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Science Journal

 

Stem Cell 

ISSN: 1545-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Quarterly

 Volume 7 - Issue 3  (Cumulated No. 27), September 25, 2016

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

Prenatal Beta Thalassemia Screening in Babolsar, Iran 2006-2016

 

Farzaneh Valizadeh (MD)

 

Physician of genetic counseling in Babolsar City, MPH for Disease Control, Deputy of H health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

f.valizadeh48@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Thalassemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorders in the world. Thus, prevention programs is a priority. Thalassemia screening at the time of marriage, since 1997 is one of the most successful steps to prevent new cases of thalassemia major, but now we are witnessing the spread of the disease. Methods: This study was a cross - sectional study conducted in two intervention stages which in the first study retrospectively through which to examine the underlying causes of thalassemia patients under 18 years (born in the years after 1997) and in the second stage analysis method of intervention that repeat screening thalassemia, along with tests before pregnancy or early pregnancy was performed. It held several meetings in the specialized committees of hospitals and health centers in the city do, each paired with anemia hypochromic microcytic (mcv <80 or MCH <27 or both) tend to pregnancy or are pregnant, counseling center thalassemia referred, which after necessary review, thalassemia carrier couples directly to the center for Genetics and suspected cases of other forms of thalassemia syndrome of the University of hematologists were introduced. Results: The first phase of the study is cross-sectional study on 25 cases of thalassemia patients under 18 years of age, 15 patients (60%) parents were couples before 1997, parents of 4 patients (16%) had a child with major thalassemia (s2), Parents of 10 patients (40%) couples have after 1997 (s1). Based on the above results, the second stage of the study, the 85-year intervention program entitled screening was conducted on 9750 pregnant women or before pregnancy, the results of the intervention program, identified 21 new beta thalassemia carrier couples, including couples 10 couples 10 couples couples before 1997 and after 1997 (without official marriage license, laboratory errors, and hemoglobinopathies), after identification of the 21 coaples beta, as soon as reference to the genetic center that was preventing the birth of four children with major thalassemia. Conclusion: The results of this intervention in the last 9 years (2006-2016), with timely identification, prevention of thalassemia that the birth of the fourth child of 25 children with thalassemia compared to the nine years before this project was (1997-2006) the method (before-after), can be realized value of these projects. Despite the prevalence of over 10% thalassemia minor and hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell types and variations of it exist in this area, it is recommended that integrates screening in pre-pregnancy care or early pregnancy may program managers and decision makers in order to improve the quality of programs and improve care for carriers, to help minimize the incidence of the disease.

[Farzaneh Valizadeh. Prenatal Beta Thalassemia Screening in Babolsar, Iran 2006-2016. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):1-8]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 1. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.01.

 

Keywords: Beta-thalassemia, pregnant women, screening, Babolsar city

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2

Genetically Modified Organism and their Biohazards

 

Zohaib Hassan, Ghulam Hussain, Qasim Ali, Muhammad Tayyab, *Qurban Ali and Idrees Ahmad Nasir

 

Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology University of the Punjab Lahore Pakistan

Corresponding author: saim1692@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In modern era, advancement in biological sciences is occurring at exponential rate. The purpose of these advancements is to combat the problems of food shortage in the world. So Scientists are producing new varieties of crops by modifying their genetic makeup. The aim behind the alteration of genetic makeup of crops is to improve the crop yield by changing the various characters of crops which have direct association with crop yield. Such crops are called genetically modified organisms (GMOs) like “Bt-maize”. GMOs came into existence by using biotechnology techniques. In present days, they can fulfill the deficiency of food in the third world countries. But some ethical, social, health and environmental issues arise by introducing the GMOs. These concerns will be discussed in this review and it will also cover the history and introduction of GMOs.

[Hassan Z, Hussain G, Ai Q, Tayyab M, Ali Q and Nasir IA. Genetically Modified Organism and their Biohazards. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):9-12]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 2. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.02.

 

Keywords: genetically modified organisms, Bt-maize, biotechnology, transgenics, biohazards

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3

Reviews Tricky-Based Crimes from the Perspective of Criminology

 

Hajar Sameri1, Abdolhossein Rezaei Rad2*

 

1Department of Law, Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramshahr, Iran

2Associate Professor, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

 

Abstract: The tricky-based crimes are recognized with two main characteristics include lies and usurp but in the structure of the crime these two characteristics have not the same importance. The lie is the essence of tricky crimes. Because with the help of lie it can be possible to distinguish tricky crimes from aggressive crimes, yet in reverse usurp is not specific to crimes along with fraud and deception and its effects can be found in some aggressive crimes. From the other hand, in the most crimes along with tricky and fraud, the starting crime is criminalized like complete crime. For example about fraud the mere provide a hypocritical request to get a discount would be punishable regardless of the outcome. This indicate that the lie what position it has among these crimes. The tricky crimes can be analyzed from different perspectives in the view of criminology. Because a collection of factors such as economic situations, unemployment, economic system type or even the current culture have involved in perpetration of these crimes. Researchers, in the micro levels focusing on opportunistic situational factors, the offender’s economic statue or psychological characteristics of perpetrators. According this, and despite cognitive cause analysis, some of the criminologists explain the fraud crime with opportunity theory. This theory is reckless toward personality role in idea to criminal action and explains the rate of fraud in the current statue by significant growth of fraud opportunities. The purpose of this research especially is depicting the basic lines of the crimes based on tricky from the views of criminology. On this basis it has been studied the concept of crimes based on tricky, the history of these crimes, criminological theories, typology of tricky crimes and finally their positions in public crimes.

[Hajar Sameri, Abdolhossein Rezaei Rad. Reviews Tricky-Based Crimes from the Perspective of Criminology. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):13-17]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 3. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.03.

 

Keywords: Crime, Guilty, Tricky, Criminology, Fraud, Economy

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4

Evaluation in Wastewater Application in the soil properties

 

Iman Homayoonnezhad1, Saeed Shojaei*2, Paria Amirian1, Zahra Podine2

 

1 Department Agricultural and natural resources, payame nour university, Iran

2*Young researchers club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

s_shojaei@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Water scarcity and the need for water for food production and environmental protection in the world have forced human beings to seek new water sources. Nowadays, application of unconventional water resources (wastewater) has been proposed in the countries facing shortage of water resources. However, limited studies have assessed this issue. The present study evaluated changes in elements of the soil irrigated with wastewater. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Soil samples were collected from the studied regions at two depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm. Studied parameters included acidity (Ph) and electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil. Three studied regions (no irrigation, irrigation with treated wastewater, irrigation with river waters) were considered. The results showed an increase in pH of the effluent from Zahedan Wastewater Treatment Plant compared to control. However, electrical conductivity decreased in the soil irrigated with wastewater.

[Homayoonnezhad I. Shojaei S. Amirian P. Podine Z. Evaluation in Wastewater Application in the soil properties. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):18-21]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 4. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.04.

 

Key words: irrigation, wastewater, electrical conductivity, Zahedan

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5

Comparison of some empirical relations in the estimated time of Concentration Ivar Watershed

 

Saeed Shojaei*1, Amir Golestani Moghaddam2, Sayed Ali Mousavi3, Narges Khoshnazar4

 

1*Young Researchers Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

E-mail: shojaeisaeeds@gmail.com, +989013988871

2Master of Technology in Infrastructure Eng from Jawaharlal Nehru Technology University (JNTUH)

3Ph.D. Student of Desertification at University of Kashan, Department of Desert Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Geo Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

4Bachelor of Statistic from Sistan and Balochestan University, Iran

 

Abstract: Time parameters, including parameters which are of them used the most hydrologic and hydraulic models. Most commonly time parameters used in hydrology is time Concentration. Time Concentration it is duration that the water farthest point watershed reach to the outlet or point from Way River. Time concentration is required on the design of spillways, estimating flood volume, preparation flood hydrograph and many other hydrologic analysis. Until now is presented many methods for estimating time of concentration that the purpose of this study select the best method of techniques estimating the time concentration is in ivar watershed. Direction estimated time concentration on this watershed were used of five experimental method kirpich, chaw, Jianduty, Williams and California. Based on the results of the maximum and minimum time Concentration on the sub watershed I08 and I10 was obtained for method chaw 1.75 and 0.55, method California 1.88 and 0.52, method Williams 3.41 and 0.55, method kirpich 1.82 and 0.52 and Jianduty 4.78 and 0.55 h. Time concentration also watershed using any method was obtained (Kirpich, Chaw, Jianduty, williams and california), respectively, 2.01, 2.01, 4.82, 3.85 and 2.15 hours. With considering various parameters such as main water way length, subwatershed and watershed area and water way slope for kidney watershed units, the suitable concentration will be kirpich.

[Shojaei S, Golestani Moghaddam A, Mousavi  A, Khoshnazar N. Comparison of some empirical relations in the estimated time of Concentration Ivar Watershed. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):22-26]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 5. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.05.

 

Key words: Time of Concentration, Empirical Relations, Ivar Watershed, Hydrology

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6

The Impact of Capital Increase on Stock Performance of Tehran Stock Exchange Listed Companies

 

Firoozeh Nayebi

 

Department of Business Management, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr, Iran

firoozehnayebi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study examines the impact of capital increase on stock returns of companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange during 1994-1998, and determines the effect of capital increase on stock returns. After reviewing the literature and theoretical framework based on the content, the fundamental question was whether capital increases to finance the companies would increase efficiency of companies in Tehran Stock Exchange or not. In other words, this study seeks to answer these two questions: 1) is there any relationship the percentage of capital increases and the rate of monthly returns of stocks; 2) is the average return on equity within capital increase more than other months? The methodology is correlation- descriptive. The study population included all companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange from 1994 until the end of 1998 that all of them were selected as study sample. Due to the intended characteristics, 397capital increase was observed. Data were collected from documents in Tehran Stock Exchange, yearbooks, monthly and weekly magazines as well as books and theses and specialized financial publications. The collected data were analyzed by using EVIEWS. In analyzing the data, the statistics were calculated for variables and because the sample size of the study was equal to sample society, it did not need to use analytical methods to generalize the results to the community. In fact, the results of descriptive statistics confirm the results. In addition, the relationship between the variables through the Pearson correlation coefficient was investigated. The results showed that the percentage of capital increase and the rate of stock returns over the study period had a significant relationship. The average rate of return on shares in the limited time of capital increase was higher than other months.

[Firoozeh Nayebi, The Impact of Capital Increase on Stock Performance of Tehran Stock Exchange Listed Companies. The Impact of Capital Increase on Stock Performance of Tehran Stock Exchange Listed Companies. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):27-35]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 6. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.06.

 

Keywords: capital increase, rate of return on equity, financing, statistical analysis

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7

Evaluation of Phosphor Changes in Wastewater Application in Different Depths of Soil

 

Saeed shojaei1,*, ali asghari2, Zahra podine3, bahareh asghari1

 

1*Young researchers club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

2Department Agricultural, payame nour university, Iran

3Trainer of technical training and professional, sarbaz, Sistan and Baluchestan

s_shojaei@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Water scarcity is one of the most important barriers to the preservation and development of agriculture in arid and semi-arid in Iran the problem has also been exacerbated by drought in recent Inserts. However, limited studies have assessed this issue. The present study evaluated changes in elements of the soil irrigated with wastewater. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Soil samples were collected from the studied regions at two depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm. Studied parameter included phosphor of the soil. Three studied regions (no irrigation, irrigation with treated wastewater, irrigation with river waters) were considered. The results showed an increase in phosphor of the effluent from Zahedan Wastewater Treatment Plant compared to control.

[Shojaei S. Asghari, A. Podine Z. Asghari, B. Evaluation of Phosphor Changes in Wastewater Application in Different Depths of Soil. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):36-39]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 7. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.07.

 

Keywords: restoring biological, wastewater, soil, arid.

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8

Investigation of trend eight-year vegetation changes in Eskandari watershed using images of landsat satellites (Case study: Isfahan)

 

Saeed Shojaei1,*, Mohsen Sarhadi Nasab1, Zahra Eslami2, Amir Hossien Hatefi Ardakani3

 

1*Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

2M.Sc Student of Watershed Management, University of yazd

3M.Sc Student of Desertification, University of Semnan

s_shojaei@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Monitoring of dry areas vegetation is one of the important items to assess its evolution over time. One of the newest sciences has been entered in the study of vegetation is remote sensing science. Nowadays, remote sensing science can show a lot of vegetation changes over time that for humans is not clear. In this study to assess changes in vegetation over 8 years (2000-2008) with the imaging of landsat TM sensor the vegetation destroy maps was prepared for the watershed Eskandari that was located in the West of Isfahan Province. This catchment having an area of over 1649 square kilometers and a weighted average height of 2626 meters above sea level in the catchment area of the Zayandehrood dam is Located.

[Shojaei S. Sarhadi Nasab M. Eslami Z. Hatefi Ardakani H. Investigation of trend eight-year vegetation changes in Eskandari watershed using images of landsat satellites (Case study: Isfahan). Stem Cell 2016;7(3):40-42]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 8. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.08.

 

Keywords: Isfahan, vegetation, vegetation indices, destruction.

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9

Confluence-Associated Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (BMMSCS)

 

*Faten A.M. Abo-Aziza1, Zaki A.A.2

 

1Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center (Cairo, Egypt).

2Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University (Giza, Egypt).

faten.aboaziza@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the field of cellular therapy, the impact of confluence degree to harvest or differentiate BMMSCs and thereby the effect of microenvironment created by the increasing cell-to-cell contact remains controversial. Therefore, the effect of confluence on BMMSCs properties was studied and confluence-associated osteogenic differentiation efficiency was identified. The impact of confluences at 20, 50, 70, 80 and 100% on BMMSCs properties including cell viability, CFU-F, population doubling, Brd-U incorporation, expression of ERK and p-ERK proteins and glucose consumption rate was studied. Osteogenic differentiation efficiency was identified by determining calcium deposition, alizarin red staining, ALP activity and osteopontin and osteocalcin genes expression of the different confluent BMMSCs. There was a correlation between confluence % and the BMMSCs density. Viability was declined at the lower and higher confluences. The highest CFU-F, Brd-U uptake and population doubling were obtained when BMMSCs reached 80% confluence followed by decrease at 100% confluence. ERK band intensity in 100% confluent BMMSCs was lower compared to other confluences. Bands of p-ERK were highly detectable in 70% and 80% confluent BMMSCs. Glucose consumption rate at 70% and 80% confluences in the last days were higher than at 20% and 100% confluences. In spite of higher osteogenic differentiation estimated by calcium deposition, alizarin red stain and ALP activity at 80% confluences, it was also extended at 100% confluence. Osteopontin gene expressed among all confluences including 100% while osteocalcin gene was expressed highly in 70% confluent cells. We concluded that the optimum seeding density for maximal expansion and harvesting purposes is 80% confluence and up to 100% confluence for osteogenic differentiation to trigger the process more cost effective.

[Faten AM Abo-Aziza, Zaki AA. Confluence-Associated Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (BMMSCS). Stem Cell 2016;7(3):43-56]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 9. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.09.

 

Keywords: BMMSCS, confluence, osteogenic differentiation, proliferation

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10

Relation between Self-efficacy and Physical Activity Level among Bushehr Islamic Azad University employees

 

Mehdi Koraei1

 

1. MA Student, Department Psychology, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Fars, Iran

 

Abstract: The purpose of present study was investigating the relationship between self-efficacy and body activity level among Bushehr Islamic Azad University employees. This research was descriptive-survey and applied. Statistical population included all of Bushehr Islamic Azad University employees in 2015-2016. The sample size was determined 327 people. Measurement tools were General self-efficacy (GSE) and Bone-specific Physical Activity Questionnaire (BPAQ) questionnaire. SPSS software version 18 and descriptive statistics indexes such as frequency, percentage, minimum and maximum average of score, standard deviation, Pearson correlation coefficient, one sample t-test was used. Findings show that the level of self-efficacy of Bushehr Islamic Azad University employees has significance difference with average level, but the body activity doesn't have significance difference with average level. Other results showed a significance relationship between self-efficacy and employee's body activity.

[Mehdi Koraei. Relation between Self-efficacy and Physical Activity Level among Bushehr Islamic Azad University employees. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):57-60]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 10. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.10.

 

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Body activity levels, Bushehr Islamic Azad University

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11

Comparison of some empirical relations in the estimated time of Concentration Ivar Watershed

 

Saeed Shojaei*1, Ali Zargham Taheri2, Sayed Ali Mousavi3, Zahra poudine1

 

1*Young Researchers Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

E-mail: shojaeisaeeds@gmail.com, +989013988871

2Graduate Master of Radiation Medicine, Department of Radiation Medicine, Faculty of Nuclear Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran, Iran

3Ph.D. Student of Desertification at University of Kashan, Department of Desert Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Geo Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

 

Abstract: Time parameters, including parameters which are of them used the most hydrologic and hydraulic models. Most commonly time parameters used in hydrology is time Concentration. Time Concentration it is duration that the water farthest point watershed reach to the outlet or point from Way River. Time concentration is required on the design of spillways, estimating flood volume, preparation flood hydrograph and many other hydrologic analysis. Until now is presented many methods for estimating time of concentration that the purpose of this study select the best method of techniques estimating the time concentration is in ivar watershed. Direction estimated time concentration on this watershed were used of five experimental method kirpich, chaw, Jianduty, Williams and California. Based on the results of the maximum and minimum time Concentration on the sub watershed I08 and I10 was obtained for method chaw 1.75 and 0.55, method California 1.88 and 0.52, method Williams 3.41 and 0.55, method kirpich 1.82 and 0.52 and Jianduty 4.78 and 0.55 h. Time concentration also watershed using any method was obtained (Kirpich, Chaw, Jianduty, williams and california), respectively, 2.01, 2.01, 4.82, 3.85 and 2.15 hours. With considering various parameters such as main water way length, subwatershed and watershed area and water way slope for kidney watershed units, the suitable concentration will be kirpich..

[Shojaei S, Zargham Taheri A, Mousavi S A, Poudine Z. Comparison of some empirical relations in the estimated time of Concentration Ivar Watershed. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):61-67]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 11. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.11.

 

Key words: Time of Concentration, Empirical Relations, Ivar Watershed, Hydrology

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12

The main tuber crop yam in the tropical area

 

Ijato J. Y

 

Department Of Plant Science, Faculty Of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti P.M.B 5363, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

E-mail: considerureternity@gmail.com GSM: 08067335124

 

Abstract: These days, consumers prefer agricultural produce that lack chemical traces. Therefore, bio-protection of yam tubers against microbial rot is very pivotal within the ambits of botanical approach due to its biodegradability and eco-friendliness. Ethanol of varied concentrations (10, 30 and 50%) were used to dissolve 10-50g of Ocimum gratissimum leaf powder, these mixtures were allowed to stay for 12hrs and filtered with cheese cloth, the filtrate served as extracts. The pathogenicity test showed B. theobromae, A. glaucus, A. flavus and A. niger as tuber rot pathogens. The growth of A. flavus was completely inhibited to 100% by 30% ethanol extracts of O. gratissimum at both 20g and 30g/100ml. 10% ethanol extract of O. gratissimum at 10g/100ml inhibited A. flavus to 96.88%. A. flavus (98.89%), A. glaucus (95.79%) and A. niger (97.11%) were most inhibited by 20% ethanol extract of O. gratissimum at 10g, 30g and 50g/100ml respectively, 50% ethanol extracts of O. gratissimum at 20g and 30g/100ml mostly inhibited A. flavus (92.25%) and A. niger (94.92%) respectively, 10% and 30% ethanol extract of O. gratissimum at 20g and 10g/100ml respectively inhibited B. theobromae to 97.76% and 95.52%. 10% ethanol extract of O. gratissimum at 30g/100ml inhibited A. niger (94.08%) mostly. 40% ethanol extract of O. gratissimum at 20g/100ml was mostly phytotoxic on A. niger (92.00%). Similarly, 50% ethanol extract of O. gratissimum at 40g/100ml was mostly phytotoxic on A. niger (92.92%), 30% ethanol extract of O. gratissimum at 30g/100ml against A. glaucus (100%) respectively, while A. glaucus (93.22%) was the most inhibited by 40% ethanol extract of O. gratissimum at 40g/100ml. Preservation of tubers using natural origin needs to be earnestly explored in other to save the teeming populace from acute food shortage. Hence, the use of O. gratissimum can serve as alternative inhibitory agent against all the rot fungi tested.

[Ijato J. Y. The main tuber crop yam in the tropical area. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):66-70]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 12. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.12.

 

Keywords: tuber crop; yam; tropical area; consumer

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The Estimated Annual Runoff in the Ivar Sub Watershed

 

Hamid alipur1, Ali ZarghamTaheri2, Saeed Shojaei3,*, Sayed Ali Mousavi4

 

1Young Researchers Club and Elite Club, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran

2Graduate Master of Radiation Medicine, Department of Radiation Medicine, Faculty of Nuclear Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran, Iran

*3Young Researchers Club and Elite Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

4Ph.D Student of Desertification at University of Kashan, Department of Desert Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Geo Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

E-mail: shojaeisaeeds@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Runoff is a component of the hydrologic cycle. That occurs after precipitation phenomena, stem flow, potholes, evapotranspiration and infiltration. Predict the amount of runoff and flood the structural design is often done on the watershed of these parameters. It is difficult and high risk in arid and semi-arid areas. In this study, were used the empirical method for estimating runoff from Justin point and Regional, Chataigne and India Agricultural Research Forum. Based on the results obtained under I08 sub watershed was the highest runoff volume in all methods. The amount of runoff in the watershed for methods Justin point, Regional, Chataigne and India Agricultural Research Forum, are respectively, 0.282, 1.147, 0.698 and 0.942. Due to climatic conditions, topography, slope, vegetation cover and land use Chataigne method is recommended with most appropriate method for estimating runoff.

[Alipur A. ZarghamTaheri, A. Shojaei S. Mousavi S A. The Estimated Annual Runoff in the Ivar Sub Watershed. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):71-75]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 13. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.13.

 

Keywords: runoff, hydrology, Chataigne, Justin, Ivar.

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14

Glosarries of Life Science

 

Ma Hongbao *, Yan Yang **

 

* Brookdale University Hospital & Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA; ** Queens, New York 11418, USA

mahongbao@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This glossary collects 4080 words and phrases in life science fields, especially ub the field of stem cells. The glossary contents come from Internet and other related dictionaries.

[Ma Hongbao, Yan Yang. Glosarries of Life Science. Stem Cell 2016;7(3):76-180]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 14. doi:10.7537/marsscj070316.14.

 

Keywords: life; science; dictionary; glossary; word

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 2, 2016. 

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