[an error occurred while processing this directive]

 

 

Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

 

Volume 3 - Number 4 (Cumulated No. 22), April 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

Get Word file: After you open Full Text for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from pdf to doc (or docx) you will get Word file.

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

21世纪新经络学导引 ---- 21世纪新弦学概论(2)

 

申之金

 

摘要:东方古代的经络与西方现代的弦论走到一起,是21世纪基础科学的一大奇迹。人体生理相似弦论研究的奇点,视界、黑洞,奇点处物理上引力如此巨大,数学上如庞加莱逆猜想的圈,类似血液、呼吸、消化、泌尿、生殖、神经等系统中的通道;视界联系体表的皮肤、经络;人体黑箱的生命力量类似黑洞。

[申之金. 21世纪新经络学导引----21世纪新弦学概论(2). Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):1-9] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.01

 

关键词:经络弦学 D-膜 量子曲率

Full Text

1

2

A New Perspective on Extinctions: The Search for a Common Formula.

 

Van den Noort, P.C.1 and Elewa, A.M.T.2

 

1 Emeritus Professor, Wageningen University, The Netherlands; noort1935@hotmail.com

2 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University 61519, Egypt; ashrafelewa@ymail.com

 

Abstract: This paper introduces a new theory to explain and to estimate the size and frequency of extinctions over the entire period of 600 my of the fossil record. The current explanation is excellent .There seems to be a common pattern or formula. We will demonstrate in what way death is a fact of life: there is a constant margin of 10 pct, and about seven peaks with at least 25 pct of extinction victims. Those peaks occur each 85 million years, but their frequency has increased over time. In principle, the predictability of the next peak is limited, because of chaos (within the solar system and the ecosystem on Earth), the unpredictability of mutations in Nature, of innovations by Man, and let alone the disastrous impacts of asteroids. It also depends on the concept of whether life is cyclical or linear. Therefore, some predictions have a low likelihood of occurrence. In the traditional theory or Old Vision there are many extinctions and even mass extinctions, each with various theories believed to be their cause. There is no single theory explaining all extinctions .Man was witness to and perhaps later on even guilty of extinctions. Even as early as in the Ice Ages he tried to find facts and continued later on in the Age of Science. But we still do not see extinctions in their right perspective, and it would be very useful to change this.

[Van den Noort, P.C. and Elewa, A.M.T. A New Perspective on Extinctions: The Search for a Common Formula. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):10-18] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.02

 

Keywords: Perspective; Extinction; Formula

Full Text

2

3

对江棋生先生批李杨时间和空间反演“失足”异议

 

叶眺新

 

Recommended by 王德奎 y-tx@163.com

 

Abstract: 读懂江棋生先生对称性破缺起源机制的理解,就涉及负数“无”和虚数“无”,或整体和撕裂的对称性及对称性自发破缺。这和1957年李政道和杨振宁获诺奖打破的弱宇称守恒定律有关。因为我们可以从庞加莱猜想和点内空间的联系想到这一点。现代物理学理论认为,微观高能物理实验反应可同时产生同等数量的粒子与反粒子,粒子与反粒子在质量等方面相同,但在电荷等方面相反,两者相遇便会湮灭同时释放出能量。但这都是从“点外空间”的具体科学实践得出的结论,是正确的。但如果是在100多亿年前的宇宙大爆炸,那是从“点内空间”的虚、实数的非对易反应,延拓到“点外空间”的虚、实数的非对易反应,实际情况就并非应是同时产生同等数量的粒子与反粒子。所以科学家并未在现今宇宙中,找到与大量物质等量的反物质。我们现以宇称不守恒理论为例,联系三旋//圈理论,试探看还有没有什么新发展和发现?宇称是表征粒子或粒子组成的系统在空间反射下变换性质的物理量,在空间反射变换下,粒子的场量只改变一个相因子,这相因子就称为该粒子的宇称;这可以简单地理解为,宇称就是粒子照镜子时,镜子里的影像。

对江棋生先生批李杨时间和空间反演“失足”异议. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):19-22] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.03

 

Keywords: 江棋生; 李杨; 时间; 空间; 反演

Full Text

3

4

The role of micro-credit in improving agricultural development

 

1 Mohammadreza Ghaffari, 2 Khatereh siyar and 3 Abbas Emami

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rural women are among those major groups at society who previously were considered less by planners, due to specific reasons in the past. And this problem is more observable at developing countries. While, by looking at women’s history of economic and social life, we can find that this great group, continuously have played basic role in forming economic condition of country. This great group consistent with men have had active role at areas of social-economic activities and always have had major part on economic production of society. Nowadays, supporting family supervisor women is adopted by universal society, as politic, economic a social concern and nearly all countries applied related approaches, and however these efforts have resulted in failure, in so many cases .

[Mohammadreza Ghaffari, Khatereh siyar and Abbas Emami. The role of micro-credit in improving agricultural development. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):23-27] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.04

Keywords: micro-credit, in improving agricultural development

Full Text

4

5

评北师大赵峥教授的量子疑难观 ---- 21世纪新弦学概论(3

 

王德奎

y-tx@163.com

 

摘要:什么叫“量子”?就是(△E)(△t=h和(△J)(△L=Q的联立,它们不能分开;分开就不完整,也不完备。庞加莱猜想完整和完备了从宏观到微观分立物体或量子的形象:球与环兼备,既能扩散,也能收缩.

[王德奎. 评北师大赵峥教授的量子疑难观----21世纪新弦学概论(3. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):28-34] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.05

 

关键词:量子疑难 新设计 庞加莱猜想

Full Text

5

6

Comparing between Traditional Degrees and online degrees in distance education

 

1 Khatereh siyar, 2 Ghasem Nikbakhsh and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The base of available information technology resources is increasing with dramatic speed. Much has been learned about connecting various forms of technology into systems, so that the ability to link systems is growing. Most distance learning systems are hybrids, combining several technologies, such as satellite, ITFS, microwave, cable, fiber optic, and computer connections. Technology transports information, not people. Distances between teachers and students are bridged with an array of familiar technology as well as new information age equipment. What sets today's distance education efforts apart from previous efforts is the possibility of an interactive capacity that provides learner and teacher with needed feedback, including the opportunity to dialogue, clarify, or assess. Advances in digital compression technology may greatly expand the number of channels that can be sent over any transmission medium, doubling or even tripling channel capacity. Technologies for learning at a distance are also enlarging our definition of how students learn, where they learn, and who teaches them. No one technology is best for all situations and applications.

[Khatereh siyar, Ghasem Nikbakhsh and Mehdi Nazarpour. Comparing between Traditional Degrees and online degrees in distance education. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):35-40] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.06

 Keywords: Online Degrees, Traditional Degrees, distance education

Full Text

6

7

Using the methods of Distance Education in Agriculture

 

1 Khatereh siyar, 2 Ghasem Nikbakhsh and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The contract between teacher and learner, whether in a traditional classroom or distance education, requires that the student be taught, assessed, given guidance and, where appropriate, prepared for examinations that may or may not be conducted by the institution. This must be accomplished by two-way communication. Learning may be undertaken either individually or in groups; in either case, it is accomplished in the physical absence of the teacher in distance education. Where distance teaching materials are provided to learners, they are structured in ways that facilitate learning at a distance. Recent rapid development of technology has resulted in systems that are powerful, flexible, and increasingly affordable. The base of available information technology resources is increasing with dramatic speed. Much has been learned about connecting various forms of technology into systems, so that the ability to link systems is growing. Most distance learning systems are hybrids, combining several technologies, such as satellite, ITFS, microwave, cable, fiber optic, and computer connections.

[Khatereh siyar, Ghasem Nikbakhsh and Mehdi Nazarpour. Using the methods of Distance Education in Agriculture. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):41-45] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.07

 

Keywords: Distance Education , Agricultural Education

Full Text

7

8

Variability and Association Studies in Land Races of Lentil Collected From South-Eastern Rajasthan

 

Punia SS,1* Ram Baldev,1Koli NR,1 Verma Preeti,1 Ranwha BR2

 

1. Agricultural Research Station, Post Box # 07, G.P.O. Nayapura, Kota-324001(Raj), India

2. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, MPUAT, Udaipur-313001(Raj), India

sumerspunia@hotmail.com, spunia82@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Evaluation of the existing variability in the available germplasm and working out the inter-relationship among yield and its contributing traits is necessary to develop high yielding cultivars of any crop. Keeping this in view, variability and association studies were conducted in a set of 55 diverse lines of lentil (including two checks) collected from South-Eastern parts of Rajasthan, India. Sufficient variability was present in the germplasm for days to flowering, plant height, number of fruiting branches per plant, number of pods per plant, 100- seed weight and seed yield. Days to flowering and plant height had high heritability coupled with high genetic advance while days to maturity had high heritability with moderate genetic advance. Seed yield showed significant positive genotypic correlation with all the traits studied. Pods per plant had maximum direct effect on seed yield followed by 100- seed weight and plant height. Number of fruiting branches per plant had negative direct effect on yield. Pods per plant and 100- seed weight were identified as important yield components; hence selection should be focused on these traits for yield improvement in lentil.

[Punia SS, Ram Baldev, Koli NR, Verma Preeti, Ranwha BR. Variability and Association Studies in Land Races of Lentil Collected From South-Eastern Rajasthan, Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):46-51] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.08

 

Key words: Lens culinaris; variability; genetic advance; correlation

Full Text

8

9

The role of villagers in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of PRA is to help strengthen the capacity of villagers to plan, make decisions, and to take action towards improving their own situation. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is considered one of the popular and effective approaches to gather information in rural areas. This approach was developed in early 1990s with considerable shift in paradigm from top-down to bottom-up approach, and from blueprint to the learning process. In fact, it is a shift from extractive survey questionnaires to experience sharing by local people. Much of the spread of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) as an emerging family of approaches and methods has been lateral, South-South, through experiential learning and changes in behavior, with different local applications. Rapid spread has made quality assurance a concern, with dangers from “instant fashion”, rushing, formalism and ruts. Promising potentials include farmers’ own farming systems research, alternatives to questionnaire surveys, monitoring, evaluation and lateral spread by local people, empowerment of the poorer and weaker, and policy review. Changes in personal behavior and attitudes, and in organizational cultures, are implied.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. The role of villagers in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):52-56] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.09

 

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), participation

Full Text

9

10

A Comparative Study of Performance of Mechanical Engineering Students in Selected Basic Engineering Courses at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso

 

*Oladeji1, J.T., and Sangotayo2, E.O.

 

1Mechanical Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. oladeji2004@yahoo.com/jtoladeji@gmail.com

2Mechanical Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. olemsangotayo@yahoo.com

*Correspondence Author

 

Abstract: The importance of engineering in nation development cannot be overemphasized. This is because, the prosperity and economic well being of any country have direct link with technological knowhow of such a country. Hence, adequate and in-depth knowledge of basic engineering courses are required to become a successful engineer. This study was carried out to compare the performance of mechanical engineering students in selected basic engineering courses at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso. Secondary data in form of the results or scores for the past five years were collected from the examination officer of the department, through the permission of the head of department. Essentially, cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of the students was used. Data were analyzed using means and standard deviations at 95 % confidence level. Data were further subjected to Anova-tests. The trends of performance of students based on courses and years of study were also investigated. The mean scores of 3.26, 3.48, 3.10, 2.84, 3.175 and 2.24 were obtained for the period of five years in the six selected courses in the harmattan semester, while the mean scores in the rain semester were 3.16, 3.02, 2.50, 3.28, 2.84 and 2.98. Statistics revealed that there were no significant differences in the performance of students in the selected courses as well as the trend of performance over the studied years in harmattan semesters. The study concluded that, there were no significant differences in the performance of students in the selected courses in both harmattan and rain semesters. While there is no significant difference in the trend of performance over the studied years in the harmattan semesters, there was significant difference in the trend of performance of students over the years in rain semesters.

[Oladeji, J.T., and Sangotayo, E.O. A Comparative Study of Performance of Mechanical Engineering Students in Selected Basic Engineering Courses at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):57-60] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.10

 

Keywords: Mechanical engineering, students, performance, rain semester, harmattan semester

Full Text

10

11

Assessing adult education in developing countries

 

Mohammad Abedi

 

Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: in developed countries, adult education is a form of informal education for people above 24 years is presented. In fact, a means of expanding knowledge, skills and abilities of adults. In these countries, adult education helps adults to variable conditions of political, social, economic and cultural adjustment, and pay to fix their shortcomings. Concept of adult education in revolutionary countries, is a combination of these two concepts. Changes in these countries due to social, political and cultural revolution, resulting from, literacy and continuing education necessary to find because of the revolution, there is cultural poverty on the other hand the implementation of development plans and the need for skilled personnel are expert. General adult education system based on economic conditions - social and cultural community is different and each specific goals will follow. General objectives of adult education and literacy in two categories is divided into professional education.

[Mohammad Abedi. Assessing adult education in developing countries. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):61-65] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.11

 

Keywords: adult education, developing countries

Full Text

11

12

Comparison of adult education in various countries

 

Mohammad Abedi

 

Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: in developed countries, adult education is a form of informal education for people above 24 years is presented. In fact, a means of expanding knowledge, skills and abilities of adults. In these countries, adult education helps adults to variable conditions of political, social, economic and cultural adjustment, and pay to fix their shortcomings. In developing countries and backward because the problems in primary education, lack of resources and facilities, poverty, social existence, economic and cultural concept of adult education is different. In such countries the concept of adult education, literacy education is.

[Mohammad Abedi. Comparison of adult education in various countries. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):66-71] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.12

 

Keywords: adult education; adult; people

Full Text

12

13

Taxonomic Study, Phylogenetic Characterization and Factors Affecting on the Biosynthesis Antimicrobial Agents Produced By Streptomyces lydicus

 

*Houssam M. Atta1; El-Sayed, A. S. 2; El-Desoukey, M. A. 2; Mona Hassan, M. 3 and Manal El-Gazar, M. 4

 

1- Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. The present address: Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science and Education, Al-Khurmah, Taif University; KSA.

2- Department of biochemistry, Faculty of science, Cairo University, Egypt

3- Department of clinical phathology , Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

4- Holding company for biological products and vaccines, Egypt

*houssamatta@yahoo.com, houssamatta@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This work was carried out in the course of a screening program for specifying the bioactive substances that demonstrated inhibitory affects against microbial pathogenic, from actinomycetes strains. Eighty eight actinomycete strains were isolated from twelve soil samples collected from different localities in Egypt. Only one actinomycete culture AZ-55 from eight cultures was found exhibited to produce wide spectrum antimicrobial activities. The nucleotide sequence of the 16s RNA gene (1.5 Kb) of the most potent strain evidenced an 99% similarity with Streptomyces lydicus. From the taxonomic features, the actinomycetes isolate AZ-55 matches with Streptomyces lydicus in the morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. Thus, it was given the suggested name Streptomyces lydicus, AZ-55. The parameters controlling the biosynthetic process of antimicrobial agent formation including: different inoculum size, pH values, temperatures, incubation period and different carbon and nitrogen sources were fully investigates.

[Houssam M. Atta; El-Sayed, A. S.; El-Desoukey, M. A.; Mona Hassan, M. and Manal El-Gazar, M. Taxonomic Study, Phylogenetic Characterization and Factors Affecting on the Biosynthesis Antimicrobial Agents Produced By Streptomyces lydicus. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):72-84] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.13

 

Key words: Streptomyces lydicus, Taxonomic study, Phylogenetic Characterization, factors affecting antimicrobial activity.

Full Text

13

14

Principles for the Teachers of Adults

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: For most adults, being out of the classroom for even a few years can make going back to school intimidating. If they haven’t taken a class in decades, it’s understandable that they would have some degree of apprehension about what it will be like and how well they’ll do. It can be tough to be a rookie when you’ve been an expert in your field for many, many years. Nobody enjoys feeling foolish. Your job as a teacher of adult students includes being positive and encouraging. Patience helps too. Give your older students time to respond when you ask a question. They may need a few moments to consider their answer. Recognize the contributions they make, even when small. Give them words of encouragement whenever the opportunity arises. Most adults will rise to your expectations if you’re clear about them. A word of caution here. Being positive and encouraging is not the same as being condescending. Always remember that your students are adults. Speaking to them in the tone of voice you might use with a child is offensive, and the damage can be very difficult to overcome. Genuine encouragement from one person to another, regardless of age, is a wonderful point of human interaction.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Principles for the Teachers of Adults. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):85-89] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.14

 

Keywords: adult education, Teacher of Adults

Full Text

14

15

对黑洞学、宇宙学的一些新观念、新公式、和新结论

====对黑洞物理和宇宙学新探索的精简介绍和总结====

 

1957年毕业于北航,即现在的北京航空航天大学

 Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: 本文的新观点是完全建立在上面黑洞的新旧理论的基层之上的。【1】到【5---用黑洞的新观念证明我们宇宙诞生于在普郎克领域Planck Era新生成的大量原初最小黑洞Mbm,即普朗克粒子mp的合并,而且Mbm mp = (hC/8πG)1/2 1.09 10-5g;而不是诞生于“奇点”或“奇点的大爆炸”。【6--证明我们现在宇宙是一个质量为1056g的真正的巨无霸宇宙黑洞(CBH)。【7--宇宙原初暴涨(Original Inflation)的新机理和新证明。【8】。从宇宙7种大小的黑洞Mb分析黑洞宇宙的演变.

[张洞生. 对黑洞学、宇宙学的一些新观念、新公式、和新结论. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):90-102] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.15

 

【关键词】。黑洞理论;宇宙起源学;普朗克粒子;霍金辐射;最小黑洞;普朗克领域;我们宇宙黑洞;宇宙原初暴涨;霍金辐射的信息量;黑洞的信息量;黑洞的熵

Full Text

15

16

Microbiological Quality and Proximate Composition of Peanut cake (Kulikuli) in Nigerian Markets

 

*1Ezekiel C.N., 2Anokwuru C.P., 1Fari A., 3Olorunfemi M.F., 1Fadairo O., 2Ekeh H.A., 1Ajoku K., 1Gbuzue N. and 1Akinsanmi F.

 

1Department of Biosciences & Biotechnology, Babcock University, PMB 21244, Ikeja, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemical & Environmental Sciences, Babcock University, PMB 21244, Ikeja, Nigeria.

 3Department of Microbiology, Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, Ibadan.

*Correspondence: <chaugez@gmail.com>; +234-703-8167130

 

Abstract: Peanut cake (Kulikuli) is a groundnut-based snack that is consumed by all age range among the indigenous West African populace. It is also used as a major ingredient in poultry feed formulation. However, there is scarcity of data with regards to the microbiological quality of Kulikuli across Nigeria or other Kulikuli consuming West African states. In this study, 49 Kulikuli samples obtained from markets in nine districts within Nigeria were subjected to microbial and proximate analyses in order to ascertain the quality of this food material. All the samples had bacterial and fungal contamination at varying levels ranging from 4.2106 to 1.0107 cfu/g for bacteria, and 1.1103 to 2.8104 cfu/g for fungi, however, not all samples were contaminated with pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The contaminating enterobacteria included species of Escherichia, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus and Klebsiella. The enterobacteria gave varying haemolytic reactions. Species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were the fungi recovered from the samples. Aspergillus species were the most commonly isolated fungi and had a significantly (P<0.05) different relative density of 84.7% from other fungi. The data obtained for proximate composition varied from location to location. Crude protein was significantly (P<0.05) higher than all other parameters in the market and control samples. Crude protein and crude fat contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher in control samples than all market samples. Correlation analysis showed an inverse relationship between the total bacterial and fungal loads and individual proximate parameters in the Kulikuli samples. The data obtained in this study showed that the presence of contaminating microbes was responsible for depreciation in nutritional value in Kulikuli.

[Ezekiel C.N., Anokwuru C.P., Fari A., Olorunfemi M.F., Fadairo O., Ekeh H.A., Ajoku K., Gbuzue N. and Akinsanmi F. Microbiological Quality and Proximate Composition of Peanut cake (Kulikuli) in Nigerian Markets. Academia Arena, 2011;3(4):103-111] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.16

 

Keywords: Peanut cake, Kulikuli, Fungi, Enterobacteriaceae, Microbial quality, Proximate, Food quality.

Full Text

16

The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from April 6, 2011. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
Website: http://www.sciencepub.net/academia

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.01

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.02

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.03

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.04

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.05

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.06

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.07

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.08

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.09

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.10

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.11

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.12

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.13

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.14

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.15

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030411.16

[an error occurred while processing this directive]

 

 

 

| Terms of Service | Privacy Policy |

2011. Marsland Press