Science Journal

 

 World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537; Quarterly

Volume 8 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 30), December 25, 2016
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Soil type and irrigation water contents affect carbohydrates, total soluble protein, mineral ion contents and phytohormone levels in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) 

 

Fatma Gharib1, Safia Ghazi1, Hebatallah Aly1, and Seham Moustafa2

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Corresponding author, E-mail: sehammoustafa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cultivation in sandy loam (SL) soil and twice irrigation/ week (I2) followed by SL and once irrigation /week (I1) significantly increased the contents of total carbohydrate (TC) in leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) plants and the levels of the growth hormones indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and cytokinins (CKs), as compared to their respective levels in the plants cultivated in sandy clay (SC) soil. Generally, the TC and different minerals were higher at the 2nd cut (August), compared to the 1st cut (February), especially in the SL soil. Furthermore, the SC soil combined with I2 irrigation system was more effective in increasing the total soluble sugars (TSS) and total soluble proteins (TSP) of rosemary leaves during the 1st cut, with a relatively higher abscisic acid (ABA) content and lower GA3/ ABA ratios, as compared to corresponding plants supplied with I1 irrigation system. The majority of mineral ions were higher in leaves of the plants grown in the SL soil during the two cuts, as compared with the SC soil. Decreasing the irrigation water to I1, increased the Na+/K+ ratio in rosemary leaves grown in both SC and SL soils during the two cuts. In conclusion, rosemary plants could maximize their TC content and nutritive state in the SL soil combined with I2 irrigation.

[Fatma Gharib, Safia Ghazi, Hebatallah Aly, and Seham Moustafa. Soil type and irrigation water contents affect carbohydrates, total soluble protein, mineral ion contents and phytohormone levels in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). World Rural Observ 2016; 8(4): 1-9]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural.1. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.01.

 

Key words: Rosemary, Soil type, Irrigation system, Carbohydrates, Protein, Mineral ions, Phytohormones.

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2

Evaluation of Suitable Pressurized Irrigation Systems by Using Analytical Hierarchy

Process (AHP) and GIS for Izeh plain area of Iran

 

Lamya Neissi, Saeed Boroomand Nasab, Mohammad Albaji

 

Irrigation and Drainage Dept. Faculty of Water Sciences Eng.Shahid Chamran Univ, Ahvaz Iran. Postal Code: 61357-8-3151. Tell: +98 611 3135589, Fax: +98 611 3365670

E-mail: boroomandsaeed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study describes an innovative methodology to evaluate susceptible regions for pressurized irrigation systems by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based on Geographic Information System (GIS) where the Izeh plain (Iran) is selected as the considered area. The model is extendable worldwide and is relatively simple. Several influential parameters are identified considering climate (Cre), labor skills (L ls), topography, system costs (S ec) and etc. They are grouped in two main criteria, namely socio- economic criterion and physical criterion. Each criterion is subdivided into several sub-criteria. A matrix of the pair-wise comparison is used to compare these criteria and sub-criteria and to evaluate them according to their relative importance for region susceptibility. By using GIS for these criteria, geographical layers are obtained for the sub-criteria, leading to determine susceptible region and ranking the suitable pressurized irrigation systems for this study area. The results of this study were shown as GIS maps by using AHP. Localize irrigation system, Gun irrigation system and Linear irrigation system were found to be the best selections for this region, respectively.

[Lamya Neissi, Mohammad Albaji, Saeed Boroomand Nasab. Evaluation of Suitable Pressurized Irrigation Systems by Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and GIS for Izeh plain area of Iran. World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):10-18]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.02.

 

Keywords: AHP, GIS, Iran, Localize irrigation system.

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3

Potentiality of suitable regions for different irrigation systems implementation by

using analytic hierarchy process (Case study: Izeh plain, Iran)

 

Lamya Neissi1, Mohammad Albaji1, Saeed Boroomand Nasab1

 

1.  Irrigation and Drainage Dept. Faculty of Water Sciences Eng.Shahid Chamran Univ, Ahvaz Iran. Postal Code: 61357-8-3151. Tell: +98 611 3135589, Fax: +98 611 3365670

E-mail: boroomandsaeed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Potentiality of suitable regions for irrigation systems for this study area is a multicriteria decision-making problem. A model for potentiality of optimized irrigation systems for suitable regions was developed by considering socio-economic and the physical criteria. GIS can play an important role in the identification of the suitable regions for the locating of the irrigation systems in more facile manner. In this paper a methodology is proposed to identify the suitable regions in the state for the locating the irrigation systems by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to boost rural economies and promote the efficiency of the irrigation systems. The result of this study was shown as GIS map. All kind of common irrigation systems were considered in this case study. Respectively, Hand move sprinkler irrigation system, Surface irrigation system and Localized Irrigation System were found to have the highest percent of locating area among other irrigation systems.

[Lamya Neissi, Mohammad Albaji, Saeed Boroomand Nasab. Potentiality of suitable regions for different irrigation systems implementation by using analytic hierarchy process (Case study: Izeh plain, Iran). World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):19-27]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.03.

 

Keywords: Irrigation systems, analytic hierarchy process, multi criteria decision making, socio - economic criteria, physical criteria.

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4

Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests

 

Geeta Kharkwal 1, Poonam Mehrotra 2, Yaswant Singh Rawat 1

 

1. Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263002, India

2. Department of Botany, Bundelkhand University, Jhasi, Uttarakhand 263002, India

geetakh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Taxonomic diversity of understorey vegetation (herb species) was studied in two evergreen forests, viz. oak and pine in the Kumaun Himalaya. In terms of taxonomic diversity, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were the two dominant families in the sampling forest types. Maximum number of species was found at hill base and minimum at hill top in both the forests. The number of families, genera and species ratio observed for pine forest was of course higher with compared to the oak forest showed about the higher taxonomic diversity. Perennials form had higher contribution as compared to annuals forms indicated better ability to store up soil. Very few species (9 species) were found to be common indicates higher dissimilarity in both type of forests. Species richness (per m2) was higher in the pine forest than the oak forest. A high value of beta-diversity in the oak forest point out that the species composition varied from one stand to another. However, low concentration of dominance value in the pine forest with compare to the oak forest point towards the dominance, which is shared by many species.

[Kharkwal G, Mehrotra P, Rawat YS. Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests. World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):28-32]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.04.

 

Keywords: Species richness; beta-diversity; taxonomic diversity; forest.

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5

Potentiality of suitable regions for different irrigation systems implementation by using analytic hierarchy process (Case study: Izeh plain, Iran)

 

Lamya Neissi1, Mohammad Albaji1, Saeed Boroomand Nasab1

 

1.  Irrigation and Drainage Dept. Faculty of Water Sciences Eng. Shahid Chamran Univ, Ahvaz Iran. Postal Code: 61357-8-3151. Tell: +98 611 3135589, Fax: +98 611 3365670

E-mail: boroomandsaeed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Potentiality of suitable regions for irrigation systems for this study area is a multicriteria decision-making problem. A model for potentiality of optimized irrigation systems for suitable regions was developed by considering socio-economic and the physical criteria. GIS can play an important role in the identification of the suitable regions for the locating of the irrigation systems in more facile manner. In this paper a methodology is proposed to identify the suitable regions in the state for the locating the irrigation systems by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to boost rural economies and promote the efficiency of the irrigation systems. The result of this study was shown as GIS map. All kind of common irrigation systems were considered in this case study. Respectively, Hand move sprinkler irrigation system, Surface irrigation system and Localized Irrigation System were found to have the highest percent of locating area among other irrigation systems.

[Lamya Neissi, Mohammad Albaji, Saeed Boroomand Nasab. Potentiality of suitable regions for different irrigation systems implementation by using analytic hierarchy process (Case study: Izeh plain, Iran). World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):33-41]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.05.

 

Keywords: Irrigation systems, analytic hierarchy process, multi criteria decision making, socio - economic criteria, physical criteria.

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6

The Operational Perspective of Monofilament and Multifilament Gillnets in Catching Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus in Cross River Estuary

 

Eyo Ambrose* and Isangedighi Isangedighi

 

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environmental Management, University of Uyo, PMB 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author E-mail address: eyoambrose@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Silver catfish, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus is an important and valued food fish among the dominant commercial catches exploited in the southern part of Nigeria. This study was conducted from February 2015 to January 2016 with a view to determining the operational effort of monofilament and multifilament gillnet in catching C.nigrodigitatus in the lower Cross River estuary. Set and drift types of gillnet are mainly used for C. nigrodigitatus fishery in the study area. The nets are operated either in the early hours of the day (morning) or during the night in the main river channel and sometimes in the marginal water of the river and creeks or set across or parallel to the water body. A fishing effort of 6- 8 hours and two (2) crew men per boat is employed. The efficiency of the gill nets is largely influenced by the behaviour of fish in relation to the visibility of the gear, which is related to the type of materials selected for its fabrication. The relatively cost of monofilament and multifilament nets also influences their use in Nigeria. T-test analysis showed that the weight of fish caught by monofilament and multifilament gillnets were significantly different from one another (p < 0.05). Multifilament gillnet caught the highest number of fish (98) while monofilament gillnet caught the least (91). But monofilament gillnet has the highest weight of fish (304.87kg) while multifilament has the least (256.58kg). Based on the study, multifilament and monofilament gillnets are the recommended gears among others for fisher folks in catching these dominant migratory species.

[Eyo Ambrose and Isangedighi Isangedighi. The Operational Perspective of Monofilament and Multifilament Gillnets in Catching Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus in Cross River Estuary. World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):42-53]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.06.

 

Keywords: Gillnets, Silver catfish, Migration, Efficiency, Estuary

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7

Study the quality of soil around the synthetic filter in subsurface drainage (Case study: Ramhourmoz Plain)

 

M. Tamimi1, A. A. Naseri2, Z. Izadpanah3, M. Ghobadinia4

 

1 M.Sc. Student Irrigation and Drainage Department, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Professor, Irrigation and Drainage Department, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Irrigation and Drainage Department, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor of Water Engineering Department, Shahrekord University,Shahrekord, Iran.

maede.tamimi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An essential part of each drainage system is the filter of drains. Drains filter is one of important factors in underground drainage system performance. The goal of this study was study Soil chemical quality in artificial filters in 2000 hours testing. The soil of Ramhourmoz area is studied in three treatments with three replication. First treatment in a continuous exploitation condition, second treatment is done by continius and discontinius flow and the third treatment is done through heating. Sampling process is done in 1/5 meter depth of installed drains in Soltan Abad region (In area lands of Fajr Ramhourmoz project). The model was made of Polyethylene Cylinder which consists of lace, sand, artificial filters, soil and water. The exit water is used again. The quality of water and soil of the region was measured before the test. After three months soil quality is measured again and the result is presented in tables. The results indicates rises in all elements after 2000 hours data processing. Element rises percentage is the most in the over heating treatment due to the gravity of this treatment, Then is discontinius treatment and the one is constant treatment. Gyps and Carbonate amount in all measuring parts were zero.

[Tamimi M, Naseri AA, Izadpanah Z, Ghobadinia M. Study the quality of soil around the synthetic filter in subsurface drainage (Case study: Ramhourmoz Plain). World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):54-56]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.07.

 

Keywords: chemical quality, artificial filter, drainage

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8

The relationship between family cohesion and aggression rate of high school students of Pakdasht City in Tehran province

 

Simin Siri1, Narges Siri2

 

1.  Teacher of Natural Science, Master of Health Education, Tarbiat Modarres University

2.  Chemistry teacher, Master of Chemistry, Payam Noor University of Qom

sirisimin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The first interactive started every baby in the family environment and interactions and attachment is formed on the environment and social development of children through the process gradually. Psychologists, early childhood years he was very important in shaping the character and future of their children know more schemas and cognitions, people and environment is created in this period. Physical and mental health of children depending on the communication with his family and he provided what extent emotional needs and safety. The families have more integrity in his dealings misdemeanors and felonies in the future of our children and the future of adult mental health will be better. Empowering children to practices and appropriate strategies to cope with stress and stressful situations can contribute to teen to maintain consistency and maturity mental health crises and problems in everyday life and manage them well. The role of the community, peers, school, teachers will be decisive in determining their character. There are obviously false beliefs, attitudes and the rule of algebra on pathological psychology, will lead to aggressive behavior features aggressive behavior should be negatively perceived by the other person, with intent to cause harm and intentionally causing physical or mental harm others. This study aimed to determine the relationship between family cohesion and aggression in Pakdasht City in Tehran province.

[Simin Siri, Narges Siri. The relationship between family cohesion and aggression rate of high school students of Pakdasht City in Tehran province. World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):57-62]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.08.

 

Keywords: Cohesion, family, aggression, high school students, life skills

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9

Extraction of Oil from Soyabean (Glycine max) and its Subsequent Use for the Preparation of Short Oil Alkyd Resin

 

Susan Chioma Okparanta1, Udeme Jude Ogoloma1 and Eunice U. David2

 

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B. 5639, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B. 5639, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

oparasusan2211@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The extraction of oil from Soyabean (Glycine max) seeds was carried out and subsequently used for the formulation of short oil alkyd resin. The resin used had dark brown in colour with a pungent choking smell. It was viscous and dragged on brush, below 20oC. It had a pH of 3.8 indicating that it was acidic. The results showed that the percentage oil length yield was 40.67 which were in the category of short alkyd resin, within the limits of experimental errors. The result obtained indicated an acid value of 9.93 mgKOH/g, a hydroxyl number of 50.60 and percentage solid content of 49.5 for the short oil alkyd resin. The formulated sort oil alkyd resin had a smooth surface with spots on dispersion and had fast drying time. The resin is a good adhesive and is recommended for use for storing enamels, wood finishes, decorative coatings and in paint industries in Nigeria and in international trade.

[Okparanta, S.C., Ogoloma, U.J. and David, E.U. Extraction of Oil from Soya Bean and its Subsequent Use for the Preparation of Short Oil Alkyl Resin. World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):63-67]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.09.

 

Keyword: Soya bean seeds, alkyd oil resin, adhesive, Nigeria, international trade.

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10

Evaluation of Suitable Pressurized Irrigation Systems by Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and GIS for Izeh plain area of Iran

 

Lamya Neissi1, Mohammad Albaji2, Saeed Boroomand Nasab3

 

Irrigation and Drainage Dept. Faculty of Water Sciences Eng. Shahid Chamran Univ, Ahvaz Iran.

 

Abstract: The present study describes an innovative methodology to evaluate susceptible regions for pressurized irrigation systems by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based on Geographic Information System (GIS) where the Izeh plain (Iran) is selected as the considered area. The results of this study were shown as GIS maps by using AHP. Localize irrigation system, Gun irrigation system and Linear irrigation system were found to be the best selections for this region, respectively.

[Lamya Neissi, Mohammad Albaji, Saeed Boroomand Nasab. Evaluation of Suitable Pressurized Irrigation Systems by Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and GIS for Izeh plain area of Iran. World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):68-70]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.10.

 

Key words: AHP, GIS, Iran, Localize irrigation system.

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Proximate Composition and Mineral Profile of Yellow and Brown Mustard Seeds from Nigeria

 

Ayoade Lateef Adejumoa and Omowunmi Sola Agboolabc

 

aDepartment of Chemical Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria

bInstitute of Education, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Telephone: +2348065008779. E-mail: omowunmisola@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The proximate composition and mineral contents of the yellow and brown varieties of mustard seeds were determined using standard procedures of Association of Official Analytical Chemists and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that the brown seed was richer in carbohydrate (37.24%) than the yellow seed (28.42%) while the amount of fat in the yellow (41.99%) was higher than that of the brown (33%) seed. The values of other important nutrients were almost the same. Both samples had very high level of magnesium and low levels of zinc and iron. Flavonoid contents of both samples (21.08 ppm brown and 1.93 ppm yellow) were also high thereby inferring medical significance.

[Ayoade Lateef Adejumo and Omowunmi Sola Agboola. Proximate Composition and Mineral Profile of Yellow and Brown Mustard Seeds from Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):71-75]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.11.

 

Keywords: mustard seed, atomic absorption spectrometry, flavonoid, minerals, proximate analysis

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Utilization of Solid Dispersion Technique to Improve Solubility and Flowability of Acyclovir

 

Hosny K., Alahdal A.

 

Tehran, Iran

orazanbox@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and Purpose; Acyclovir is the most common drug used for treatment of herpes viruses. Challenges face acyclovir use, include; very poor aqueous solubility leads to low oral bioavailability (15-30%), and poor powder flowability which cause problems during the manufacture. The main objective of this research is to utilize different grades of natural and synthetic cyclodextrin to prepare acyclovir in the form of solid dispersion to overcome all the previously mentioned drawbacks. Methods: Solid dispersions were prepared by kneading and coevaporation methods using different grades of natural and synthetic cyclodextrins and evaluated for drug content, solubility study, flowability parameters (Hausner ratio, Carr’s index, and angle of repose) determination. Results: Solid dispersions were successfully developed and enhanced the solubility of drug by more than 16 folds in case of β-cyclodextrin and 13-folds in case of hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin (HP-α-CD). Angle of repose decrease from 55o to 24o, Hausner ratio decreased from 1.75 to 1.067, and Carr’s index decreased from 42.8% to 16.3% which indicated the enhancement in acyclovir flowability when prepared as solid dispersion by using HP-α-CD. Conclusion: It can be concluded that HP-α-CD is an efficient polymer to prepare acyclovir solid dispersion. The prepared SD increased the solubility by more than 13-folds and in the same time enhanced the flowability of acyclovir. In spite of β-cyclodextrin enhanced the solubility to more extent (16-folds) but it not enhanced the flowability of acyclovir.

[Hosny K., Alahdal A. Utilization of Solid Dispersion Technique to Improve Solubility and Flowability of Acyclovir. World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):76-79]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.12.

 

Keywords: Acyclovir, cyclodextrin, solid dispersion, flowability, Hausner ratio

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Evaluation of Cowpea Genotypes for Infection by Two Aphid-borne Viruses

 

*1Kehinde T. Kareem, 1Ayodele A. Adegbite, 1Olukemi T. Ayoola, 1Racheal B. Olayinka, and 2Qudrat O. Oloyede-Kamiyo

 

1Grain Legumes Improvement Programme, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, 2Maize Improvement Programme for Southern Ecology, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, PMB 5029, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

*E-mail address of corresponding author: kt_kareem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cowpea is an important food legume utilized by millions of people in the sub-Saharan Africa and other countries. However, its production is hindered by biotic and abiotic factors of which virus is one of them. The study therefore, investigated the response of cowpea genotypes to two aphid-borne viruses during 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Genotype IFE82-12 had the highest aphid score in 2014 while UAM1046-6-15 and UAM1051-1 recorded the highest virus severity in 2013. The virus incidence in 2013 was higher than 2014 with UAM1046-6-15 and LDPO-OBRI having the highest of 62.54% and 33.21% respectively. Serological reactions revealed that all genotypes were positive to both Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in 2013 but not all were positive to CMV in 2014. The highest grain yield in 2013 was 474.08 Kgha‑1 produced by IT07K-318-33. In 2014, the highest significant grain yields were 888.89 and 870.37 Kgha‑1 produced by IT07K-318-33 and IFE82-12 respectively. Despite the fact that genotypes IFE82-12, IT07K-293-2-1, IT07K-304-9 and IT08K-149-3 were susceptible to double infections in both years, their yields were appreciable and they can be regarded as potential candidates for breeding programmes.

[Kehinde.T. Kareem, Ayodele.A. Adegbite, Olukemi.T. Ayoola, Racheal.B. Olayinka, and Qudrat.O. Oloyede-Kamiyo. Evaluation of Cowpea Genotypes for Infection by Two Aphid-borne Viruses. World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):80-88]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.13.

 

Key words: Genotype, incidence, resistance, severity, yield

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A review on Foot and Mouth Disease and Its current status in Ethiopia

 

Tsegaye Mitiku1, Legesse Garedew2, Beruktayet Wondu4*, Mebrie Zemene3, Melkie Dagnaw1, Bemrew Admassu4 and Gashaw Getaneh4

 

1University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Medicine

2University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Para-clinical study

3University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pharmacy, Gondar, Ethiopia, B.O.B. 196.

4University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences

wonduserk85@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an acute and serious disease of angulated animals particularly in cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, deer and others. FMD virus belongs to the genus Aphthovirus in the family Picornaviridae and possesses a single strand of positive-sense RNA genome. It has worldwide distribution and is one of the most infectious diseases found in nature which is characterized by fever and blister-like sores on the tongue and lips in the mouth, on the teats and between the hooves. The disease existing in seven immunologically distinct serotypes O, A, C, Southern African Territories (SAT) 1, SAT2, SAT3 and Asia1and numerous divergent strains within the serotypes can manifest continuous genomic and antigenic evolution. The disease has a wide host range and can beeasily transmitted by ingestion, direct and indirect contact, as well as by aerosols. It can cause high number of deaths among young animals and production losses in adult livestock. FMD imposes very serious impediments to international trade in live animals and animal products. In Ethiopia, the disease is endemic that affects the agricultural economy and international trading system. The disease is highly distributed in the pastoral low land of Ethiopia. Since the disease has devastating economic loss for both developed and developing countries, control of the import of live animal and animal products from infected countries, movement of visitors and illegal trading across national and international boundaries are recommended to prevent the disease.

[Tsegaye Mitiku, Legesse Garedew, Beruktayet Wondu, Mebrie Zemene, Melkie Dagnaw, Bemrew Admassu and Gashaw Getaneh. A review on Foot and Mouth Disease and Its current status in Ethiopia. World Rural Observ 2016;8(4):89-99]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14. doi:10.7537/marswro080416.14.

 

Key words: Ethiopia, Foot and mouth disease, Livestock

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