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Science Journal

 

Stem Cell 

ISSN: 1545-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Quarterly

 Volume 7 - Issue 4  (Cumulated No. 28), December 25, 2016

 Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Stem0704

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

The Impact of Eccentric Exercises of Hip Adductor Muscles on Motion Range and Performance of Lower Limbs among Male Taekwondo Players Suffering From Lower Limb Injuries

 

Soleiman Zare1* and Maryam Keshavarz2

 

1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2 Bsn Nurse, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impacts of eccentric exercises of hip adductor muscles on motion range and performance of lower limbs among male Taekwondo players suffering from lower limb injuries. The population of the study includes the entire male Taekwondo players of Tehran during 2015. Among the population, a number of 30 individuals were selected as the sample of the study through purposive sampling method. Furthermore, the sample was divided into two 15 individuals groups namely as control and experimental groups. Prior to initiation of evaluations, subjects had signed the privacy policy papers for taking part in the experiment and next, their personal information was collected. Each person was individually provided with general debriefings regarding the manner of performance of tests. Conditions for participation in study also included having at least a two year experience of playing Taekwondo for three times a week and being aged between 16 to 20 years. Prior to execution of intervention program (hip adductor muscles strengthening program) subjects had been subjected to tests measuring motion range of abduction and external rotation of hip using a Goniometer as well as kinetic performance of lower limbs through vertical jump test, one-foot single jump distance, one-foot triple jumps distance, stairway leap running time, sweep running time and one foot squatting test. Intervention included performance of eccentric exercises using a strap for strengthening hip adductor muscles for 8 weeks. 48 hours after execution of intervention program, the subjects have taken lower limbs strength and performance tests as they had taken their pre-test. Descriptive statistics have been used for describing and organizing data obtained from posttest and pretest. In term of inferential statistics, the Co-variance analysis was applied. In case of significance of average differences in Covariance test, the LSD post hoc test would be applied. It is noteworthy to mention that the entire statistical operations were performed using the SPSS software v.23. Findings of the study have shown that eight weeks of eccentric exercises of hip adductor muscles will lead to improvement of motion range of hip abduction and external rotation as well as improvement of movement performance of lower limbs among male Taekwondo players suffering from groin strain. As a result, performing eccentric exercises is recommended for people suffering from groin injuries.

[Soleiman Zare, Maryam Keshavarz, The Impact of Eccentric Exercises of Hip Adductor Muscles on Motion Range and Performance of Lower Limbs among Male Taekwondo Players Suffering From Lower Limb Injuries. Stem Cell 2016;7(4):1-8]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 1. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.01.

 

Keywords: Eccentric Exercises, Hip Adductor Muscles, Strength, Motion Range, Lower Limbs Performance, Male Taekwondo Players, Lower Limb.

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1

2

The Impact of Eccentric Exercises of Hip Adductor Muscles on Motion Range and Performance of Lower Limbs among Male Taekwondo Players Suffering From Lower Limb Injuries

 

Soleiman Zare1* and Maryam Keshavarz2

 

1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2 Bsn Nurse, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impacts of eccentric exercises of hip adductor muscles on motion range and performance of lower limbs among male Taekwondo players suffering from lower limb injuries. The population of the study includes the entire male Taekwondo players of Tehran during 2015. Among the population, a number of 30 individuals were selected as the sample of the study through purposive sampling method. Furthermore, the sample was divided into two 15 individuals groups namely as control and experimental groups. Prior to initiation of evaluations, subjects had signed the privacy policy papers for taking part in the experiment and next, their personal information was collected. Each person was individually provided with general debriefings regarding the manner of performance of tests. Conditions for participation in study also included having at least a two year experience of playing Taekwondo for three times a week and being aged between 16 to 20 years. Prior to execution of intervention program (hip adductor muscles strengthening program) subjects had been subjected to tests measuring motion range of abduction and external rotation of hip using a Goniometer as well as kinetic performance of lower limbs through vertical jump test, one-foot single jump distance, one-foot triple jumps distance, stairway leap running time, sweep running time and one foot squatting test. Intervention included performance of eccentric exercises using a strap for strengthening hip adductor muscles for 8 weeks. 48 hours after execution of intervention program, the subjects have taken lower limbs strength and performance tests as they had taken their pre-test. Descriptive statistics have been used for describing and organizing data obtained from posttest and pretest. In term of inferential statistics, the Co-variance analysis was applied. In case of significance of average differences in Covariance test, the LSD post hoc test would be applied. It is noteworthy to mention that the entire statistical operations were performed using the SPSS software v.23. Findings of the study have shown that eight weeks of eccentric exercises of hip adductor muscles will lead to improvement of motion range of hip abduction and external rotation as well as improvement of movement performance of lower limbs among male Taekwondo players suffering from groin strain. As a result, performing eccentric exercises is recommended for people suffering from groin injuries.

[Soleiman Zare, Maryam Keshavarz. The Impact of Eccentric Exercises of Hip Adductor Muscles on Motion Range and Performance of Lower Limbs among Male Taekwondo Players Suffering From Lower Limb Injuries. Stem Cell 2016;7(4):9-16]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 2. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.02.

 

Keywords: Eccentric Exercises, Hip Adductor Muscles, Strength, Motion Range, Lower Limbs Performance, Male Taekwondo Players, Lower Limb

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3

Chemical water quality monitoring in terms of agriculture and drinking in the city of Fasa

 

Marjan TalebInia1, Khadijeh Rahimi Balkanlou2, Saeed Shojaei3*

 

1M.S. student of Combating Desertification, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran

2Ph.D. Student of Desertification at University of Kashan, Department of Desert Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Geo Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

3*Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

s_shojaei@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In past years, Water resource limitation is one of most important challenges of human life. Poor management of this resource, growing competition in fresh water consumption and quality degradation; only exacerbate the problem of water scarcity (dairy et al). Increasing concentration of population is the one of important factors that affect quality of water resources. This is common factor of excessive stress on arid regions water resources.

[TalebInia M, Rahimi Balkanlou K, Shojaei S. Chemical water quality monitoring in terms of agriculture and drinking in the city of Fasa. Stem Cell 2016;7(4):17-20]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 3. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.03.

 

Keyworld: Chemical water, water quality, agriculture, drinking

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4

Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Treatment Tertiary Failure Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

 

Purwati 1,2, Sony Wibisono 3, Ari Sutjahjo 3, Askandar T.J 3, Fedik A.R 1

 

1. Stem Cell Research and Development Centre, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

2. Cell and Tissue Bank, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia

3. Endocrine Division Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

purwatipanpan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Recent progress in diabetes mellitus therapy has focused attention on generation of surrogate β-cells from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived adult tissues. In this study, we conducted a phase I clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in various age between 30-79 years old who were treated with autologous adipose-derived MSCs transplantation. MSCs injected into diabetic patients through catheterization then we measured levels of fasting blood glucose, 2h postprandial blood glucose, insulin, c-peptide pre and post stem cell transplantation, also HbA1c. Levels of blood glucose (fasting and 2h post prandial) and insulin were absolutely decreasing after injection. Meanwhile, level of c-peptide was increasing after injection. Level of HbA1c was significantly decreasing after 3 months injection. Thus, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment tertiary failure diabetes mellitus type 2 was better than insulin treatment only.

[Purwati, Sony Wibisono, Ari Sutjahjo, Askandar T.J, Fedik A.R. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Treatment Tertiary Failure Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. Stem Cell 2016;7(4):21-24]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 4. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.04.

 

Keywords: diabetes mellitus type 2, adipose tissue, mesenchymal stem cells, autologous

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5

The Estimated height runoff in watershed Ivar using America Soil Conservation Service (SCS)

 

Ali Asghari1*, Saeed Shojaei2, Fahime Arabi Aliabad3, Narjes Moqbelihanzaei4

 

1Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Iran

2 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

3Master of Science desert management, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

4M. Sc Student mbating Desertification, University of Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Floods in Iran due to specific climate and topography, especially with spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation inappropriate, The most important factor threatening human capital and human resources that many physical and financial losses in recent years has led So that makes the destruction of bridges and roads, residential areas, Cut power lines and communications, damage to agricultural land, industrial facilities and also has human migration. In the present study compared statistics in hydrometric stations and using SCS Ivar was to estimate the amount of runoff in the area. According to the results, in all return periods of maximum and minimum runoff is related to the field of I08 and I8.

[Asghari A, Shojaei S, Arabi Aliabad F, Moqbelihanzaei N. The Estimated height runoff in watershed Ivar using America Soil Conservation Service (SCS). Stem Cell 2016;7(4):25-29]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 5. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.05.

 

Keywords: runoff, hydrology, SCS, curve numbers, Ivar

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6

Evaluation of the severity of flooding in sub basin of Ivar watershed

 

Hamid Alipur1, Saeed Shojaei2,*, Zahra Eslami3, Seyede Negar Hashemi Nasab4, Narjes Moqbelihanzaei5

 

1Ph.D. Student Department of Management the Arid and Desert Regions, Yazd University, Iran

2Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran

3M.Sc Student of Watershed Management, University of Yazd

4Young Researchers Club and Elite Club, Ghorveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ghorveh, Iran

5M.Sc Student Comburt Desertification, University of Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: In watershed management, determine the severity of flooding trends and comparisons made be done to determine the priorities and policies is of paramount importance. Including critical issues in hydrological studies, the topic of flood and flooding in the area and therefore need to examine the maximum instantaneous flow rate of the river regime. In this study, in order to classify the area in terms of flooding the amount rain and snow in April and March, vegetation, soil hydrological groups the area and slope area factors, was considered. Then the total value with a coefficient based on the importance and impact of the flood for each of the hydrologic units have been estimated And thus severity of flooding in each sub basins became quantify And weight was given to each factor And based on the final score, the severity of flooding in basin categorized in five classes: very low, low, medium, high and very high. I'8, I10, I'3 and I'9, I'4 Sub basins have highest and lowest intensity of flooding respectively.

[Alipur H, Shojaei S, Eslami Z, Hashemi Nasab SN, Moqbelihanzaei N. Evaluation of the severity of flooding in sub basin of Ivar watershed. Stem Cell 2016;7(4):30-33]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 6. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.06.

 

Keywords: flood, hydrology, rainfall, Ivar

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7

Antimutagenic Effects of Habak against Cyclophosphamide Induced Genotoxicity and DNA Damage in Mouse Bone-Marrow Cells

 

Mona A. M. Abo-Zeid, Fawzia A. Aly, Ayman A. Farghaly

 

Genetics and Cytology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt. monaabozeid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The pre- and post- treatments effects of Habak, one of Mentha longifolia subspecies, as one of the famous folk medicine was studied in mouse bone-marrow cells in contrary to the mutagenicity of cyclophosphamide (CP). Male Balb/C mice were pre- and post-treated orally with aqueous extract of Habak at variable concentrations (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt) for 24h and 48h respectively. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with CP for 24h pre- and post-treatment with Habak. Assessment of cell viability of animals treated with Habak aqueous extract and/or CP was performed using trypan blue exclusion assay. Investigating the protective effects of pre- and post-treatments with Habak aqueous extract on genotoxicity of CP were evaluated with chromosome aberrations and DNA damage using the comet assay. Cell viability of mice bone-marrow cells was activated with the low and medium concentrations of Habak, however, the highest concentration induced cytotoxicity significantly. When animals treated with Habak prior to CP, the chromosome aberrations were reserved highly significant in comparison with animals injected with CP. Also, Habak reduced the chromosome abnormalities induced by CP when mice pre-treated with CP. The efficacy of Habak was recorded when it reduced DNA damage induced by pre- and post-treatment with CP as assessed with percentage of DNA damage, tail length and tail moment ratio. In conclusion, the whole aqueous extract of Habak has the ability to reduce the mutagenic effects induced by toxins, besides its ability to ameliorate the cell viability and prevent DNA damage. Thus, we recommend using Habak with the traditional methodology. Besides, studying its constituents and evaluate their bioactivity to prohibit mutagenesis.

[Abo-Zeid MAM, Aly FA, Farghaly AA. Antimutagenic Effects of Habak against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and DNA damage in mouse bone-marrow cells. Stem Cell 2016;7(4):34-40]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 7. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.07.

 

Keywords: Mentha longifolia; Habak; DNA damage; chromosome aberrations; Comet; mouse; bone-marrow

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8

Comparing Germination in three Species: Ammodendron, Milk Thistle and Silybummarianus in Hydroponic System and Soil Culture

 

Saeed Shojaei1,*, Marjan Talebiniya2, Sadegh Zohrabi2

 

1*Ph.D. Student Department of Management the Arid and Desert Regions, Yazd University, Iran

2M.S. student of Combating Desertification, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran

s_shojaei@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: To investigate the effect of the type of germination medium on germination of three species, namely Ammodendron, Milk Thistle and Silybummarianus, a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. The studied factors were plant type, hydroponic culture, hydroponic culture with nutrition by Liquid fertilizer phosphorus and potassium, and soil culture. Daily germination speed and amount data was collected in 11 days. The studied indices were stem length in three species. Results showed that the highest stem growth were related to Ammodendron. Among the studied treatments, the best medium was hydroponic culture with fertilizer and there was a significant difference between this medium and the other media at p=.05.

[Shojaei S, Talebiniya M, Zohrabi S. Comparing Germination in three Species: Ammodendron, Milk Thistle and Silybummarianus in Hydroponic System and Soil Culture. Stem Cell 2016;7(4):41-43]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 8. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.08.

 

Key words: hydroponic; root length, seed germination; fertilizer.

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9

Comparing Root length in Hydroponic System and Soil Culture

 

Saeed Shojaei1,*, Maryam Khosropur2, Fahime Arabi Aliabad2

 

1Ph.D. Student Department of Management the Arid and Desert Regions, Yazd University, Iran

2 Master of Science desert management, Yazd University, Yazd, Ira

s_shojaei@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: To investigate the effect of the type of germination medium on germination of three species, namely Ammodendron, Milk Thistle and Silybummarianus, a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. The studied factors were plant type, hydroponic culture, hydroponic culture with nutrition by Liquid fertilizer phosphorus and potassium, and soil culture. Daily germination speed and amount data was collected in 11 days. The studied indices were Root length in three species. Results showed that the Root length growth were related to Ammodendron. Among the studied treatments, the best medium was hydroponic culture with fertilizer and there was a significant difference between this medium and the other media at p=.05.

[Shojaei S, Khosropur M, Arabi Aliabad F. Comparing Root length in Hydroponic System and Soil Culture. Stem Cell 2016;7(4):44-46]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 9. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.09.

 

Key words: hydroponic; Root length, fertilizer, Soil.

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10

Comparing Germination percentage in Hydroponic System

 

Saeed Shojaei1,*, Maryam Khosropour2

 

1*Ph.D. Student Department of Management the Arid and Desert Regions, Yazd University, Iran

2 Master of Science desert management, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

s_shojaei@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: To investigate the effect of the type of germination medium on germination of three species, namely Ammodendron, Milk Thistle and Silybummarianus, a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. The studied factors were plant type, hydroponic culture, hydroponic culture with nutrition by Liquid fertilizer phosphorus and potassium, and soil culture. Daily germination speed and amount data was collected in 11 days. The studied indices germination percentage in three species. Results showed that the highest germination percentage was observed in Silybummarianus. Among the studied treatments, the best medium was hydroponic culture with fertilizer and there was a significant difference between this medium and the other media at p=.05. This type of medium performs better than soil medium in providing nutrition for the plant and is recommended for cultures with a better performance.

[Shojaei S, Khosropour M. Comparing Germination percentage in Hydroponic System. Stem Cell 2016;7(4):47-50]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 10. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.10.

 

Key words: hydroponic; Germination percentage, Soil, Silybummarianus.

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11

The Impact of Eccentric Exercises of Hip Adductor Muscles on Motion Range and Performance of Lower Limbs among Male Taekwondo Players Suffering From Lower Limb Injuries

 

Soleiman Zare1* and Maryam Keshavarz2

 

1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2 Bsn Nurse, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impacts of eccentric exercises of hip adductor muscles on motion range and performance of lower limbs among male Taekwondo players suffering from lower limb injuries. The population of the study includes the entire male Taekwondo players of Tehran during 2015. Among the population, a number of 30 individuals were selected as the sample of the study through purposive sampling method. Furthermore, the sample was divided into two 15 individuals groups namely as control and experimental groups. Prior to initiation of evaluations, subjects had signed the privacy policy papers for taking part in the experiment and next, their personal information was collected. Each person was individually provided with general debriefings regarding the manner of performance of tests. Conditions for participation in study also included having at least a two year experience of playing Taekwondo for three times a week and being aged between 16 to 20 years. Prior to execution of intervention program (hip adductor muscles strengthening program) subjects had been subjected to tests measuring motion range of abduction and external rotation of hip using a Goniometer as well as kinetic performance of lower limbs through vertical jump test, one-foot single jump distance, one-foot triple jumps distance, stairway leap running time, sweep running time and one foot squatting test. Intervention included performance of eccentric exercises using a strap for strengthening hip adductor muscles for 8 weeks. 48 hours after execution of intervention program, the subjects have taken lower limbs strength and performance tests as they had taken their pre-test. Descriptive statistics have been used for describing and organizing data obtained from posttest and pretest. In term of inferential statistics, the Co-variance analysis was applied. In case of significance of average differences in Covariance test, the LSD post hoc test would be applied. It is noteworthy to mention that the entire statistical operations were performed using the SPSS software v.23. Findings of the study have shown that eight weeks of eccentric exercises of hip adductor muscles will lead to improvement of motion range of hip abduction and external rotation as well as improvement of movement performance of lower limbs among male Taekwondo players suffering from groin strain. As a result, performing eccentric exercises is recommended for people suffering from groin injuries.

[Soleiman Zare, Maryam Keshavarz. The Impact of Eccentric Exercises of Hip Adductor Muscles on Motion Range and Performance of Lower Limbs among Male Taekwondo Players Suffering From Lower Limb Injuries. Stem Cell 2016;7(4):51-58]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 11. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.11.

 

Keywords: Eccentric Exercises, Hip Adductor Muscles, Strength, Motion Range, Lower Limbs Performance, Male Taekwondo Players, Lower Limb

Full Text

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12

Assessment of left and right ventricular systolic function in type I diabetic patients by two-dimensional speckle tracking Echocardiography

 

Sameh Allam, Mohey-Eldin Samy, Waeel Attia, Ashraf Al-Amir and Mahmoud Zakaria

 

Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

drmahmod985@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) may lead to diabetic cardiomyopathy which is defined as myocardial dysfunction independent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension. The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy is multifactorial: hyperglycemia, increased free fatty acids, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cytokines change cellular metabolic pathways in cardiomyocytes and impair cardiac function. Speckle tracking Echocardiography is a new echocardiographic technique that allows a precise evaluation of myocardial function. This method is accurate, reproducible, and angle independent, and it enables a complete assessment of regional and global function in three directions. Aim of the work: is to assess left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) systolic function in type I diabetic patients using two-dimensional speckle tracking Echocardiography (2 D STE). Material and methods: forty patients with type I DM with mean age 28.555.37 years & mean duration of diabetes is 16.55.3 years & mean HbA1C 8.21.2. All cases were recruited from the Endocrinology Clinic and internal medicine department in Al-Hussein University Hospital from October 2015 to September 2016 and 10 control subjects with mean age 26.63.66 years were prospectively evaluated. The 2D STE assessment of LV longitudinal strain and RV free-wall longitudinal strain was performed. Results: In diabetic group, left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS), and right ventricular free-wall global longitudinal strain (RVGLS) were significantly lower compared with the controls: LVGLS (-20.75 1.88 vs.-22.6 1.71, P= 0.007) and RVGLS (-30.22 3.48 vs. -32.70 2.91, P = 0.044). Conclusion: Type I DM is associated with subclinical LV systolic dysfunction and RV systolic function is worse in type I DM compared with control subjects which can be detected with 2 D STE. Recommendations: The STE technique should be combined with conventional echocardiography for follow up of ventricular function in diabetic patients.

[Sameh Allam, Mohey-Eldin Samy, Waeel Attia, Ashraf Al-Amir and Mahmoud Zakaria. Assessment of left and right ventricular systolic function in type I diabetic patients by two-dimensional speckle tracking Echocardiography. Stem Cell 2016;7(4):59-63]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 12. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.12.

 

Keywords: diabetic cardiomyopathy; type I diabetes mellitus; ventricular; speckle tracking echocardiography

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13

CRISPR and Stem Cell Research Literatures

 

Ma Hongbao *, Margaret Young **, Zhu Yucui ***, Yang Yan *, Zhu Huaijie ****

 

* Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA, ma8080@gmail.com; ** Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; *** Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West, 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA; **** The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2 Jingba Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450014, China. jacksun689@gmail.com, yz81@columbia.edu; 011-86-150-3711-5732

 

Abstract: Stem cells are derived from embryonic and non-embryonic tissues. Most stem cell studies are for animal stem cells and plants have also stem cell. Stem cells were discovered in 1981 from early mouse embryos. Stem cells have the potential to develop into all different cell types in the living body. Stem cell is a body repair system. When a stem cell divides it can be still a stem cell or become adult cell, such as a brain cell. Stem cells are unspecialized cells and can renew themselves by cell division, and stem cells can also differentiate to adult cells with special functions. Stem cells replace the old cells and repair the damaged tissues. Embryonic stem cells can become all cell types of the body because they are pluripotent. Adult stem cells are thought to be limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue of origin. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short, repetitive base sequences. Each repetition is followed by short segments of spacer DNA from previous exposures to foreign DNA. Small clusters of cas (CRISPR-associated system) genes are located next to CRISPR sequences. CRISPR-Cas9 is a new powerful technique for the gene editing target. This article introduces recent research reports as references in the related studies.

[Ma H, Young M, Zhu Y, Yang Y, Zhu H. CRISPR and Stem Cell Research Literatures。 Stem Cell 2016;7(4):64-116]. ISSN: 1945-4570 (print); ISSN: 1945-4732 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/stem. 13. doi:10.7537/marsscj070416.13

 

Key words: stem cell; life; research; literature

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from November 10, 2016. 

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