Science Journal

 

 
World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), doi:10.7537; Quarterly

Volume 9 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 32), June 25, 2017
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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Potentials of Rural Youth Agripreneurship in Achieving Zero Hunger

 

1Barau, A. A. and 2Afrad, M. S. I.

 

1PhD Fellow Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Salna, 1706, Gazipur, Bangladesh

2Professor Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Salna, 1706, Gazipur, Bangladesh

Corresponding author: akilutsafe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rural youth constitutes 55 percent of the global youth population and up to 70 percent in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia. With the predominance of agricultural occupation in the rural area, rise in unemployment, rapid population increase without commensurate food output and the need to achieve Zero Hunger by 2030 as a Sustainable Development Goal, rural youth provides a prospect. But then, to match the present day youth’s needs, meet the market demand and achieve sustainability in the efforts to attain Zero Hunger, agripreneurship becomes necessary. Thus, this paper examined rural youth agripreneurship, Sustainable Development Goal 2: Zero hunger, potential of rural youth agripreneurship in achieving Zero hunger and various ways for engaging rural youth in agripreneurship for the achievement of Zero Hunger. Rural youth agripreneurship entails practicing of agriculture by the rural youth on the ideals of entrepreneurship. Globally, there seems to be fluctuating and slow rate of successes in the efforts towards Zero Hunger (only 4% decline between 2000-2002 and 2014-2016). Notwithstanding, an array of potentials for agripreneurship exist; given the number of rural youth (55%), world population increase and numerous activities in the agricultural value chain. By and large, a comprehensive approach is needed to engage rural youth in agripreneurship for the achievement of Zero Hunger.

[Barau, A. A. and Afrad, M. S. I. Potentials of Rural Youth Agripreneurship in Achieving Zero Hunger. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):1-11]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 1. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.01.

 

Keywords: Agripreneurship, Development, Hunger, Rural, Sustainable, Youth, Zero.

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2

Physicochemical Characteristics of Groundwater obtained from Bodo Community in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State

 

Chinedu Azubuike Uzor and Fubara Alex

 

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic, Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

Corresponding author’s e-mail: uzorchinedu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bodo community is situated in Ogoniland where oil exploration and exploitation has had its positive and negative impact on the environment. In recent times, water pollution is a top priority in environmental health concerns. The quality of water for domestic activities is affected by conditions of water supply system which are prone to contamination sources. Some physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater from wells in Bodo community were studied for three months (March to April) to assess the potability of the waters obtained by the people. A total of 30 water samples collected from 10 randomly selected private wells in the area were analysed using standard analytical techniques and instruments. Most of the physicochemical parameters (pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, Total hardness, Calcium hardness, Magnesium hardness, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Dissolved Solids, Copper, Zinc, Iron, Lead, Cadmium, Nickel, Potassium and Chromium) analyzed were within the Permissible levels of physicochemical parameters in drinking water set by the Nigerian Industrial Standards for Drinking Water Quality and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking Water.

[Uzor, C. A and F. Alex. Physicochemical Characteristics of Groundwater obtained from Bodo Community in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):12-15]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 2. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.02.

 

Key words: Oil exploration and exploitation, water pollution, groundwater, Bodo community.

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3

Credit risk evaluation of local government debt in Jiangsu Province

 

Dianhong ZHENG1, Changsheng LI1*

 

1School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, China

*Correspondence auther. E-mail: lichangsheng100@163.com

 

AbstractIn the process of economic development, local government’s capital demand is expanding. With the acceleration of economic development and industrialization and urbanization process, local government needs more capital for local economic enhancement. Debt financing has become a major source of a local government method to capital. local government debt default situation is evaluated on the basis of recognition of Jiangsu province local government debt risk, structural risk, management risk and external risk, by comparing the four kinds of modern credit risk measurement model, selecting the appropriate KMV model, recognizing general budget revenue of Jiangsu province from 1994 to 2014 as a sample and constructing a quadratic curve which estimate annual revenue from 2015 to 2019.

[Dianhong ZHENG, Changsheng LI. Credit risk evaluation of local government debt in Jiangsu Province. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):16-22]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 3. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.03.

 

Keywords: local government debt, credit risk, KMV model

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4

Rainfall-Runoff Characteristics Of A Rural Settlement, A Case Study Of Ogbogoro, Niger Delta Nigeria

 

Chukwu-Okeah G.O1 Ikebude, C.F2

 

1Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt

 

2Department of Civil and Engineering, University of Port Harcourt

giftchukwuokeah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to ascertain runoff generation processes in tropical climate. The study set two objectives, first to establish a reliable relationship between rainfall and runoff; secondly to determine the role of runoff on increasing surface erosion. The total area studied is about 2,562 acres. Using rainfall data for a period of 12 years 1990-2002, the intensity of rainfall for every year was calculated and in order to determine run off in the area, the rational equation was used and this revealed the total yearly run off in the area. The study revealed that run off in the area is significantly related to rainfall, and that the rate of erosion in the area is increasing. The study also stated that if measures to curtail this is not put in place the people in the area will experience more erosion that could lead to loss of properties, life’s and their sources of livelihood. It also revealed that this could lead to a case of total submergence, especially in the face of global climate change. Hence, the study recommends that the development of drainage lines will help in curtailing the rate of erosion in the area even in the face of rising runoff and increased water discharge amidst global climate change.

[Chukwu-Okeah G.O Ikebude, C.F. Rainfall-Runoff Characteristics Of A Rural Settlement, A Case Study Of Ogbogoro, Niger Delta Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):23-26]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 4. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.04.

 

Keywords: rain fall, run off, erosion, climate change, discharge.

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5

Impact Of Coastal Flooding On Fish Production In Brass, Niger Delta Nigeria, Implication For Coastal Resource Management.

 

Chukwu Okeah G.O, Wekpe, V.E1 & Ikebude, C.F2

 

1Department of Geography & Environmental management, University of Port Harcourt.

2Department of Civil Engineering, University of Port Harcourt.

giftchukwuokeah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In recent times, the deteriorating state of the rivers have begin to gain prominence, this is because there have being a reduction in fish catch and the economy of the fishermen and women who depends on this as their source of livelihood. Due to the fragile nature of the Niger Delta and the turn out of climate change which has lead to excessive rainfall and intense heat, the area has been in so much pains as their only source lo livelihood is been affected. In this study two fishing ports were used and from a water sample analysis it showed that although flooding in the area to an extent affects the quality of water as well as the state of fishes, but the most is the activities of man arising from the use of water bodies as dumpsites for refuse and toilets and oil spills from industrial activities of multinational companies and sand dredging. Therefore the study recommends that Government and the private sector should see that within these delicate areas developmental projects that have true bearing on the lives of the people are put in place as to reduce the use of water bodies as the only source of dumping refuse and toilets and that fishermen and women in these areas should be encouraged by way of training and provision of modern fishing equipments as to meet up the demands for fish and improve their own economy.

[Chukwu Okeah G.O, Wekpe, V.E & Ikebude, C.F. Impact Of Coastal Flooding On Fish Production In Brass, Niger Delta Nigeria, Implication For Coastal Resource Management. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):27-33]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 5. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.05.

 

Keywords: flooding, costal development, climate change, anthropogenic activities.

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6

Sediment Transport And Its Impact On Channel Morphology Of Forested Streams: The Case Of Chinda Creek In Ogbogoro Niger Delta, Nigeria

 

Chukwu-Okeah G.O1, Ikebude, C.F2

 

1University of Port Harcourt, Department of Geography & Environmental Management

2University of Port Harcourt, Department of Civil Engineering

giftchukwuokeah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted in Chinda creek a section of the New Calabar River, using 30 sample points with an interval of 21.4m each. Measurement of the cross sectional area was done using the Cuencea (1989) formula and Chang et al (2000) formula for sediment transport. Alongside this the US BLH 84 sediment sampler and the Depth-Integrating Suspended-Sediment Sampler Model DH 48 was used for collecting data on both the suspended load sediment yield and the bed load sediment yield. The result of the study revealed an insignificant relationship between sediment transport (suspended load sediment yield and bed load sediment yield) and channel morphology. The co-efficient of determination of each of the two independent variable showed that an insignificant 10.89% variation in channel morphology is explainable by each of the independent variable. This means that their contribution to change in the channel form of Chinda creek is insignificant. The study revealed that there are several other factors that contribute to channel form change not only sediment transport and as such studies aim at identify these factors were recommended.

[Chukwu-Okeah G.O Ikebude, C.F. Sediment Transport And Its Impact On Channel Morphology Of Forested Streams: The Case Of Chinda Creek In Ogbogoro Niger Delta, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):34-36]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 6. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.06.

 

Key words: sediment transport, bed load sediment yield, suspended load sediment yield, channel morphology, change, channel form.

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7

Potential of Non-Conventional Energy Resources in Ahmednagar District

 

Kelkar Gautam1, Rathod V. R.2

 

Research Scholar1, Associate Professor2

School of Earth Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Vishnupuri, Nanded 431606 (Maharashtra) India.

E-mail: gautam.kelkar20@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Energy is one of the most important building block in human development and as such, acts as a key factor in determining the economic development of all nations. India is blessed with an abundance of sunlight, water and biomass. Ahmednagar is one of the wildest rising metropolises in the state of Maharashtra. Ahmednagar is facing challenges of energy crises. Energy demand of urban is continuously increasing However, resource augmentation and growth in energy supply have failed to meet the ever-increasing demands exerted by the multiplying population, rapid urbanization and progressing economy. The potential of non-conventional energy resources in the study area has good opportunity. This scope has been mainly observed in this paper. This information generated in this study can help appropriately to assess the non-conservational energy benefits only if beneficial efforts for urban developers.

[Kelkar Gautam, Rathod V. R. Potential of Non-Conventional Energy Resources in Ahmednagar District. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):37-43]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 7. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.07.

 

Keywords: Ahmednagar, Energy Resource, Non-Conventional, Solar, Wind energy, Solid waste

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8

Physicochemical Characteristics of Groundwater obtained from Bodo Community in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State

 

Chinedu Azubuike Uzor and Fubara Alex

 

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic, Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

Corresponding author’s e-mail: uzorchinedu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bodo community is situated in Ogoniland where oil exploration and exploitation has had its positive and negative impact on the environment. In recent times, water pollution is a top priority in environmental health concerns. The quality of water for domestic activities is affected by conditions of water supply system which are prone to contamination sources. Some physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater from wells in Bodo community were studied for three months (March to April) to assess the potability of the waters obtained by the people. A total of 30 water samples collected from 10 randomly selected private wells in the area were analysed using standard analytical techniques and instruments. Most of the physicochemical parameters (pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, Total hardness, Calcium hardness, Magnesium hardness, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Dissolved Solids, Copper, Zinc, Iron, Lead, Cadmium, Nickel, Potassium and Chromium) analyzed were within the Permissible levels of physicochemical parameters in drinking water set by the Nigerian Industrial Standards for Drinking Water Quality and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking Water.

[Uzor, C. A and F. Alex. Physicochemical Characteristics of Groundwater obtained from Bodo Community in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):44-47]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 8. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.08.

 

Key words: Oil exploration and exploitation, water pollution, groundwater, Bodo community.

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9

Participation as a Tool for Youth Empowerment in Nigeria: Critical Review and Conceptual Framework

 

Sani Yakubu Gombe1,  Turiman Bin Suandi2

 

1Federal College of Education (Technical), Gombe, Nigeria

2Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia

sanigombe925@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Overall empowerment youth is very significant for effective and sustainable development of any country. This overall empowerment can only be achieved if the youth are motivated to participate actively in all development facets, youth poor participation can lead to their low empowerment and in the long-run affect their ability to be self-reliant or self-dependent. This paper determined relationships between youth empowerment and participation through critical theoretical and literature review. The paper also develop a conceptual framework that will be used for conducting further research to explore on the effects of moderating and mediating variables on the relationship between youth empowerment and participation. This will lead to the provision of empirical justification of the assumptions. The paper concludes that youth empowerment is directly associated with participation and it may have a significant predictive ability. The paper recommends that the theoretical assumptions needs to be further explored through empirical evidence with a view of generalization and ascertaining the worthiness of the claims. Accordingly, the effects of the suggested moderating and mediating variables may also bring up another dimension of understanding youth empowerment in relation to interaction between participation, gender and educational level.

[Sani Yakubu Gombe, Turiman Bin Suandi. Participation as a Tool for Youth Empowerment in Nigeria: Critical Review and Conceptual Framework. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):48-57]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 9. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.09.

 

Keywords: Participation; empowerment; youth; conceptual framework

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10

Prevalence of Bovine Fasciolosis and associated risk factors in Nedjo municipal abattoir, western wollega, west Ethiopia

 

Tolesa Negasa1, Derara Birasa1 and Tadele Kabeta2

 

1 Jimma University college of Agriculture and Veterinary medicine

2 Wollega Universities, College of Medical and Health Sciences School of Veterinary Medicine

P.O. Box.395, Nekemte, Ethiopia; Email, corresponding author: Tadele Kabeta. firanfiri.04@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Fasciolosis is a public and economically important parasitic disease, which is caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola that migrate in the hepatic parenchyma and establish in the bile ducts. A cross-sectional study was carried out from June 2015 to November 2015 to estimate the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis slaughtered at Nedjo municipal abattoir. Abattoir survey was conducted by using routine ante mortem and post mortem inspection. Descriptive statistics was used to compute prevalence and Pearson’s chi-square (X2) was used to determine differences in prevalence. Sex, peasant associations and body condition were taken into consideration where 79 and 21% prevalence were recorded for male and female animals respectively. However, no statistical significance (P > 0.05) was observed for thisvariable. Similarly, 48.5%and 51.5% prevalence were recorded for good and medium body conditioned cattle, respectively. The prevalence as determined from postmortem examination was highest (36.3%) in Were Jiru, while lowest (3.8%) in Sombo Guta kebeles. The overall prevalence rate of fasciolosis was 51.0%. There was also no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in infection rate between these kebeles. Therefore, further abattoir surveys are recommended to strengthen the result for better understanding on the epidemiology of bovine fasciolosis in the study area.

[Tolesa Negasa, Derara Birasa and Tadele Kabeta. Prevalence of Bovine Fasciolosis and associated risk factors in Nedjo municipal abattoir, western wollega, west Ethiopia. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):58-61]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 10. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.10.

 

Key words: Abattoir, Fasciola, Nedjo and prevalence

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11

On the Design, Validation and Reliability of the 21st Century Skills Questionnaire (CSQ) in an EFL Context

 

Hamid Ashraf, Khalil Motallebzadeh, Mohsen Arabshahi

 

orazanbox@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The application of the 21st century skills to the field of ELT in the last few years has contributed to the immergence of critical perspectives toward these kinds of skills and their possible effects on the teaching/ learning process. Despite the rapid spread of English in Iran and the relevance of the issues addressed as the 21st century skills, few studies have been conducted to survey Iranian EFL learners’ situation in the skills. The present study, therefore, aimed at developing a questionnaire that could be used to evaluate Iranian ELT community’s performance in the 21st century skills. The newly developed questionnaire was validated by administering it among 210 English learners in two cities in Iran. This study investigated the internal consistency and construct validity of the newly-developed instrument which both indicated acceptable results.

[Hamid Ashraf, Khalil Motallebzadeh, Mohsen Arabshahi. On the Design, Validation and Reliability of the 21st Century Skills Questionnaire (CSQ). World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):62-72]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 11. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.11.

 

Keywords: Design; Validation; Reliability; 21st Century; Skill; Questionnaire; EFL Context

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12

Invulnerability in Shahnameh and the Song of the Nibelungen

 

Mehrnoush Mehrabi

 

orazanbox@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper is concerned with the theme of invulnerability in Iranian and German mythology, especially in two remarkable works of literature, Shahnameh and the Song of the Nibelungen. Myths and legends are in fact the beliefs and ventures of different nations in previous ages. Legends deal with subjects such as gods, the creation of the world and the mankind, and so on. The theme of invulnerability is a major one amongst legends. This paper tries to discuss the similarities and differences of this theme in two aforesaid immortal epics. Such research on the similarities and differences of literary works will be presented as a comparative literature.

[Mehrnoush Mehrabi. Invulnerability in Shahnameh and the Song of the Nibelungen. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):73-77]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 12. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.12.

 

Keywords: Invulnerability, Shahnameh, Nibelungen, Theme, Comparative literature.

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13

A study on a protected national vernacular settlement of Iran and its unique architecture, a case study of Varkane, Hamedan

 

Omid Ahadian

 

Young Researchers Club, Hamedan Branch Islamic Azad University Hamedan, Iran.

E-mail: O_Ahadian@iauh.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Varkane is an Iranian vernacular settlement with an organism living stile, which shows traditional technologies and the potential of local material use, construction techniques and climate considerations. This study try to analyze the main characters of a traditional architecture in the old settlement, pointing out both the typological and the technological aspects (local materials and construction processes), focusing on their environmental sustainability (presence of bioclimatic features, integration into the landscape, minimum waste of resources). The high degree of historic authenticity of this village relate to the continuously inhabited throughout history without intervals and still presents show a traditional lifestyle in the village. In addition, the techniques of using local material by incorporating the existing environmental parameters in front of the microclimatic conditions into the design are considered based on local architectural principles that could be exhibits some part of historic architectural practice in the area, looking forward cooperation the relationship between local materials, building and climate.

[Omid Ahadian. A study on a protected national vernacular settlement of Iran and its unique architecture, a case study of Varkane, Hamedan. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):78-85]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 13. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.13.

 

Keywords: Vernacular architecture, Environment, Sustainable, Bioclimatic design, Building physics

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Using NPK nanoparticles in multiplication and micro-tuber process of two potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L.) by using tissue culture techniques

 

Eman. Ashraf1, Sherif.f. El Sharabasy2, Hassan, O.S.1, G. E. Abd-El-Kariem3

 

1Faculty of Biotechnology, Modern Sciences and Arts University, Cairo, Egypt

2The Central Lab. Of Date Palm Research and Development, ARC, Egypt

3Agricultural Systems Development Project, Cairo, Egypt

emyashraf159@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Micro-tubers which are produced in tissue culture have benefits for disease free potato production. The effects of NPK nano-particles on in vitro micro-propagation of two potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L.) were evaluated. In the present study nodal explants of potato cultivars (Sponta and Seylon) were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with different NPK ( 9: 0: 6 + 1 Silver ) Nano particles (control, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml). Analysis control (30 ml) exhibited highest number of nodes (4.0) followed by analysis control 10 ml, 20 ml and 40 ml (3.0) in Seylon Variety. While, Analysis control (30 ml) exhibited highest number of nodes (5.0) followed by analysis control 10 ml and 20 ml (4.0) in Sponta Variety. The highest number of micro-tuber was observed in treatment 20 ml (6) followed by treatment 10 ml, and 30 ml (4) in Seylon Variety. The highest number of micro-tuber were observed in treatment 30 ml (10) followed by treatment 40 ml, 20 ml, and 50 ml (8, 6, 6) in Sponta Variety.

 [Eman. Ashraf, Sherif.f. El Sharabasy, Hassan, O.S., G. E. Abd-El-Kariem. Using NPK nanoparticles in multiplication and micro-tuber processof two potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L.) by using tissue culture techniques. World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):86-92]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 14. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.14.

 

Key words: Potato cultivars, In Vitro propagation, multiplication.micro-tuberization, NPK nano-particle.

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15

Underground Water And Pollution Vulnerability Assessment Of Lower Imo Sedimentary Basin Of Southeastern Nigeria (A Case Study Of Nwangele Local Government Area Of Imo State, Nigeria)

 

Onunkwo – A, A, Uzoije A.P, Igbokwe BIB and Okoroji I. L.

 

Department of Earth Sciences Federal University of Technology

Owerri, Dept, of Environmental Management and Forestry, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo, Owerri, Dept. of Transport Management Technology Federal University of Technology, Owerri.

 

Abstract: Water exploitation problems and population explosion are two major problems facing Nwangele Local Government, for this, underground water and pollution vulnerability assessment of Nwangele Local Government Area of lower Imo sedimentary basin of Southeastern Nigeria has been carried out as to examine the aquifer nature and pollution vulnerability, as water exploitation and population explosion problems have created problems in the area, since the emergence of the new Local Government. The method of study involves literature survey of previous work done in Imo River sedimentary basin and other works considered necessary for the study. A total of ten (10) vertical electricity soundings (VES) was conducted for data generation using terrameter 300 SAS employing Schlumberger configuration. Aquifer (sands) from boreholes within three (3) communities and ten (10) water samples were collected and used for statistical and geochemical analysis. The result shows that the lithology is made of sand, silty sand, clay and shale. Three (3) aquifer systems exits in the area confined, semi confined and unconfined aquifers, these occur as upper (33.5m), middle (82m) and lower (102 – 115m) aquifers. The lithology comprises 4 to 6 layers with water bearing bed occurring at the fifth layer. Average aquifer thickness measured 38 metres. Multiaquifer system exists in some localities. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 25.6m/day to 28.9m/day, transmissivity ranges from 450.842/day to 111.7m2/day while the storativity values ranges from 0.468 x 10 -5 to 1.13 x 10 -5, all indicate aquifer of good yield. Aquifer thickness ranges from 12.5 to 45m. The water chemistry is neutral, mildly acidic to mildly alkaline. The underground water is of calcium by carbonate type (CaHCO3) fresh and ideal for consumption, irrigation and laundry industry. None of the constituents exceeded the standard set by WHO (1984). Environmental pollution is only confined to upper aquifer. It is recommended that the three aquifer horizons can be tapped at the depth range of 18 to 102 metres. Multiple screen should be employed where there are more than one aquifer horizon. It is advisable that down the hole electric logging be conducted prior to the installation of screen. The middle and lower aquifers are preferable. The middle aquifer is ideal for domestic boreholes while the lower aquifer should be developed for community and industrial boreholes.

[Onunkwo – A, A, Uzoije A.P, Igbokwe BIB and Okoroji I. L. Underground Water And Pollution Vulnerability Assessment Of Lower Imo Sedimentary Basin Of Southeastern Nigeria (A Case Study Of Nwangele Local Government Area Of Imo State, Nigeria). World Rural Observ 2017;9(2):93-102]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). http://www.sciencepub.net/rural. 15. doi:10.7537/marswro090217.15.

 

Keywords: Underground water, pollution, River basin, aquifer, SE Nigeria.

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