, Isfahan stations with the value of R2, 0.94 has the highest accuracy in estimating solar radiation.

[Narges Kefayati, Ali rahimi khob, Aliakbar Noroozi. Evaluation of M5 Tree Model Using Water Vapor to Estimate the Solar Radiation. World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):43-47]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.06.

 

Key words: Solar radiation, Water vapor, MODIS sensor, Tree model M5, Isfahan station

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7

Porch and balcony as sustainable architecture factors in vernacular houses of west of Guilan: Case studies in Khotbehara, Iran

 

Elham Mehrinejad Khotbehsara1(Corresponding Author), Pegah Eghbal1, Sara Nourmusavi Nasab2

 

1Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran. Email: mehrinejad.e@gmail.com; Tel: +989038098985

2Department of Architecture, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

 

Abstract: Porch and balcony are the most important parts of the vernacular architecture in the west of Guilan, and have responded properly to all functions. In this study, formation and location of them are investigated, and their different functions are surveyed. The architecture of this region is outward oriented because of porch and yard with open view, which are influenced by climate, social factors, culture and economy. According to this issue they are able to provide the best solution for weather balance conditions in summer and winter and climate comfort. There are some proportions in the porch that in addition to aesthetic and pleasant form, are in harmony with environment, and vernacular material have been used for their construction. These porches encompass cultural, social issues and other issues that are clearly discussed. In this article through sustain concept and defining the vernacular architecture of the west of Guilan, which is located beside the Caspian sea in the north of Iran, the effective factors of balcony and porch formation are compared and analyzed in order to improve the current conditions according to the lack of fossil energy and attention to economic efficiency inspired by vernacular architecture regarding to sustainable development.

[Elham Mehrinejad Khotbehsara, Pegah Eghbal, Sara Nourmusavi Nasab. Porch and balcony as sustainable architecture factors in vernacular houses of west of Guilan: Case studies in Khotbehara, Iran. World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):48-56]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.07.

 

Key word: Passageway; Porch; Balcony; Vernacular architecture; Sustainable architecture.

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Impact Of Coastal Flooding On Fish Production In Brass, Niger Delta Nigeria, Implication For Coastal Resource Management

 

Chukwu-Okeah Gift, O

 

Department of Geography & Environmental management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

giftchukwuokeah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In recent times, the deteriorating state of the rivers have begin to gain prominence, this is because there have being a reduction in fish catch and the economy of the fishermen and women who depends on this as their source of livelihood. Due to the fragile nature of the Niger Delta and the turnout of climate change which has lead to excessive rainfall and intense heat, the area has been in so much pains as their only source lo livelihood is been affected. In this study two fishing ports were used and from a water sample analysis it showed that although flooding in the area to an extent affects the quality of water as well as the state of fishes, but the most is the activities of man arising from the use of water bodies as dumpsites for refuse and toilets and oil spills from industrial activities of multinational companies as well as sand dredging. Therefore the study recommends that Government and the private sector should see that within these delicate areas developmental projects that have true bearing on the lives of the people are put in place as to reduce the use of water bodies as the only source of dumping refuse and toilets and that fishermen and women in these areas should be encouraged by way of training and provision of modern fishing equipments as to meet up the demands for fish and improve their own economy.

[Chukwu-Okeah Gift O. Impact Of Coastal Flooding On Fish Production In Brass, Niger Delta Nigeria, Implication For Coastal Resource Management. World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):57-63]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.08.

 

Keywords: flooding, coastal development, climate change, anthropogenic activities.

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Sediment Transport And Its Impact On Channel Morphology Of Forested Streams; The Case Of Chinda Creek In Ogbogoro Niger Delta, Nigeria

 

Chukwu-Okeah G.O

 

University of Port Harcourt, Department of Geography & Environmental Management, Nigeria

giftchukwuokeah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted in Chinda creek a section of the New Calabar River, using 30 sample points with an interval of 21.4m each. Measurement of the cross sectional area was done using the Cuencea (1989) formula and Chang et al (2000) formula for sediment transport. Alongside this the US BLH 84 sediment sampler and the Depth-Integrating Suspended-Sediment Sampler Model DH 48 was used for collecting data on both the suspended load sediment yield and the bed load sediment yield. The result of the study revealed an insignificant relationship between sediment transport (suspended load sediment yield and bed load sediment yield) and channel morphology. The co-efficient of determination of each of the two independent variable showed that an insignificant 10.89% variation in channel morphology is explainable by each of the independent variable. This means that their contribution to change in the channel form of Chinda creek is insignificant. The study revealed that there are several other factors that contribute to channel form change not only sediment transport and as such studies aim at identify these factors was recommended.

[Chukwu-Okeah G.O. Sediment Transport And Its Impact On Channel Morphology Of Forested Streams; The Case Of Chinda Creek In Ogbogoro Niger Delta, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):64-66]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.09.

 

Key words: sediment transport, bed load sediment yield, suspended load sediment yield, channel morphology, change, channel form.

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Effect of farmers’ socio-economic characteristics on knowledge of Environmental Hazards Associated with Cocoa Farming Operations in Nigeria

 

Famuyiwa, B. S., Agbongiarhuoyi, A. E, O. O. Oduwole and O. Okunade

 

Agricultural Extension/Rural Sociologist, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Nigeria, www.crin-ng.org, Skype: famuyiwa.busayo, +2348033978146, famuyiwabusayo@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed at determining relationship between farmers’ socio-economic characteristics and knowledge of environmental hazards associated with cocoa farming operations in Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 600 respondents from five geo-political zones where cocoa is commercially grown in Nigeria, while a pretested interview schedule was used to elicit information. Results revealed that cocoa farming was dominated by male farmers (94%), literate (81.5%) with a mean age of 48.614.0 years and 31.3 per cent were members of Cocoa Farmers Association. The farmers operate on an average farm size of 10.42ha with an average age of 30.32.2years. The study also revealed that the farmers are well experienced with an average of 2414.9 years in cocoa farming. An average yield of 218.810kg/ha was indicated with majority (68.8%) of the farmers exhibiting fair knowledge of environmental hazards associated with cocoa farming operations. It also revealed that there were positive and significant relationship between age of famers (r= 0.08; p< 0.01), years spent in institution (r=.11; p< 0.01), farming experience (r= 0.03; p< 0.01), farm size (r= 0.09; p< 0.01), farm age(r= 0.10; p< 0.01), yield (r= 17; p< 0.01), seminar (r=.24; p< 0.05) and extension contact (r=.14; p< 0.05) and their knowledge of associated environmental hazards. It was concluded that relationship existed between farmers’ socio-economic characteristics and knowledge of environmental hazards associated with cocoa farming operations.

[Famuyiwa, B. S., Agbongiarhuoyi, A. E, O. O. Oduwole and O. Okunade. Effect of farmers’ socio-economic characteristics on knowledge of Environmental Hazards Associated with Cocoa Farming Operations in Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):67-76]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.10.

 

Keyword: Knowledge, socio-economic characteristics, Environmental hazards and Cocoa.

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Seasonal changes in physico-chemical properties of River sediments in Agbabu areas, Nigeria: Insight from principal component analysis

 

Akinyemi, S. A1., Fagbote2, E.O., Adebayo1, O.F., Aturamu1, A. O., Gitari3, W. M., Olanipekun2, E. O., Ojo1, A. O.

 

1Department of Geology and Applied Geophysics, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

3Department of Ecology and Resources Management, University of Venda, South Africa.

**Corresponding author: Akinyemi, S. A.

E-mail: segun.akinyemi@eksu.edu.ng; Phone no: +2348106648373.

 

Abstract: The paper assesses the seasonal changes in the physico-chemical properties and the textural characteristic of the sediments for the duration of 2008 to 2009. The study appraises variations of physico-chemical parameters such as P, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, pH, EC, TN, TOC and CEC during the dry and rainy seasons. Texturally, the sediment composed mostly of sand size particles with small aggregates of silt and clay particles. The silt and clay fractions of sediments were enriched during dry season but depleted during the rainy season. The pore water pH is slightly acidic with values varying between 4.42 – 6.74 and 4.36 – 6.20 during the dry and rainy seasons respectively. The mean pH values of 5.58 and 5.44 for the periods of dry and rainy seasons respectively fall below the World Health Organisation (WHO) threshold standards of 6.5 - 8.5. A significant increase in TOC, CEC, TN, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ during the dry season is attributed to the increase in the percentage of fine materials (i.e. clay and silt) and organic matter constituents in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three extracted components namely comp. 1, comp. 2 and comp. 3, with TOC and the nature of sediment texture controlling the variation in the physico-chemical characteristics. The cluster analysis results corroborated the observed pattern in the principal component analysis.

[Akinyemi, S. A ., Fagbote, E.O., Adebayo, O.F., Aturamu, A. O., Gitari, W. M., Olanipekun, E. O., Ojo, A. O.. Seasonal changes in physico-chemical properties of River sediments in Agbabu areas, Nigeria: Insight from principal component analysis. World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):77-84]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.11.

 

Keywords: Seasonal changes, physico-chemical properties, principal component analysis, cluster analysis.

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Creating Vital Downtowns By Establishment of Pedestrian Malls (Case Study: Arak Shohada Square)

 

Milad Homafar1, Gholamali Allah Dadi2, Mohammad Homafar3

 

1. PhD student in Urbanism, Islamic Azad University of Qazvin, Iran

2. MSc. in Regional and Urban Planning; University of Tehran

3. BEng in Civil Engineering; University of Arak

milad.homafar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Creating vital and dynamic urban spaces has been always one of the main concerns of the urban planners. Adopting desirable approaches to re-fresh the urban centers' vitality and to preserve the dynamic life of the urban centers as the primary core and economic heart of the cities is of a special importance. This research attempts to show the necessity of creating dynamic and vital urban centers. To do this, we will review the prominent characteristics of the urban centers and the opinions of the urban theorists about the methods of crating vitality in the urban spaces and establishing pedestrian malls in the city. As the case study, we will study the possibility of creating a pedestrian mall in Arak city center of Iran through investigating the physical characteristics of the mentioned area and questionnaire data in two steps. By and large, the reviewed studied led to offering some suggestions for the establishment of mentioned pedestrian mall.

[Milad Homafar, Gholamali Allah Dadi, Mohammad Homafar. Creating Vital Downtowns By Establishment of Pedestrian Malls. World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):85-92]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.12.

 

Keywords Urban Centers, Refreshment, Vitality, Pedestrian Mall, Arak City

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Market Power in the Agricultural Products Marketing (Case of: Poultry Meat, Egg and Milk)

 

Reza Moghaddasi1 and Negar Shamsi2

 

[1] Associate Professor, Agricultural Economics Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 M.Sc Student, Agricultural Economics Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

r.moghaddasi@srbiau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Recognizing the price behavior in agricultural products’ market is one of the key issues in marketing because the market structure (competitive and noncompetitive) which affects the production volume and prices of agricultural products and thus the interests of different groups in society. The purpose of this research is to study market power in the marketing process of agricultural products (case study of poultry meat, eggs and milk). In this study, monthly data for the years 2002 - 2006 were used for these three products. Existence of market power using the economic model of Jyrky and Liu and based on reviewing variables indicating transportation costs, price index of the given product producer and consumer, the variables of demand and supply modifying variables (the price index of producer and consumer for all goods) have been tested on the retail price index. The research results indicate the positive and significant effect of modifier indicator variables related to the demand and supply of poultry products, the change of the demand and supply variables and the Producer Price Index for egg production and supply modifier indicator variable for milk product. While conditions of perfect competition in the markets have been rejected for these products, this means that considering Lloyd standards, these three products in Iran benefit from the profits of market power.

[Moghaddasi R, Shamsi N. Market Power in the Agricultural Products Marketing(Case of: Poultry Meat, Egg and Milk). World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):93-98]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.13.

 

Keywords: market power, marketing chain, chicken, eggs and milk, Iran

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Nutritional, Sensory and Bacteriological Quality of Two Varieties of Locally Prepared Zobo (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Drink

 

Tamunodiepriye Ezekiel, Leera Solomon, Adieboye George Oforibika, and Victoria Daminabo

 

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

sololeera@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The nutritional composition, sensory attributes and bacterial quality of two varieties of locally prepared zobo drinks was investigated. Dry calyces of H. sabdariffa and fresh wet form of ginger rhizomes and garlic bulbs were obtained. The dark red zobo (DRZ) had the highest percentage of vitamin C (8%) and calcium (4.5 ppm) when compared to vitamin C (5.5%) and calcium (2.5 ppm) in bright red zobo (BRZ). The BRZ recorded high value in magnesium (13.75 ppm) while DRZ, had high values of sodium (36.28 ppm) and potassium (220.5 ppm). Protein and iron were the same (0.5875 and 1.17 ppm) in both products. The pH values were all on the low side (3.03), confirming the high acidity usually noticed in zobo drink. The DRZ had 73.3% colour and 80% taste acceptability while the BRZ drink gave 26.7% colour with a 20% taste acceptance level. An average total heterotrophic bacterial counts of 1.87E+06 and 1.49E+05 CFU/g were obtained for dark red and bright red samples with total coliform counts of 1.63E+04 CFU/ml (DRZ) and 1.56E+03 CFU/ml (BRZ). The DRZ variety with high retention vitamin C content and its acceptance by evaluators should be consumed more. The DRZ is cheaper and produced more quality of zobo than the BRZ at the same concentration. Although, DRZ had significantly (p<0.05) higher bacterial counts, both met the ICMSF limit of 1x107 CFU/ml set for total aerobic plate counts and so, should be consumed to boost local production and a healthy lifestyle.

[Ezekiel, T., Solomon, L., Oforibika, A.G. and Daminabo, V. Nutritional, Sensory and Bacteriological Quality of Two Varieties of Locally Prepared Zobo (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Drink. World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):99-104]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14. doi:10.7537/marswro080316.14.

 

Keywords: Zobo, nutritional composition, local production, ICMSF limit, healthy lifestyle.

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The above manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 28, 2016

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