Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), doi:10.7537; Quarterly

Volume 9 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 31), 25, 2017
Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, wro0901
 
The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 15, 2017. 
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Study of Groundwater Resources Condition In Plains of Bakhtegan-Maharloo Basin

 

Sepideh Hedayat1, Heydar Zarei2, Fereydoon Radmanesh3, Amir Soltani Mohammadi4

 

1. MSc. Graduated, Department of Water Resources Management, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.

2. Assistant Professor, Department of Water Resources Management, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.

3. Associate Professor, Department of Water Resources Management, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

4. Assistant Professor, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.

sepideh_he@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Due to the surface water resources limitations in Bakhtegan-Maharloo basin, the amount of groundwater resources discharge has been exceeded the limits and this amount has also had a significant effect on surface water resources, so that the excavation of several wells in the vicinity of Kor River has led to dry up the river. Easy access and operation of groundwater resources has led to a significant increment in discharge rate of these resources in the recent years, and in some areas, the discharge is over the potential of aquifer recharge which the continuation of this trend will cause irreversible destruction of groundwater resources. Therefore in the present study, the groundwater resources condition of the basin were studied by investigating the unit hydrographs of 19 plains of the basin which had 12 years of statistics (2002-2014). The results of aquifers unit hydrographs which is plotted based on monthly measurements of 458 observation wells indicated that Arsanjan, Kavar-Maharloo, Seidan-Faroogh, Saadat Abad and Ghare Bagh plains had the highest annual fall in groundwater levels with 2, 1.68, 1.19, 1.04, 1.02 meters drop, respectively.

[Hedayat S, Zarei H, Radmanesh F, Soltani Mohammadi A. Study of groundwater resources condition in plains of Bakhtegan-Maharloo basin. World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):1-5]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.01.

 

Keywords: Unit hydrograph; groundwater; basin; Bakhtegan

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Investigation the Effect of Upstream Slope in Stepped Spillway on Discharge Coefficient

 

Fereshteh Taromideh 1, Ramin Fazloula 2, Ali Reza Emadi3 , and Mohammad Mirnaseri4

 

1. M.Sc. Student of Water structures, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

2. Assistant Professor Department of Water Engineering, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

3. Associate Professor Department of Water Engineering, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

4. Instructor Department of Water Engineering, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

ftaromideh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Upgrading and organizing rivers that crossing drawn from urban and rural areas requires consideration of the characteristics and specific issues for type of river. Spillways are some of hydraulic structures that applicated to adjust the water level, flow measurement and stabilization of bed rivers. The kinetic energy of water can cause erosion of the river bed, scour the foundation and occurrence of cavitation. In this study, the effect of geometric and hydraulic parameters and stepped on the discharge coefficient were studied experimentally. Experiments were Performed in the channel length of 12 meters, width 0.5 meters, height of 0.8 meters in Engineering lab water, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. In this study is made of Plexiglas and stepped spillways in four of Different step height (h) the length of the stairs (L)=0.5 and 0.67 and 1 and 2 was designed and built. The results showed that discharge coefficient stepped spillway depends on tan (β) and dimensionless parameters B/Hd, h/Hd, L/Hd and P/Hd. With the increase in the dimensionless parameters, discharge coefficient decreases. when P/Hd is fixed, with Increasing upstream side slopes, the discharge coefficient increases. with constant flow rate, the lowest upstream water level related to upstream slope (60 degree) and the most upstream water level related to upstream with no slope that shows the model of the upstream slope of 60 degrees in time flooding caused less flooding farmland upstream rivers. In all four upstream slope Stepped spillway, in constant P/Hd the most flow rate as in Model 2, Model 1, Model 3 and Model 4. So in model 2 flooding is less in arable land upstream. finally discharge coefficient equation relations Be extracted in the form of stepped that Show high accuracy is calculated statistical parameters relations.

[Taromideh F, Fazloula R, Emadi AR, Mirnaseri M. Investigation the Effect of Upstream Slope in Stepped Spillway on Discharge Coefficient. World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):6-15]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.02.

 

Keywords: water level upstream, the river, stepped spillway, upstream slope, discharge coefficient, physical model.

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3

Comparison between the Temporal Variations of Ground and Surface Water Quality Parameters (Case Study: Ajichai Basin)

 

Babak Jahani, Esmaeil Asadi

 

Dept. of Water Resources Eng., University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Bob.jahan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Groundwater is considered as the most important source of fresh water in many parts of the world. Since, it supplies the demands of growing industries, agriculture, fisheries, mining, and manufacturing and the municipal water in the regions, where the quality or quantity of the surface water sources is weak. So that any changes in the quality of ground water may affect human, nature and wild life. Furthermore, the relationships between the quality of ground and surface water quality is well known in many parts of globe. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between the changes in the surface and ground water quality in Ajichai River basin, as one of the major sub-basins of the Great Salt Lake of Urmia, located to the northwest of Iran. For this purpose the mean annual time series of the water quality parameters Na (mg/l), Mg (mg/l), Ca (mg/l), Cl (mg/l), SO4 (mg/l), CO3 (mg/l), HCO3 (mg/l), TDS (mg/l), EC (dS/m2), SAR and pH with respect to the surface and ground water in the study area were applied to trend analysis using modified Mann-Kendall method. Furthermore, in order to investigate the magnitude of the trends, Sen’s slope estimator approach was utilized. The results obtained in the present study revealed the fact that, there at least two separated aquifers in the study area. Of which the water quality of one varies in line with surface water quality in the area and the trends observed in the other aquifer have no link to the trends observed in surface water quality.

[Jahani B, Asadi E. Comparison between the Temporal Variations of Ground and Surface Water Quality Parameters (Case Study: Ajichai Basin). World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):16-21]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.03.

 

Keywords: groundwater; Mann-Kendall; surface water; trend; water quality

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4

Spatial Distribution Pattern of Outdoor Recreation Centres in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria

 

Washington Gogo Uwowa, Samuel Bankole Arokoyu, Andrew Adesola Obafemi

 

Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

uwowawashington@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study examined the spatial distribution of outdoor recreation centers in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. The recreation centers were geo-located using global positioning system (GPS). Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyzed data in this study using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 20.0 version. Nearest neighbour analysis was used to determine the spatial distribution pattern of recreation centers using ArcGIS 10.1. Findings revealed that twenty seven outdoor recreation centers were identified in the study area in which 66.7% were owned by government and 33.3% were privately owned. However, 18.5% of total recreation centers were found in Obio/Akpor LGA while 81.5% were found in Port Harcourt LGA. The spatial distribution pattern of recreation centers was slightly clustered (Z=0.266; p=0.790). The study recommended that policymakers should always provide for open spaces where recreation exercises should take place in order to generate revenue for government.

[Uwowa W.G., Arokoyu S.B., Obafemi A.A. Spatial Distribution Pattern of Outdoor Recreation Centres in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):22-31]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.04.

 

Keywords: Spatial pattern, Ownership, Nearest neighbour analysis, Outdoor, Port Harcourt Metropolis

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Commuting Pattern and Transportation Challenges in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria

 

Gladys Chineze Emenike, Olabode Samson Ogunjobi

 

Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

gladysemenike@uniport.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Many urban centers in Nigeria suffer from inadequate facilities that could ensure smooth urban movement. The increase in commuting distance has impact on trip attraction, fares paid by commuters, traffic build-up in some land use areas; and shows the need for different modes of transportation. The study examined the commuting pattern and transportation challenges in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria. A total number of 398 copies of structured questionnaire were distributed to commuters along the selected roads (Oyemekun road, Ondo road, Oba Ile road, Arakale road, Oke Aro road, Hospital road, Ijoka road, Oda road, Danjuma road, and Sijuade road). Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings showed that 52% were males and more than 70% of respondents were above 20 years. The mostly used type of transport in Akure City was public taxi (40.5%) and majority (49.7%) spent ≤ 30 minutes on the road before reaching their working place while the distance from home to work of more than 50% was ≤ 2km. The main trip purpose for commuters was education (33%) while most of the trips were made in the morning only (29.4%); and morning and evening (32.4%). However, 47.5% of commuters agreed that the peak hour of congestion is always between 7am and 9am. Findings also revealed that 55.3% agreed that the road conditions were not good while 31% and 26% of respondents agreed that the transport challenges were bad road and traffic congestion respectively. Among the selected roads, Oyemekun road (19.1%), Arakale road (12.8%) and Ijoka road (11.3%) were mostly prone to traffic congestion and the major causes of the traffic congestion were illegal parking (35.7%) and bad road (31.2%). Traffic congestion, bad road and illegal parking were the prominent problems along the road corridors and most trips are mostly generated for both educational and occupational reasons. The study therefore recommended among others that provision of off-street parking facilities in designated areas within Akure Metropolis is required and drainage facilities should be provided because of occasional flooding that may lead to the development of potholes on the roads.

[Emenike GC, Ogunjobi OS. Commuting Pattern and Transportation Challenges in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):32-40]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.05.

 

Keywords: Commuting pattern, Traffic congestion, Transportation challenges, Akure Metropolis

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6

Microbiological Indicators: A Veritable Tool for Monitoring Public and Private Drinking Water Sources and Distribution Systems

 

Ruhuoma Wosu Kinika1, Bibiana Chinyere Uzor2 and Okorite George-West3

 

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Madonna University, P.M.B. 48, Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria.

3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic, Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

unipas013@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Water is essential for life. It covers about 70% of Earth’s surface and makes up about 70% of body mass. Diseases caused by unsafe or drinking microbial-polluted water and inadequate sanitation are a serious public health concern, causing 80% of illnesses in developing countries and killing 2 to 5 million people, mainly young children, every year. This review, therefore, is on microbiological indicators as a veritable tool for monitoring public and private drinking water sources and distribution systems. Its ultimate goal is to assure the water is free from pathogenic microorganisms. Its absence is a good bacteriological indicator of safe water and it grows readily on simple media. Most coliform bacteria do not cause disease. Recent outbreaks of disease caused by E. coli 0157: H7 have generated much public concern. This pathogenic strain has been found in cattle, chickens, pigs and sheep. Cases of diarrhea caused by contaminated drinking water supplies are frequent. These could be due to fecal pollution. Fecal coliform may be introduced into water by both point and non-point sources. Streptococci are present in the stomach of human and animal intestines. Many species of strepotcoccus are pathogenic, causing diseases such as bacterial pneumonia, ear infection and bacterial meningitis. The presence of these microbiological indicator organisms would only indicate that pollution has occurred.

[R. Wosu Kinika, B. C. Uzor and O. George-West. Microbiological Indicators: A Veritable Tool for Monitoring Public and Private Drinking Water Sources and Distribution Systems. World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):41-46]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.06.

 

Keywords: Coliform bacteria, fecal streptococcus, drinking water, pollution, health hazard.

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7

Sensation seeking and internet dependence of Iranian high school adolescents

 

Ameneh Shafeie Tabar

 

MSc student of School counseling, Isfahan PNU, Isfahan, Iran

 

Abstract: The present study examined excessive Internet use of Iranian adolescents and a psychological aspect of users, sensation seeking, thus to differentiate motivation of Internet dependents and non-dependents, Seven hundred and fifty three Iranian high school students were selected using cluster sampling and 88 of them were categorized as Internet dependent users, Results indicated that Internet dependents spent more time on-line than non-dependents. While Internet dependents perceived significantly more negative Internet influences on daily routines, school performance, and parental relation than non-dependents, both Internet dependents and non-dependents viewed Internet use as enhancing peer relations. Making friends through the Internet has become a popular activity among adolescents, potentially leading to its excessive use. Internet dependents scored significantly higher on overall sensation seeking and disinhibition than Internet non- dependents. However, both groups did not differ in the life experience seeking subscale and thrill and adventure seeking subscale.

[Ameneh Shafeie Tabar. Sensation seeking and internet dependence of Iranian high school adolescents. World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):47-55]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.07.

 

Keywords: Sensation seeking: Internet dependents: Internet addiction: Internet abuse: Internet usage patterns: Adolescence.

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8

Analysis of the Fruits and Vegetable Market Chain in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State.

 

Olatomide W. Olowa and Omowumi A. Olowa

 

Deparment of Agricultural Education Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka, Lagos State

Email: olowa1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was carried out to analyze the fruit and vegetable market chain in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos state. The study was based on a survey of fifty marketers randomly selected in Bariga and Bajulaye markets in the area. A descriptive research design was used in the study and data were collected using oral interviews and a well-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentage, market margins, marketing channel analysis and multiple regression model to identify existing marketing channels used by vegetable marketers, determine the profitability of fruit and vegetable and isolate factors that affect quantity supplied of fruit and vegetable along the market chain. The study revealed that majority (74%) of the marketers are females. The average age of the fruit and vegetable respondent was (35.5). Local government harassments, lack of support from government, poor market stall, high cost of transportation and inadequate finance were the most perceived problems of marketing by the fruit and vegetable respondents. Channels that included local markets had high total gross margins. The regression analysis showed that quantity of fruit and vegetable produced, price of fruit and vegetable, access to market information, access to internet service and distance from the market are factors that influenced supply of fruit and vegetable in the markets. Among other things, measures that easy access to credit, reduce multiple taxes and permit on sellers are recommended.

[Olowa, OW, Olowa, OA. Analysis of the Fruits and Vegetable Market Chain in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State. World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):56-64]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.08.

 

Keywords: Marketing channels, Fruit and vegetable, Shomolu Local Government, Regression analysis

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9

Genotype environment interaction and yield stability in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

 

Ebaid M. A. Ibrahim

 

Department of Genetic, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Quna, Egypt.

a.ibrahem@agr.svu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was estimate Genotype x Environment (GE) interaction effects and determine the stable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for grain yield and its components under different environments. Fifteen bread wheat genotypes including thirteen advanced lines and two wheat cultivars, Shandweel-1 and Giza-168 were evaluated during two winter seasons (2014/2015 and 2015/2016) with two sowing dates. The combined analysis of variance showed that the differences between genotypes as well as GE interactions were highly significant for all studied traits. The genotype No. 1, 3, 5 and 7 gave high mean grain yield, regression coefficient "b" not significantly from unit and considered more stable. On the other hand, genotypes No. 4, 8 and 10 showed below mean of grain yield. Also, genotypes No. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were relatively heat resistance (HSI values < 1), while, the remaining genotypes were relatively susceptible to heat stress. In general, in drought environments, grain yield of genotypes No. 1, 5 and 7 were the highest.

[Ebaid M. A. Ibrahim. Genotype environment interaction and yield stability in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):65-71]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.09.

 

Key words: Bread wheat, Stability analysis, genotype x environment interaction, grain yield, heat stress

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Determinants of ICT-based Market Information Services Utilization among Small-sized Agro-based Marketers in Nigeria

 

Ojo, Olutope Stephen and Oluwatusin, Femi Michael*

 

Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Services, Ekiti State University, P. M.B 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

*E-mail: femi.oluwatusin@eksu.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The global proliferation of the use application of ICTs by small-sized agro-based marketers is not only for cost cutting and improving marketing efficiency, but additionally for providing better customer services. The study was mainly carried out to determine the factors influencing the use of ICTs-based Market Information Services (MIS) among small agro-based marketers in Nigeria. Multistage random sampling method was adopted to select 180 small-sized agro-based marketers in the study area. Both descriptive statistics and probit regression model were used to analyse the data collected. The findings showed that the respondents were young and the mean age was 45.64 years. Most (56.67%) of them were female while 70 percent were married with average household size of about 8 persons. The majority (88.90%) went through formal education while 67.78 percent had over 10 years marketing experience. The mean monthly expenses on repair and top up of ICTs devices was N3910 while the mean monthly income of the marketers was ₦36500. The majority (91.67%) used mobile phone for MIS. Also, the main determinants of ICTs-based MIS were, age, monthly expenses on ICT, value of assets, marketing experience, years spent in formal school, association membership, and monthly income. The marketers were faced mainly with erratic power supply and financial problems. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that capacity building on the use ICTs among the agro-based marketers should be embarked upon through various associations and charging centers with solar power should be provided at the market places.

[Ojo, Olutope Stephen and Oluwatusin, Femi Michael. Determinants of ICT-based Market Information Services Utilization among Small-sized Agro-based Marketers in Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):72-78]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.10.

 

Key words: ICTs, agro-based, marketers, determinants, mobile phone.

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Determinants Of Rural Women Economic Empowerment In Ondo State, Nigeria

 

Ibidapo, I and Oso, O. P.

 

Department of Agricultural Science, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author’s Email: ibidapo68@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study examined the determinants of women economic empowerment in Ondo State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used in the selection of 128 respondents for the study. Structured questionnaire with Interview schedule was used to elicit information for the study. Data collected were analyzed with the aid of descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The mean age of respondents was 45.72.4years, 57.7% were married with mean household size of 83 members. Majority of the respondents (66.5%) had adult literacy education and 54.8% were into farming. Constraints facing women economic empowerment included inadequate funding, poverty, illiteracy, among others. The regression analysis revealed that age (beta = 0.380; p<0.05), education (beta = 0.451; p≤0.01), occupation (beta = 0.295; p≤0.01) were the significant factors influencing women economic empowerment. Access to credit, education and entrepreneurship training should be provided for the rural women.

[Ibidapo, I and Oso, O. P. Determinants Of Rural Women Economic Empowerment In Ondo State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):79-85]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.11.

 

Keywords: Economic empowerment, Rural women, Access to credit, Ondo state.

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Socio-economic Characteristics of Outdoor Recreation Participants in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers Nigeria

 

Washington Gogo Uwowa, Samuel Bankole Arokoyu, Andrew Adesola Obafemi

 

Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

uwowawashington@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study examined the socio-economic characteristics of outdoor recreation participants in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers, Nigeria. A total of 2026 copies of questionnaire was distributed purposively to elicit information regarding outdoor recreation from the visitors found in the twenty seven recreation centers existing in the study area. Descriptive statistics were employed to analyzed data in this study using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 20.0 version. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the significant relationship between the frequency of visiting the recreation centers and income, age and gender at p<0.05 significant level. Findings revealed that 48.6% of the respondents were married and more than 60% were within 21 and 40 years of age. Significant relationship existed between frequency of visiting recreation centers and resident’s income, age, education and gender in the study area (R2=0.742, p<0.05). The study recommended among others that government should encourage females, widows and widowers to be participating actively in the recreation activities in Port Harcourt Metropolis.

[Uwowa WG, Arokoyu SB, Obafemi AA. Socio-economic Characteristics of Outdoor Recreation Participants in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):86-93]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.12.

 

Keywords: Socio-economic characteristics, Outdoor, Recreation centers, Port Harcourt Metropolis

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Iran's Supreme Leader Trained by the KGB

 

Orazanbox

 

Iran

orazanbox@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The damage that this information will do to Khamenei's image as "the Supreme Leader" and the "Leader of the Muslims of the World" is immeasurable. His title of "Ayatollah" is already questionable, but being a KGB trained agent or in the least a Soviet trained leader is a whole other story. Not only does it shatter any religious image he may have, but it also removes the last shred of legitimacy from this ruthless and incompetent dictator that has lead a nation unnecessarily into financial ruin and the brink of a disastrous war.

[Orazanbox. Iran's Supreme Leader Trained by the KGB. World Rural Observ 2017;9(1):94-97]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13. doi:10.7537/marswro090117.13.

 

Keywords: People; Friendship; University; Moscow; Russia; English; language; news; television

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The above manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 15, 2017

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