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Science Journal

 

Stem Cell 

ISSN: 1545-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online)

 Volume 4 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 16), December 25, 2013; Quarterly

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Stem0404

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

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1

Prevalence and Antibiotic Profile of Enterobacter species isolated from Children with Diarrhea in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

 

1, 2Akingbade OA, 1Olasunkanmi OI, 3Akinjinmi AA, 4Okerentugba PO, 5Onajobi BI, 4Okonko IO

 

1Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

E-mail: a.olusola@yahoo.co.uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.co.uk, 08063529234

E-mail: olasunkanmitayo@gmail.com, 08062392362

3Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

E-mail: tundeuluv@yahoo.com, 08060706263

4Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt,

P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

Tel: +2348035380891; E-Mail: mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

5Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, P.M.B. 1601, Adewole Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: A total of one hundred and fifty diarrhoea faecal samples were collected from children presenting with diarrhoea. The biochemically identified Enterobacter sp isolates were subjected to the antibiotic sensitivity testing. The antibiotic sensitivity was carried out using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Of the 150 faecal samples collected, 19(12.6%) yielded growth of Enterobacter sp. Five (14.7%) of the Enterobacter sp were detected among patients within age ≤ 1 - 3 years while 14(12.1%) were recovered from children within age ≤ 4 - 5 years old. Enterobacter sp recorded high resistance to ampicillin 84.2%, cloxacillin (78.9%), cefotaxime (73.7%), cotrimoxazole and ceftazidime (63.2%) respectively and were susceptible to cefixime chloramphenicol and streptomycin. The high level of antimicrobial resistance observed in this study raises a broader discussion about the indiscriminate use or misuse of antibiotics and the risks of empirical antibiotic therapy in children of a very young age. In conclusion, regulating the use of antimicrobial may be necessary to reduce the resistance to drugs. Government also, should encourage the development of new vaccines to help reduce the incidence of emerging diarrheal diseases.

 

[Akingbade OA, Olasunkanmi OI, Akinjinmi AA, Okerentugba PO, Onajobi BI, Okonko IO. Prevalence and Antibiotic Profile of Enterobacter species isolated from Children with Diarrhea in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Stem Cell 2013;4(4):1-4] (ISSN 1545-4570). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 1. doi:10.7537/marsscj040413.01

 

Keywords: Antibiotic Profile, Children, Diarrhea, Enterobacter species, Prevalence

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2

Bacterial Organisms Isolated From Children with Diarrhoea In Abeokuta, Nigeria

 

1, 2Akingbade OA, 3Akinjinmi AA, 1Olasunkanmi OI, 4Okerentugba PO, 5Onajobi BI, 4Okonko IO

 

1Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

E-mail: a.olusola@yahoo.co.uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.co.uk, 08063529234

3Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

E-mail: tundeuluv@yahoo.com, 08060706263

E-mail: olasunkanmitayo@gmail.com, 08062392362

4Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt,

P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

Tel: +2348035380891; E-Mail:  mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

5Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, P.M.B. 1601, Adewole Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: One hundred and fifty diarrhoea faecal samples collected from children presenting with diarrhoea were inoculated aerobically on sterile differential and selective media and incubated aerobically. Isolated pure cultures were subjected to various morphological and biochemical tests, followed by antibiotic sensitivity testing using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. The bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, Enterobacter sp, Proteus sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sp, Morganella morganii and Salmonella sp. The susceptibility studies showed that Escherichia coli were resistance to cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin and cotrimoxazole, Shigella species were resistance to erythromycin and cotrimoxazole while Samonella sp were resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin and cotrimoxazole. Diarrhoeal diseases among children can be minimized by observing strict personal hygiene, drinking portable water, quick isolation and treatment of infected cases. Government should endeavour to provide portable water to the community. Also sanitary awareness through basic health education, careful surveillance, monitoring incidence and spread of diarrhoeal diseases is therefore recommended.

[Akingbade OA, Akinjinmi AA, Olasunkanmi OI, Okerentugba PO, Onajobi BI, Okonko IO. Bacterial Organisms Isolated From Children with Diarrhoea In Abeokuta, Nigeria. Stem Cell 2013;4(4):5-9] (ISSN 1545-4570). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 2. doi:10.7537/marsscj040413.02

 

Keywords: Antibiotics, Bacterial pathogens, Children, Diarrhoea, Sensitivity

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3

Physicochemical and Bacteriological Studies of Selected Swimming Pool Water in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria

 

1Onajobi IB, 2Okerentugba PO, 2Okonko IO

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, P.M.B. 1601, Adewole Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

2Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

Tel: +2348035380891; E-Mail:  mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Ten swimming pools at different locations were selected for the analysis. Samples were collected three times each in an interval of 14 days and analyzed physio-chemically and bacteriologically using standard methods. Sixty-seven (67.0%) of the selected samples from six locations were within the pH range of 6.2 – 7.3 while the remaining 33.0% exceed the WHO standard limit. The dissolved oxygen (DO) in this study ranges from 0.2-15.1 mg/L with only 47.0% of the samples tested are within the permissible limit of WHO standards while the remaining 35.0% exceed the permissible standards limit. The Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) ranges from 11-855mg/L and 63.0% of the samples analyzed are within 11-453mg/L while the remaining 37.0% exceed the WHO standard limit (500 mg/L). The turbidity of the samples ranges from 75 and above which do not meet the WHO standard (1NTU). Thirty-seven (37.0%) of the samples analyzed for electrical conductivity are not within the range of WHO standard (1000s). Total heterotrophic count, E. coli count, Salmonella and Shigella count of the samples ranges from 1.0 x 10 - 8.9 x 10Cfu/mL, 0.0 x 10 - 1.1 x 10Cfu/mL and 0.0 x 10 - 2.0 x 10Cfu/mL respectively. Only 23.0% of the samples analyzed were satisfactory, 37.0% were suspicious while the remaining 40.0% were unsatisfactory in accordance with WHO standard for coliform organisms. The results suggest that the swimming pools do not meet the WHO standards for recreational water. It indicates either deficiencies in treatment of the swimming pool or inadequate protection of untreated water sources. However, proper hygiene and management of the swimming pool facilities is recommended.

[Onajobi IB, Okerentugba PO, Okonko IO. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Studies of Selected Swimming Pool Water in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria. Stem Cell 2013;4(4):10-16] (ISSN 1545-4570). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 3. doi:10.7537/marsscj040413.03

 

Keywords: Heterotrophic, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Dissolved Oxygen, Total Dissolved Solids

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4

Effect of Some Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth of Piper nigra

 

Ibiene AA, Okerentugba PO, and Akhigbemen OJ

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, PMB 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; ibieneaa@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that aggressively colonize plant roots and enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms such as phosphate solubilization, phytohormone production, antifungal activity, etc. In this study, effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Piper nigra was examined. Azotobacter species, Nitrobacter species, and Nitrosomonas species were isolated and identified using standard methods. In-vitro screening of these PGPR was carried out to test their ability to produce phytohormones (siderophore, phosphate solubilization and indole acetic acid). Seed germination and seedling growth test were also conducted to evaluate the effect of PGPR on the germination of Piper nigra seeds. The growth parameters (plant height, stem width root length and the internode of the plant) were monitored at 5 days after planting (DAP) interval from the day of sprouting. The findings of the study showed that the ability to solubilize phosphate was exhibited by Nitrobacter species and Nitrosomonas species while Azotobacter species produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderphore. It also showed that the combined use of the three isolates gave the best performance in terms of enhanced increases in growth parameters than the control (treatment A). Thus, the use of combined biofertilizers is advocated for excellent growth performance of plants.

[Ibiene AA, Okerentugba PO, and Akhigbemen OJ. Effect of Some Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth of Piper nigra. Stem Cell 2013;4(4):17-26] (ISSN 1545-4570). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 4. doi:10.7537/marsscj040413.04

 

Keywords: Azotobacter species, Nitrobacter species, Nitrosomonas species, siderophore, phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid, DAP, PGPR

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5

Using Potassium Sulphur as Well as Organic And Biofertilization for Alleviating The Adverse Effects of Salinity on Growth and Fruiting of Valencia Orange Trees.

 

Ahmed H.M., Abdelaal 1, Faissal F. Ahmed 2 and Salah E.M.A. El- Masry1 and Ashraf A. Abdallah 1

 

1Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric El- Azhar Univ., Assiut, Egypt.

2 Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

faissalfadel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During 2010/ 2011 and 2011/ 2012 seasons, the effects of single and combined applications of compost,  K, S , yeast, Minia Azotene and EM1 on counteracting the adverse effects of soil and water irrigation salinity on fruiting of Valencia orange trees were investigated. Single and combined applications of Compost, potassium, sulphur, yeast, Minia Azotene and EM1 were very effective in alleviating the adverse effects of salinity on growth and fruiting of Valencia orange trees in terms of enhancing the leaf area, all nutrients and plant pigments in the leaves, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits in relative  to the check treatment. The promotion was associated with using K, S besides organic fertilization with yeast, Minia Azotene and EM1. Organic fertilization with compost besides biofertilization with EM1 was essential for alleviating the inferior effects of soil and water irrigation salinity on growth and fruiting of Valencia orange trees.

 [Ahmed H.M., Abdelaal, Faissal F. Ahmed  and Salah E.M.A. El- Masry and Ashraf A. Abdallah. Using Potassium Sulphur as Well as Organic And Biofertilization for Alleviating The Adverse Effects of Salinity on Growth and Fruiting of Valencia Orange Trees. Stem Cell 2013;4(4):27-32] (ISSN 1545-4570). http://www.sciencepub.net. 5. doi:10.7537/marsscj040413.05

 

Keywords: Potassium, Sulphur, compost, yeast, Minia Azotene, EM1, fruiting and Valencia orange trees.

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6

3G HUMAN ANCESTOR?

(A new theory on Human Gene growth and Human Cell Mass)

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: A scientific research in this article focus that “Human Cell Mass”, “PH Value”, “Human eye Iris Colour intensity” varies proportionately based on “Gene Growth” in the Cell.  During the course of expanding universe the so called Modern Human could have gained present gene count of around 24,473 from initial count of only “three gene” of prehistoric human ancestor.  It is focused that growth of cell mass shall be considered closely associated with various “Mass of Atom” evolved due to impact of variant environment such as UV, RF, IR region of radiation in the expanding universe.

[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.. 3G HUMAN ANCESTOR? (A new theory on Human Gene growth and Human Cell Mass)Stem Cell 2013;4(4):33-39] (ISSN 1545-4570). http://www.sciencepub.net. 6. doi:10.7537/marsscj040413.06

 

Key Words:  Philosophy of  “3G Human Origin”; Philosophy of   “PH Variation; Philosophy of  eye “Iris intensity” variation; Philosophy of   “GOD”.

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7

PEACE BEGINS WITH “J”?...

(A New theory on philosophy of word “AMEN”)

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A scientific based research article focus that the whole Cosmo universe and matters of universe including human shall be considered as “created” by the Supernatural Human. The Heart of supernatural human considered emanates fundamental creative radiation called “J-RADIATION”. The supernatural human shall be called by name “AKKILEN”. Akkilen shall mean “Dark Colour Human” and Peace Maker. It is speculated that the research focused in this article shall provide solutions to the current misconceptional theories about shape of model Cosmo universe and origin of first life. The prehistoric three tiny dot triphthong alphabet shall be considered as the law of Universe and silent alphabet and absolutely free from sound.

[V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. M.Arulmani, B.E. PEACE BEGINS WITH “J”? (A New theory on philosophy of word “AMEN”). Stem Cell 2013;4(4):40-54] (ISSN 1545-4570). http://www.sciencepub.net. 7. doi:10.7537/marsscj040413.07

 

Key Words: Philosophy of structure of “Supernatural Human”; Philosophy of “Model Cosmo universe”; Philosophy of “J-Radiation”; Philosophy of “J-Logic”; Philosophy of “J-Lullaby”; Philosophy of “Cosmo Cradle”; Philosophy of “First born Human”; Philosophy of “3 generation matter”; Philosophy of “Creation”; Philosophy of “PEACE”; Philosophy of “J-CELL”; Philosophy of “White and Dark Sound”

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8

The food and feeding habits of the Sompat grunt Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier, 1830) in the New Calabar – Bonny River, Porthacourt, Rivers state, Nigeria

 

1Agbugui, M.O., 2Deekae, S.N., 1Oniye. S.J. and 1Auta, J.

 

1 Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria,

2 Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environment, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Porthacourt, Nigeria

marianuseni@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The food and feeding habits of the Sompat grunt Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier, 1830) in the New Calabar – Bonny River, Porthacourt, Rivers state, Nigeria was investigated in other to identify the dietary items and feeding habits. The analyses of the stomach contents were carried out by the numeric, frequency of occurrence, points and gravimetric methods. The results showed that the dietary items were crabs – Callinectes amnicola (73.1%), fresh water shrimps - Macrobrachium macrobrachion (24.08%) which were the important primary food components whereas, fish species - Scomberomosus tritor (1.51%), Sardinella maderensis (0.69%) and Ethmalosa fimbriata (0.56%) were secondary items. Littorina anguilifera was considered as incidental food item (0.02%). The total amounts of dietary items were higher in the wet season (April to October) than in the dry season (November to March). Most of these preys were often intact in the stomachs of P. jubelini examined. This is an indication that it swallows its prey whole thus imposing maximum limit on its prey and it is also a non-piscivorous, macroscopic feeding fish. The information obtained from this stud will contribute to the knowledge of fish biology with particular reference to the food and feeding habits and useful for fishery management and aqua-cultural tendency.

[Agbugui, M.O., Deekae, S.N., Oniye. S.J. and Auta, J. The food and feeding habits of the Sompat grunt Pomadasys jubelini (Cuvier, 1830) in the New Calabar – Bonny River, Porthacourt, Rivers state, Nigeria. Stem Cell 2013;4(4):55-61] (ISSN 1545-4570). ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 8. doi:10.7537/marsscj040413.08

 

Key words: Dietary items, feeding habits, New Calabar-Bonny River, Pomadasys jubelini, stomach content, Index of relative importance (IRI)

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9

 

GOD HAS NO LUNGS?...

(A new theory on single chamber Heart Human)

 

 

M. Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this scientific research article it is focused that the word “GOD” has distinguished meaning from the word “HUMAN”. God shall mean the “Creator” of human and the living world and universe. Human shall be considered as both created and evolved element. This research focused than the Human on origin, 1st Generation, have only “SINGLE CHAMBER HEART” and have NO LUNGS as the creator have no lungs. During the Space & Time in the expanding universe the single chamber heart of human gradually become “Four chamber heart” which necessitated the need of “LUNGS” in the human system for sustainability at Life. “Can human live without lungs!... without breathe!!... Vatican news focus that newly elected POPE FRANCIS had only half lung (single unit) and living healthy life for more than 40 years. It is focused that GOD is more than Pope and could survive without lungs.”-(Author). It is emphasized that the entire universe, matter and life shall be considered as “Created” by GOD through “J-RADIATION” emitted from the “Single chamber Heart” of GOD. The “J-RADIATION” shall also be called as “SPIRIT” in scientific term. Billions of rays emitted from the source of “Spirit” shall be called as “SOULS”.  In other words it can be stipulated that Billions of SOULS have been considered created from the Spirit of GOD. Human shall be considered as one of the “Souls”. It is further focused that each soul shall be considered composed of “Three-in-one” fundamental Neutrino particles “PHOTON”, “ELECTION”, “PROTON” differentiated by minute mass variation in the “Spectrum of souls” having distinguished Genetic structure and characteristics.  The point of origin of each soul shall be considered as having particles of “Zero mass”. This research further emphasize that it provides solutions to the many existing misconception in scientific theories such as origin of universe, Human ancestor, and new definition about what “SPIRIT” and “SOUL” really means.

[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. GOD HAS NO LUNGS? (A new theory on single chamber Heart Human). Stem Cell 2013;4(4):62-77] (ISSN 1545-4570). http://www.sciencepub.net. 9. doi:10.7537/marsscj040413.09

 

Key Words: 1) Philosophy of word “GOD”; 2) Philosophy of word “J-CELL”; 3) Philosophy of “Spirit and Soul”; 4) Philosophy of “Model Universe”; 5) Philosophy of Three generation “STEM CELL”; 6) Philosophy of universal “J-CODE” (Human Life Code); 7) Philosophy of “Creation and Evolution”

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from 11/19/2013. 
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