Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 8 - Number 10 (Cumulated No. 43), October 1, 2010
 Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns0808
 
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Analysis Of The Major Ion Constituents In Groundwater Of Jaipur City

 

DINESH KUMAR TANK AND C. P. SINGH CHANDEL*

Department of Chemistry, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur – 302004, India

chandelcps2@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study focused on the hydrochemistry of groundwater in Jaipur city to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. Groundwater samples were collected from eleven stations of Jaipur city during monsoon season and were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, carbonate, bicarbonate, nitrate and fluoride. Comparison of the concentration of the chemical constituents with WHO (world health organization) drinking water standards of 1983, the status of groundwater is better for drinking purposes. Results indicate that nitrate concentrations are in an alarming state with respect to the use of groundwater for drinking purposes. The calculated values of SAR, RSC and percentage sodium indicate that the water for irrigation uses is excellent to good quality. US Salinity diagram was used for evaluating the water quality for irrigation which suggests that the majority of the groundwater samples were good for irrigation. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.01

 

Key words: Physico-Chemical Parameters, Groundwater, US Salinity Diagram and Piper diagram

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2

Comparative efficiencies of the degradation of C.I. Mordant Orange 1 using UV/H2O2, Fenton, and photo-Fenton processes

 

A.M. Gamal

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The kinetics of the photo degradation of C.I. Mordant Orange 1 imparted by UV/H2O2, Fenton and photo Fenton process were investigated. Negligible effects were observed in the presence of either UV light or H2O2 alone. As expected the Fenton-mediated degradation occurred much faster than the photolytic process. Photo Fenton showed higher in treatment efficiency than that of Fenton process. The effects of dye concentrations, H2O2 concentration, pH values and the presence of Fe2+ concentration on the degradation rate constant were also studied. The rate constant of dye degradation that occurred in both the phtolytic as well as in the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes was found to pseudo first-order kinetics. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):8-15]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.02

 

Keywords: C.I. Mordant Orange 1, Degradation, Kinetic, UV/H2O2 , Fenton, photo-Fenton processes

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The Effect of Chelating Agent on the Separation of Some Metal Ions from Binary Mixture Solution by Cation-Exchange Resin

 

S. A. Abo Farha*, N.A. Badawy, A.A. El-Bayaa, and S.E. Garamon

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

*e-mail: samiaelhosieny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The need to clean-up heavy metal contaminated environment cannot be over emphasized. This paper has been studied the distribution coefficients of Ce(IV), Al(III), Fe(III), Bi(III), Ca(II), Ba(II) and Pb(II) on cation exchange resin Purolite C100 in the presence of some chelating agent at 25C. Sodium nitrate, citric acid and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) were tested as eluants. The relative efficiency of the eluants has been discussed in terms of their elution constants. A rapid ion-exchange method was proposed for the separation of lead cations. The method has depended on the selective complexing of metal ions by a chelating agent as achieved by control of pH. Several binary separations of metal ions have been achieved on the basis of their kd values. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):16-25]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.03

 

Keywords: Ion exchange; Separation ; Heavy metals; Distribution coefficient

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4

Protective effects of mushroom and their ethyl extract on aging compared with L-carnitine

 

Ahmed, M. Gaafar1; Heba, E. Yossef2 and Hala, H. Ibrahim2

1 Special Food and Nutrition dep., Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

2 Nutrition and Food Science dep., Faculty of Home Economics, Minufiya University, Egypt.

*corresponding e-mail (ahmad_gafaar@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: The effects of 10% dried mushroom and 300 mg mushroom extract on the lipids profile, lipid peroxidation and liver functions of rats were evaluated and compared with L-carnitine. Food intake, body weight and histological examination of liver tissues were also evaluated. Supplementation diet of rats with 10% dried mushroom, 300 mg mushroom extract and 300 and 600 mg L-carnitine resulted in a significant decrease in total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, aspartate amino transferase (AST) enzyme, alanine amino transferase (ALT) enzyme, alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme, malonaldehyde (MAD) and body weight compared to control. However, glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH) and food intake were significantly increased in rats supplemented with 10% dried mushroom, 300 mg mushroom extract and 300 and 600 mg L-carnitine. Liver tissues of rats were improved by the supplementation with 10% dried mushroom and 300 mg L-carnitine. However, the supplementation with 300 mg mushroom extract and 600 mg L-carnitine were more effective in improving the liver tissues. These results suggest that mushroom and their extract can be improve the antioxidant status during ageing and minimize the occurrence of age-associated disorders associated with involvement of free radicals. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):26-33]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.04

Key words: Dried mushroom, mushroom extract, L-carnitine, lipids profile, liver function, lipid peroxidation

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Carotenoids Accumulation in the Green Alga Scenedesmus sp. Incubated with Industrial Citrate Waste and Different Inductions Stress

 

El-Sayed, A.B

Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

bokhair@msn.com

Abstract: A laboratory experiment was conducted in the algae-station of the Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt with the green alga Scenedesmus sp. to study the effect of citrate waste in the nutrient solution on vegetative growth and pigments accumulation. The alga was incubated in 2000 ml culture with 10 ml citric acid waste characterized by high CNPK contents. After maximum growth rate was achieved induction was performed (by the day ten) and separate addition of NaCl, FeSO4 and chelated FeSO4 was performed and citrate volume was raised to be 50ml.l-1. Growth measurements were dry weight, total chlorophyll and carotenoids. Results showed that maximum vegetative growth was reached after approximately 10 days of incubation. The maximum growth rate during this period was 0.29 and 0.26d-1, while average growth rate was 0.14 and 0.16d-1for dry weight and total chlorophyll, respectively. Except of cultures received chelated FeSO4, all other treated cultures (control, metal FeSO4 and NaCl) resulted in complete degradation of chlorophyll and carotenoids massive accumulation. The cultures were completely greenish yellow and yellow colored. Maximum chlorophyll ratio was found in control cultures which received citrate only (50ml.l-1), however maximum carotenoids ratio was detected in the algae supplied with metal FeSO4, followed by 2% NaCl. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):34-40]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.05

Key words: Citrate wastes; Green algae; Vegetative growth; Caroteno

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A reliable in vitro protocol for rapid mass propagation of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

 

Narender Singh*, Avneet Kaur and Kuldeep Yadav

Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra -136119 (India)

*Email: nsheorankuk@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An efficient regeneration protocol under in vitro conditions has been developed for Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.- an important medicinal plant using nodal segments. Nodal explants of this species were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various concentrations of auxins and cytokinins individually and in various combinations. BAP was found to be more effective than Kinetin for shoot multiplication. The highest number of shoots (2.0 0.29) was achieved on MS medium augmented with 2.0 mg/l BAP. The medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP + 1.0 mg/l NAA responded better than all other media combinations. MS half strength medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l IBA proved better with forty percent rooting after 22 days of implantation. Most of the roots were long and healthy. The micropropagated plantlets were hardened and acclimatized. They were successfully transferred in pots containing sterilized soil and sand mixture (1:1) with 60% survival rate under field conditions. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):41-47]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.06

 

Key words: Multiple shoots, Nodal segments, Sapindus mukorossi ,auxins, cytokinins.

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Cytotoxic Effect of Composite Resin and Amalgam Filling Materials on Human Labial and Buccal Epithelium

 

Rokaya H. Ahmed 1, Mohammed I. Aref 2, Rania M. Hassan 3 and Noura R. Mohammed 4

Zoology Department -Women's College-Ain Shams University 1,4, Faculty of Medicine-Al Azhar university 2, Faculty of Dentistry- Ain Shams University 3 , Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Background and Objective: There has been a growing concern of the potential health hazards imposed by use of dental filling materials that include toxic compounds. So this study was designed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in the epithelium of buccal and labial mucosa after applying amalgam and composite filling materials. Materials and Methods: The epithelial cells were stained with fluorescence dyes; ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and monoclonal antiFas-1 antibody then examined under fluorescent microscope. Results: The cytotoxicity of amalgam was decreased with aging time while that of composite was increased. On the other hand, using antifas-1 antibody, it was found that the apoptotic cells were died through mitochondrial pathway. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):48-53]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.07

 

Key words: dental restorations, amalgam filling, composite resins cytotoxic effects

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Dermatoglyphic Study on Patients with Dental Caries Who Wearing Dental Fillings and its Correlation to Apoptosis that Induced by Using Dental Fillings

 

Rokaya H. Ahmed 1, Mohammed I. Aref 2, Rania M. Hassan 3 and Noura R. Mohammed 4

Zoology Department -Women's College-Ain Shams University 1,4, Faculty of Medicine-Al Azhar university 2, Faculty of Dentistry- Ain Shams University 3 , Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Background and Objective: There is a definite correlation between the dermatoglyphic patterns and the oral cleft deformity. So the aim of this study was to detect the correlation between dermatoglyphics and the number of apoptotic cells that induced by dental fillings. Materials and Methods: Finger and palm prints were collected from 32 patients with dental caries who replaced it with amalgam and composite fillings then compared with 15 normal persons. Results: The patients with lower number of apoptotic cells were characterized by increasing whorl patterns on the finger-tips. Meanwhile, the ulnar loop pattern was the dominant pattern in the patients with moderate and higher number of apoptotic cells. Conclusion: The variation in the dermatoglyphic patterns according to the number of apoptotic cells in one week group indicates genetically susceptible and resistant patients to filling toxicity. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):54-57]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.08

Key words: dermatoglyphic and oral disorders, dermal patterns

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9

High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC): A Modern Analytical tool for Biological Analysis

 

Dr. Harish Chandra Andola

Centre for Aromatic Plants, Selaqui, Herbal Research and Development Institute, Gopeshwar, Uttarakhand, India

Email:andolah@rediffmail.com

Dr. Vijay Kant Purohit

High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar (Garhwal), 246174, Uttarakhand, India

Email: vijaykantpurohit@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: Among the modern Analytical tools HPTLC is a powerful analytical method equally suitable for qualitative and quantitative analytical tasks. HPTLC is playing an important role in today analytical world, not in competition to HPLC but as a complementary method. This article describes HPLC method. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):58-61]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.09

 

Keywords: Analytical tool; HPTLC; qualitative; method

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To what extent could bilharzial co-infection aggravate liver damage in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients?

M.M., Elhady* and Nevin.S, EL-Dein**

* Zoology Department - Faculty of Science - Benha University .Egypt

**zoology Department - Faculty of Science - zagazig University.Egypt

Abstract: Among its neighboring countries, Egypt had its higher rates of HCV infection. The relation between bilharzial co-infection and the progression of hepatitis, in HCV-infected patients, was studied in this work. 55 liver biopsies from 55 HCV-infected patients, with and without bilharzial co-infection, were used. Histopathologically, characteristic but not diagnostic histopathologic features of chronic HCV infection were revealed. 5 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, with different grades of differentiation, were detected. Bilharzial co-infection was accompanied by the more progressive changes. Depending on METAVIR, 39 cases were classified at stages 0:3 of fibrosis, whereas 11 were at stage 4 (=cirrhosis). Collagen fibers continued to increase with the progression of the disease. Immunohistochemically, AFP was diagnostic in 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whereas only three (3/39=7.5%) cases of stages 0:3 of fibrosis were positive. Using DNA image analysis, most of cases (44/55=80%) were diploid and the rest (11/55=20%) were aneuploid, with high SPFs. Among the aneuploid HCC cases, one of the 3 well differentiated was tetraploid and the poorly differentiated one was multiploid; presenting a higher frequency of DNA abnormal population. Interestingly, both the two aneuploid cirrhotics and the tetraploid well differentiated HCC were belonged to patients with bilharzial co-infection. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):62-71]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.10

 

Key words: Histopathology, Human liver, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, HCV

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11

Lambda, the pyrethroid insecticide as a mutagenic agent in both somatic and germ cells

Abdel Aziz K.B*1 and Abdel Rahem H.M1

1Cell biology department, national Research center, cairo Egypt

*Kbaderkhan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cytogenetic evaluations of pyrethroid insecticide cyhalothrin (lambda) were investigated in mice in vivo by recording chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and in primary spermatocytes. Cyhalothrin (lambda) insecticide was orally administrated with 2, 2.5, 5 mg/kg b.wt. (1 ∕10, 1 ∕8, 1 ∕4 LD50 doses respectively) for repeated treatment. Cyhalothrin (lambda) was found to produce a significant structural and numerical chromosomal damage after subacute treatment in both bone marrow cells and primary spermatocytes. This effect was dose and time-dependent. For studying sperm abnormalities, mice were orally treated with the highest dose, 1 ∕4 LD50. Cyhalothrin (lambda) insecticide was found to induce a significant increase in the percentage of sperm abnormalities which was mainly in the head. The present study clearly indicates that Cyhalothrin (lambda) insecticide is genotoxic to the different kinds of cells analyzed. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):72-81]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.11

 

Key words: Pyrethroid insecticides; Lambda-cyhalothrin; chromosomal aberrations; Sperm abnormalities; genotoxicity

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Calculating the force exerted by the photon on the elementary particle

 

R. MANJUNATH

 

#16,8TH Main road, Shivanagar, Rajajinagar, Bangalore:-560010, INDIA

Author: - R. MANJUNATH (manjunath5496@gmail.com)

 

Abstract: - Photons, like all elementary particles, exhibit both wave –like and particle like properties .The dual nature of photons can be visualized through their interaction with other objects. The photons possess momentum; carry mass during its motion. Hence they also exert force and pressure on other objects. The recent astronomical observations stated that the radiation pressure is strong enough to push an asteroid. This statement shocked the scientific comity and made them to gape in an astonished way, thinking that do radiation pressure really pushes an asteroid. The inherent goal of proposal of this mathematical model is to calculate the force exerted by the photon on the other elementary particles, in a simple and consistent way. The basic concepts of quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are incorporated together in a single frame work to lay the foundation for the emergence of the equation for the calculation of the force imparted by the photon on other elementary particles like proton, electron etc. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):82-87]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.12

Key words: - speed of light, scattering angle, photon, particle, energy, force and time.

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Patho - physiological Effects of Experimental Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax Infections in the Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus,Temminck)

 

Opara, M.N. and Fagbemi, B.O. +

Tropical Animal Health and Production Research Group

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Nigeria

Email: oparamax@yahoo.com

+ Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT: Trypanosome infection might affect grasscutter’s productivity while in domestication. The PCV, MCHC, total WBC and Lymphocytes of the grasscutters experimentally infected with T. congolense and T. vivax decreased (p<0.05), while MCV increased (p<0.05) 21dpi. Plasma glucose and cholesterol were decreased (p<0.05). Body temperature fluctuated between 37.40C and 39.20C with a peak on day 12 (39.20C) in T. congolense and 37.50C to 40.10C which peaked on day 8 (40.10C) in T. vivax. The livers and kidneys showed vacuolar and tubular epithelial degeneration respectively, with thrombosis in alveolar blood vessels. It was concluded that the grasscutter may serve and might have been playing the role of reservoirs hosts for this economically important disease. Infected grasscutters though did not show clinical signs of this disease, but clearly manifested haematological and tissue changes which could lead to death. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):88-101]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.13

Key words: Patho-physiology, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, Infections, Grasscutter

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Economic Study of Unemployment in Egypt and Impacts on GDP

 

Nagwa Mosad El-Agrody, Afaf Zaki Othman and Monia Bahaa El-Din Hassan

Department of Agricultural Economy, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Unemployment is considered one of the most important and serious problems most countries suffer, where it results in negative impacts on the national economy. وقد بلغ حجم قوة العمل فى مصر نحو 23.9 مليون فرد عام 2007 فى حين بلغت البطالة القومية فى مصر نحو 1.87 مليون فرد عام 2007 تمثل نحو 7.8% من قوة العمل وبلغ حجم البطالة الزراعية نحو 730 ألف فرد تمثل نحو 34.2% من البطالة القومية. The volume of labor force in Egypt amounted to some 23.9 million persons in 2007, whereas the volume of national unemployment amounted to some 1.87 million persons representing 7.8% of the total labor force in 2007, and the volume of agricultural unemployment amounted to730 thousand representing 34.2% of the national unemployment. هذا وتشير نتائج الدراسة إلى أن حجم البطالة القومية والزراعية يتزايد بمعدل سنوى معنوى بلغ نحو 64، 22 ألف فرد على الترتيب خلال الفترة (2000-2007) وأن نسبة المتعطلين فى الحضر تفوق نظيرتها فى الريف عام 2007 مما يبين أن القطاع الزراعى لديه القدرة على استيعاب المزيد من عنصر العمل. The current study revealed that, the volumes of national and agricultural unemployment have been growing at statistically significant annual amounts estimated at 64 and 22 thousand persons during the study period (2000-2007), respectively. However, the rate of unemployment in urban areas surpassed that in rural areas during 2007, indicating that the agricultural sector has the capacity to absorb more labor. كما تبين أن نسبة المتعطلين ممن يحملون شهادة متوسطة تحتل المركز الأول من إجمالى العاطلين سواء فى الحضر أو الريف ويرجع ذلك على عدم ربط التعليم باحتياجات سوق العمل الحقيقية – هذا وأوضحت الدراسة أن أهم العوامل التى تزيد من حجم البطالة القومية هى نظام الخصخصة والتضخم وتؤدى الاستثمارات الزراعية والناتج الزراعى إلى زيادة حجم البطالة الزراعية. The indicted that, the rate of unemployed persons holding middle-education degrees ranked on top of the total unemployed persons, both in urban and rural areas, which can be attributed to the absent link between the level of education and the real needs of the labor market. The study showed that, the most important factors contributing to the rising volume of national unemployment include privatization and inflation, and that increases in agricultural investments and agricultural domestic product resulted in raising the volume of agricultural unemployment.كما تبين أن زيادة سعر الصرف ونصيب الفرد من الناتج المحلى هما أهم العوامل التى تزيد من الناتج المحلى. The resulted data showed that, the increases in exchange rate and per capita share of GDP are the most important factors contributing to increasing GDP. Therefore, the research recommends exerting efforts to redistribute investments in the field of agriculture, and lowering interest rates to promote investments, reduce the rates of agricultural unemployment, and boost the volume of GDP. In addition, the research recommends amending the implemented privatization policies, the application of which led to raising both the national and agricultural unemployment rates in Egypt. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):102-111]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.14

Key words: البطالة – البطالة القومية – البطالة الزراعية – قوة العمل – معدلات البطالة.Unemployment - National unemployment - Agricultural unemployment - labor force - Unemployment Rates.

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Differences in Undulation Causes Different Moisture Regime, Thermal Environment and Evaporation in Saline Soil

 

Zhu Xue 1, 2, Takeo Akae 1, Haibin Shi 2

1. Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan

2. Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering College of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University,

Hohhot 010018, China. xuezhu_okayama@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was carried out in order to investigate the change in soil temperature and evaporation under undulation surface conditions (C+ site, 50cm high from the reference level C site, and C- site, 50cm low from reference level C site, respectively) which were treated for determine the reason for the difference in the soil temperature and the evaporation in saline soil. The results indicated the fluctuation of soil temperature was more dynamic in surface than the deeper layers and decreased with depths for all of treatments. The average difference in maximum surface temperature was 5.4 lower in the C- site than the C site, 1.0 higher in the C+ site than in the C site during a day (28 August 2009). The average evaporation was 41.4% to 94.1% higher in the C- site than in the C site and the C+ site during observations (from 27 August to 4 September, 2009). The average thermal conductivity was 0.29 W/m larger in the C- site than the C site, 0.02 W/m lower in the C+ site than in the C site. Analysis of variation showed there was significant (p<0.05) difference in soil temperature and evaporation due to the difference in soil water content affected by the undulation soil surface. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):112-116]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.15

 

Key words: saline soil; soil temperature; evaporation; undulation surface; arid area

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The Microbial Quality of Fast Food and Traditional Fast Food

 

Saadia M. Hassanein Easa

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Sixty food samples were collected from 60 random restaurants of fast and traditional fast foods in El Qassium, Saudi Arabia and investigated for bacteria species using different temperatures (10oC, 20oC, 30oC, 40oC and 50oC) incubated for 24-48 hours and analyzed for fungi and yeasts incubated at 25oC. The results revealed that from 45 sample of traditional foods, yielded a total twenty two species of eighteen genera of bacteria. A fourteen species of twelve genera of fungi and three species of three genera of yeasts. While fast food results revealed that from 15 fast food samples collected from 15 restaurants a total ten species of ten genera of bacteria. A total eight species of seven genera of fungi. The species of bacteria isolated in this study namely, Acetobacter sp., Achromobacter sp., Bacillus coagulans, B. Subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Erwinia carotovora, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Listeria monocytogenes, Microbacterium lacticum, Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Campylobacter jejuni, Citrobacter fruendii, Proteus vulgaris and Yersinia sp. The occurrence of some these bacteria illustrate that fast foods in these restaurants may act as a reservoir of pathogenic bacteria for human. Fungi isolated namely Aspergillus glaucus, A. niger, Alternaria sp., Cheotomium candidum, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium sp., Monilia sp., Mucor rouxii, Neuropora sp., Penicillium expansum, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus nigricans, Sporotrichum carinis and Thamnidium elegans. Yeasts were represented namely Torulopsis caroliniana, Saccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces sp. Total viable count of bacteria (CFU) was higher in foods containing vegetable salad and fresh vegetables more than heated foods (e.g., chicken Shawarma, Beef burger). Some bacteria resist heat and grown at 50oC. Contamination occurred through raw foods, use of polluted irrigation waters, human handling and the use of contaminated containers. The binge-eating of fast food can lead to measurable signs of liver injury, inflammation and inexpensive fat-and calorie-packed foods make as the fattest. Food poisoning can be controlled by the adjustment of pH, water activity, temperature control. Prevention of toxins in fast foods must become a cooperative effort on the part of all involved in food production. Prevent multiply the microorganisms by washing and dry hands before preparing any foods and after handling raw foods (meat, poultry, vegetables or fruits), food preparation areas, equipment must be cleaned, kitchen areas, restaurants and foods protected from insects, pests and other animals. Patients should not handle foods in restaurants. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):117-133]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.16

Key words: Fast food, traditional fast food, bacteria, fungi, yeasts, temperatures, contamination, poisoning food

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Physicochemical Characterization of Farmland Affected by Automobile Wastes in Relation to Heavy Metal.

 

C.N. Mbah1, P.I Ezeaku2.

1Department of Soil Science and Environmental Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki – Nigeria

2Department of Soil Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka – Nigeria.

cnmbah10@yahoo.com, ezeakup@yahoo.com

Abstract: Selected properties of automobile waste and non-automobile waste (control) affected soils and its relation with some heavy metals were investigated in this study. Sampling site was delimited at each area by free survey technique and soil samples collected at the surface (0-20cm) and subsurface (20-40, 40-60cm) depth. Results of the study showed decreased Ca, k, Mg and CEC levels as well as increased Na content of the automobile waste affected soil compared to the control. Both soils were acidic in nature and their heavy metal contents decreased with depth. Higher levels of heavy metals above critical limits in automobile soils using standard were observed .Soil contents of P04-, N03- and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) were within tolerable limits in both soils. The results indicate that automobile wastes had adverse effect on the nutrient level and fertility status of the studied soil. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):134-138]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.17

 

Keywords: Heavy metal, nutrient level, fertility status, automobile soil, critical limits

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Reintroduction of an endangered terrestrial orchid, Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo, assisted by symbiotic seed germination: First report from the Indian subcontinent

 

Simmi Aggarwal* and Lawrence W. Zettler**

*Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India 160 014

**Department of Biology, Illinois College, Jacksonville, IL 62650, USA

simmi.gupta316@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Symbiotic germination has practical merit for both conservation and horticulture, but it remains an underutilized tool for orchids in peril on the Indian subcontinent. Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo - the subject of this study - is native to India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Tibet and Bhutan where it is listed as endangered. We report our preliminary findings aimed at growing D. hatagirea from seed using mycorrhizal fungi leading to its reintroduction. Seeds were obtained from capsules and sown on oat meal agar with fungi isolated from the roots of mature D. hatagirea plants. Using molecular characterization techniques, cultures were assignable to the teleomorphic genus Ceratobasidium. Inoculated seeds resulted in 100% germination within 10 days of sowing, and healthy protocorms were obtained after 40 days. Seedlings with well-developed roots, tubers and leaves were obtained after 3 months. This is the first report documenting the successful application of symbiotic seed germination to reintroduce an orchid native to the Indian subcontinent. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):139-145]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.18

 

Key words: symbiotic seed germination, Orchidaceae, India, Dactylorhiza, conservation

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Development of vegetative and sexual multiplication protocol for commercialization of Inula racemosa Hook. f. – a critically endangered medicinal plant of N.W. Himalaya

 

Peerzada Arshid Shabir*, Irshad Ahmad Nawchoo** and Aijaz Ahmad Wani

 

Economic Botany and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany,University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190 006. J&K, India

*email: peerzadarshid@gmail.com, **email: irshadnawchoo@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: Inula racemosa is an important and critically endangered medicinal plant with tremendous potential as an important natural resource. The development of conservation and commercialization technique is a priority at present. To assess this, rhizome splitting as a means of vegetative propagation and seed germination for sexual propagation were evaluated for mass multiplication of this potent medicinal herb of North Western Himalayas. Split rhizome cuttings treated with varying concentrations of IAA, IBA and GA3 showed 88.890.95% sprouting and 77.781.42% of rooting in 100ppm of IAA. The studies undertaken on the seed germination of I. racemosa as a means of mass multiplication revealed that seeds show a broad range of pre-chilling requirements. Highest germination percentage- 90.000.30% were recorded when scarification and GA3 (100ppm) were applied together. Mean germination time declined with higher concentrations of GA3 applied to scarified seeds and also with increased duration of stratification. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):246-252]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.19

 

Key Words: Inula racemosa, vegetative propagation, germination, scarification, stratification, mass multiplication

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Male Breast Cancer; Experience with 6 Cases

 

1Salah Eldin A. Elgohary, 1Tamer A. ElBakary, 1Fersan A. Sallam, and 2Samar Galal Younes

 

1Departments of Surgery and Pathology, 2Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta Egypt.

*salahelgohary2009@yahoo.com, *elgoharysurgery@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background /Aim: Generally, Breast cancer is much less common in men than in women. Men tend to present with breast cancer at an older age than women. Liver cirrhosis and prolonged use of diuretics were found among most of cases. Breast cancers that arise in men are more often hormone receptor positive than female breast cancers. The most common clinical presentation is a painless, firm, subareolar mass Methods: The study included 6 patients with male breast cancer that had been managed by the authors at Tanta University Hospital over 3 years duration ; a minimum follow up period of 6 months was undertaken for all cases .All patients included were symptomatic and finally diagnosed by preoperative biopsy. All patients were studied for their clinical and pathological features, presentations, their surgical managements and outcome after surgery. Results: The results of the study revealed that the disease was early in 5 and was locally advanced in one patients. Their ages ranged between 46 and 73 years. All patients were managed surgically with no reported complications. Conclusion: For definitive local therapy for men with breast cancer; we recommend a modified radical mastectomy rather than lumpectomy or more radical surgery. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):253-259]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.20

 

Keywords: Breast cancer, gynecomastia of male breast

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Antioxidant Capacity of Manilkara zapota L. Leaves Extracts Evaluated by Four in vitro Methods

 

S. V. Chanda*1 and K. V. Nagani2

1. Associate Professor, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Microbiological Laboratory, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 005, Gujarat, India,

2. Junior Research Fellow, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Microbiological Laboratory, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 005, Gujarat, India,

svchanda@gmail.com, krunal.nagani@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The antioxidant capacity of the Manilkara zapota L. leaves extracts, obtained by sequential extraction with different polarities of solvents, was evaluated by four different in vitro methods: DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing capacity assessment assay. The acetone extract showed best DPPH radical scavenging activity; IC50 value 20 g/ml almost equal to that of standard ascorbic acid IC50 value 11.4 g/ml. The superoxide anion scavenging activity of acetone extract (IC50 = 140 g/ml) was better than that of standard gallic acid (IC50 = 185 g/ml). It showed good reducing capacity assessment. The antioxidant capacity of acetone extract may be due to its high phenolic content. The high antioxidant capacity observed for acetone extract suggested that this plant could be used as an additive in the food industry providing good protection against oxidative damage. However, conformation of its activity in in vivo models should be carried out. The work suggests that there is no universal criteria for presence or absence of antioxidant activity in different plants. It is imperative that one should evaluate more than one antioxidant methods and in more than one solvent in a single plant. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):260-266]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.21

Key words: antioxidant capacity, Manilkara zapota, DPPH, polar solvents, in vitro methods

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Banana-Growing tissue and its Impact on the Economic Return per Fedden in Egypt

Khaled S. M.a; Fatma Ahmeed Shfiqueb and Monia Bahaa El-Din Hassanb.

a Department of Plant Nutrition ,b Department of Agricultural Economics, National Research Centre, Egypt.

Abstract: Due to the great economic importance of banana crop, which emanates from the fact that it is characterized by a high nutritional value, nice taste and flavor compared to other fruit crops, availability in the market during most of the year, and easy handling and storage, the current study focused on exploring the potentials for expanding the cultivated areas and improving the quality of banana crop. Qalyoubia Governorate was selected to represent banana production under traditional system, and Nubaria region was selected to represent banana production under both traditional and tissue culture systems. The study used percentages to estimate the relative importance of banana production areas and other economic variables. The study concluded that banana grown by tissue culture outperformed banana grown under traditional farming at the level of all the studied economic variables, where average profit from tissue cultured banana reached 591% the profit realized from traditionally produced banana. Furthermore, it was found that tissue cultured banana is better in terms of shape, taste, and nutritional value, in addition to obtaining a crop that is free of viral diseases. Therefore, the study recommended providing support to expand in tissue culture banana production as a substitute for traditional production in order to raise the productivity thus exports of Egyptian banana. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):267-273]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.22

Key words: Agriculture tissue - traditional agriculture - growing bananas - the economic importance - capital costs - the profit

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An In-Vitro Evaluation of Flowers of Tagetus Spp.(L) as A Natural Anti-Solar Agent

 

Saraf Aparna A1, Totkekar Dipali D1 and Saraf Amit Y2.

1. Department of Botany, The Institute of Science, Mumbai- 400 032, India.

2. Department of Botany, Elphinstone College, Mumbai- 400 032, India

draparnasaraf@yahoo.co.in; dtotkekar@gmail.com; aysaraf@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate UV absorption ability of Tagetus spp. in view of a possible application as anti solar agent. The methanol extract was prepared and method was performed by UV visible spectrophotometry in range of 200- 400 nm for both the plants. The interest of our study was to find the better anti solar species amongst the two species. Results showed that Tagetus patula (L) exhibited a better anti-solar activity than that of Tagetus erecta, (L). [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):274-276]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.23

Key words: UV rays; Tagetus erecta; Tagetus patula; anti-solar

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Economic Impacts of Climate change on the Developing Countries particularly the Arab Countries

 

Dr. Ezzat Moulouk Kenawy

 Faculty of Commerce-Economic department-Kafrelsheikh University- Egypt

Email: bardis2008@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The greenhouse effect is a world phenomenon which can only be curbed through full international cooperation at the individual, institutional and governmental levels. The paper has found that the industrialized countries, which are distinguished by their high rates of energy consumption compared to the developing countries, are the main source behind the eminences of greenhouse effect gases. Thus, they have the greater role to take the necessary actions to curb the eminences of these harming. These actions can be restricted in two main trends: curbing the eminences of greenhouse effect gases through the dependence on the alternative energy types and improvement of fuel usage efficiency. In addition, the green areas should be enhanced as the represent the main basis to absorb carbon dioxide. As For Egypt’s attempt to face the climate change, the Egyptian efforts are concentrated on: implementing the clean development mechanism which Kyoto protocol has approved, exchange information about the dichotomies and reflections of the phenomenon on the environment, enhancing the public awareness of the phenomenon and its economic dichotomies, dealing with it, building abilities, activating the international financial and technical aids, adopting technology transfer as one of its priorities and doing serious efforts to activate partnership programmes with non-governmental organizations and associations. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):277-284]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.24

 

Keywords: Climate change, developing countries, Egypt- Economic Impacts, Arab Countries

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Growth of Different Yeast Strains During Fermentation of Soursop (Annona muricata) Juice as Influenced by Acetic acid Bacteria (Acetobacter aceti)

 

Sunday P. Ukwo1, Chidi F. Ezeama1 and Nyaudoh U. Ndaeyo2*

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

dr_nundaeyo@yahoo.com.

 Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the growth of different yeast strains as influenced by Acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter aceti) during fermentation of soursop juice. Preliminary studies were carried out to identify the endogenous species of yeast responsible for natural fermentation of soursop juice and the effect of exogenous acetic acid and pH on growth and tolerance rate of the different yeast isolates. The growth rate of different isolates was monitored for 7th days with and without Acetobacter aceti (AAB). Soursop juice was inoculated with the different yeast isolates Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), Hansenula anomala (HA), Canadida tropicalis (CA) and a brewery strain Saccharomyces pastorianus (SP). Results showed a reduction in maximal cell concentration with samples treated with Acetobacter aceti. The inhibition of growth rate was higher on non-Saccharomyces yeasts HA and CA while the brewery strain SP indicated a higher tolerance to Acetobacter aceti in the fermenting juice. Addition of 0.5ml v/v of exogenous acetic acid resulted in a drop in pH from 6.8 to 4.1 and caused a reduction in cell count while 1.0ml v/v acetic acid resulted in a drop of pH from 6.8 to 3.7 and showed complete inhibition of growth of all the yeast isolates. When the medium was adjusted by 1N hydrochloric acid to pH 4.1 and 3.7 all the yeast isolates showed the same growth as the control (pH 6.8). [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):285-291]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.25

 

Key words: fermentation, soursop juice, yeast, acetic acid bacteria

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Voltammetry Determination Of Some Trace Elements In Tap Water Samples Of Jeddah Area In The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia

 

Asia Alshikh2 Sana Arab1

1Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdulaziz University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Girl’s College of Educational, Jeddah.2Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Higher Education, Jizan University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Girl’s College of Educational, Jizan.

Ziadahmed1020@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The estimation of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Se concentration in the tap water of Jeddah in Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia city was accomplished using electrochemical methods. The obtained results were lower than the average range of these elements in the maximum concentration as they were allowed to be by The World Health Organization (WHO). [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):292-298]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.26

 

Keywords: tap water; voltammetry; Saudi; trace elements.

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Microbial Control of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet A Notable Pathogen of Bananas and Plantains

 

Abiala M. A1, 2*, Ogunjobi A. A1, Odebode A. C1, Ayodele M. A2

 

1. Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, PMB 128, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

2. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

mos4top@yahoo.com, aaogunjobi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The ability of one bacterium and two fungi to inhibit the mycelial growth of Mycosphaerella fijiensis was determined in this study. The culture filtrates of the three microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma asperellum and Trichoderma longibrachiatum) at different concentration were evaluated in – vitro against mycelia growth of M. fijiensis on two culture media using spread plate and mycelia dry weight method. Generally, the culture filtrates of the three microorganisms had significant effect on the mycelial growth of M. fijiensis. Culture filtrates of Bacillus subtilis inhibited mycelial growth of M. fijiensis at concentration of 1.5%, 2.5% and 5%. Trichoderma asperellum and Trichoderma longibrachiatum culture filtrates were observed to be less effective at concentration of 1% and 1.5% but became effective on mycelial growth of M. fijiensis at concentration of 2.5% and 5%. When spread plate method was used, culture filtrates of Trichoderma asperellum was observed to be highly effective than that of the other microorganisms. When mycelial dry weight method was used, culture filtrates of Bacillus subtilis exhibited high antagonistic effect to mycelial growth of M. fijiensis. Malt extract agar and malt extract broth significantly (P < 0.05) supported the antagonistic activity of microbial agents culture filtrates on mycelial growth of M. fijiensis compared to potato dextrose agar and potato dextrose broth. Effective screening of microbial biocontrol of Mycosphaerella fijiensis can contribute to reduction in chemical pesticides usage that has been reportedly linked to environmental pollution and threat to public health. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):299-305]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.27

Key words: microbial agents; Mycosphaerella fijiensis; culture filtrates; antagonistic activity

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Flavonoids From Cheilanthes Dubia Hope

 

D.L Verma and Lalita kabdwal

 

Department of Chemistry Kumaun University, S.S.J. Campus Almora- 263601 Uttarakhand

latakabdwal@yahoo.co.in

 

ABSTRACT: Cheilanthes Dubia (fern Sinopterdaceae), a fern species of Polypodiaceae group, has been used as a traditional medicine by some ethnic group of central Himalaya. Dichloromethane fraction of aqueous – ethanolic extract of C. dubia showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. Three flavonol, 3 – methyl ethers, quercetin – 3, 7-dimethyl ether, quercetin – 3 – methyl ether and Kaempferol – 3 , 4’-dimethyl ether were identified from activity-guided dicholoromethane fraction. EtOAc fraction from H2O-EtOH extract, a negative antifungal active fraction, afforded two flavonol glycosides, kaempferol – 3-O-β-glucosyl – (12) – β -rhamnopyranoside and – 3-O- β -glucosyl – (12) – β -rhamnopyranoside and quercetin– 3-O- β -rhamnosyl(12) – β -glucoside(12) were identified by chromatographic, `HNMR and derivatives synthesis. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):306-310]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.28

Keywords: Cheilanthes Dubia; fern species; Polypodiaceae; Himalaya; Dichloromethane

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New trend for incorporation of cobalt and cesium radionuclides in natural and thermal activated bentonite cement blends

 

M. Abdel Geleel

 

National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation control, Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City 11762, B.O Box 7551 Cairo, Egypt

mageleel2000@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with some recommendations on how to meet the IAEA safety requirements for the solidification of radioactive waste. Safe management of radioactive waste includes treatment, solidification, storage and disposal. The incorporation of radioactive waste into Portland cement is the most widely used technique for its practical, technological and economical advantages. Bentonite had high adsorption capacity for cobalt and cesium but it decreases the compressive strength when incorporated into Portland cement. To improve the compressive strength and leaching behavior of final solid block, bentonite coated by acrylic acid and styrene before incorporation into Portland cement. The evaluation of mechanical integrity, chemical properties, radiation stability has been carried out under different experimental conditions. Bentonite additions to Portland cement in excess of approximately 15 wt. % causes significant decreases in the compressive strength of cemented waste form. Also, it is found that the best waste isolation, withought causing a loss in the mechanical strength, is obtained when the bentonite content in the cement is 10 wt% and it is reached to 25 wt.% by coated with acrylic acid and styrene. The compressive strength for Portland cement containing 10 wt. % T-bentonite was 67 MPa while T-bentonite coated by acrylic acid and styrene was 118 and 138 MPa respectively. Radiation dose to solidified cemented waste form in excess of 1.5 Mrad causes significant decreases in the mechanical stability, while at 1.5 Mrad the compressive strength increased to its maximum value. To assess the safety for disposal of radioactive waste-cement composition, the leaching of 60Co and 137Cs from a waste composite into a surrounding fluid has been studied. Leaching tests were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by the IAEA. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):311-316]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.29

Key words: Immobilization; Radioactive wastes; Portland cement; Bentonite; Mechanical properties

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[Nature and Science 2010;8(10):317-332]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

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Efficiency of Camel Milk and Honey Bee in Alleviation of Diabetes in Rats

 

Amal I. Hassan* and Bayoumi, M.M.

 

Radioisotopes Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt.

*aml_h@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Diabetes elicits an increase in the oxidative stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction. Fifty male rats were divided into two main groups, first group served as control group was considered as normal non-diabetic (n=10). Second group (n=40): rats were subcutaneously injected with alloxan (150 mg/kg. body weight) for induction of diabetes. Then the diabetic rats were divided into four equal subgroups as follows comprising of ten animals each: first was diabetic rats , and the second group was received camel milk -treated diabetic group that was treated with camel milk at a dose 40 ml/rat daily for four weeks. The third group was received camel milk as previous combined with honey bee - treated diabetic group. The fourth is honey bee dose of 10ml honey/kg/5ml of distilled water diluted for four weeks. Results show that the camel milk either alone or combined with honey bee significantly reduced the hyperglycemia from 217.690.70 nmol/l (Diabetic untreated rats) to 126.80.68 nmol/l and 115.90 0.60 respectively. While, the previous treatment significantly increased insulin hormone, insulin growth factor 1(IGF-1) and interferon gamma-γ as well as, lysozyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and nitric oxide (NO) as compared to the untreated rats. On the contrary, the level of IFN- γ in serum was increased in alloxan administered animals, which was decreased significantly in rats had camel alone or with honey bee. In conclusion, the observations from this study show that camel milk and or honey bee has hypoglycemic effect on experimental diabetic rats. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):333-341]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.31

Keywords: Camel milk; honey bee, alloxan induced diabetes; hyperglycemia

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Preparation of Fluoresceisothiocyanate Conjugated IgG (FITC) Anticamel and Antibuffalo

 

*1S. M. Abd El Hafez, 1 Abeer, M. Anwar., 2 Amena, M. Ibrahim, 1 Manal B. Mahmoud. 1And H.M. Hassan

 

1Immunobiology and Immunopharmacology Unit, Animal Reproduction Research Institute (ARRI), 2 Animal Health Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

*drsalamahafez@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Diagnosis of camel and buffalo diseases that needs the production of specific labeled immunoglobulins (Igs) using ELISA or Immunofluorescein techniques are not available. Pooled blood of camel and buffalo was collected for separation of immunoglobulin using ammonium sulphate, and then specific purification of IgGs isotypes was carried out by using protein-A agarose affinity chromatography. Reduced electrophoresis migration pattern was performed to confirm purity, then 10mg of each fraction was injected subcutaneous in male goats in three different areas weekly for 4 successive injections using complete and incomplete Freund,s adjuvant. Goats serum was collected for separation of goat anticamel and antibuffalo IgGs. Conjugation protocol was done and unbound fluorescein dye was removed from the prepared reagent by gel filtration chromatography. Application of indirect immunofluorescein technique on macrophages monolayer culture was performed. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):342-347]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.32

Key words: camelidae, buffalo, immunoglobulin, fluorescien, conjugation

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High Performance Emulsified EPDM grafted with vinyl acetate as Compatibilzer for EPDM with Polar Rubber

 

*A.I. Hussain, *M. L. Tawfic, , **A A Khalil. and ***T. E. Awad

 

*Polymers and Pigments Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

**Chemical Department, Faculty of Science, Benha Uuniversity, Benha, Egypt

***Laboratory of Rubber Technology, Heliopolice for Chemical Industries Co.

 Corresponding author: Ismaelahmed1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Grafting of emulsified ethylene propylene diene (EPDM) with vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) EPDM-g-VAM via emulsion technique was carried out to get an effective compatibilizer for blending (EPDM) with polar rubber (NBR). Different doses of EPDM-g-VAM were incorporated in NBR/EPDM blends. The optimum dose for compatibility process was investigated by the rheological characteristics by using both Mooney viscometer and melt flow indexer. The results were confirmed by scanning electron microscope SEM. The ultimate physico-mechanical properties of the vulcanizates (tensile strength, elongation at break, swelling in motor oil and thermal oxidative aging) gave evidence for the (EPDM-g-PVAc) as an effective compatibilizer. Good results have been achieved for the compatibility of these blends using 7.5phr of the (EPDM-g-PVAc). [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):348-357]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.33

Key words: Emulsified, Emulsion, NBR/EPDM blends, EPDM-g-PVAc, Compatibilizer, and Mechanical properties

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An Integrated Two-dimensional Geophysical Investigation of an Earth Dam in Zaria Area, Nigeria.

Chii E. Chii

Department of Physics, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.

chiiemma@gmail.com

Abstract: In order to investigate the subsurface seepage conditions of the Ahmadu Bello University farm dam in Zaria, we carried out a two-dimensional seismic refraction and electrical resistivity survey along a profile spanning the axis of the embankment. The ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000 supplemented with the ABEM Lund, multi-electrode, imaging system was used to obtain the electrical resistivity data and the data processed using the RES2DINV software. Also, seismic waves generated from multiple shots along the survey profile were recorded at closely spaced receivers installed along the profile using a 24 channel ABEM Terraloc Mk 6 seismograph. The seismic data were analyzed using REFLEXW version 3.0 interpretation software. Results show that the anthropogenic, lateritic clay material of the embankment has thickness ranging from 4 m to 12 m with p-wave velocity ranging from 372 m/s to 937 m/s and electrical resistivity ranging from 40 ohm-m to 85 ohm-m. The resistivity tomogram shows evidence of inhomogeneity in the near-surface embankment materials; this is an indication of differential saturation interpreted to be associated with differential compaction and or internal erosion. The seismic tomogram shows that the underlying gneissic bedrock (1878 to 3383m/s) is capped by a relatively lower seismic velocity zone in the range of 937 to 1690 m/s. This zone, with an average thickness of 4m, falls within the low resistivity range of 40 to 85 ohm-m. It is interpreted to represent a highly weathered and saturated portion of the bedrock and the suspected seepage pathway for water from the impounding reservoir. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):358-368]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.34

Key words: geophysical investigation; subsurface seepage conditions; earth dam; Nigeria

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3-Methoxy Flavones From Cheilanthes Bicolor

 

Lalita Kabdwal and D.L.Verma

 

Department of Chemistry Kumaun University, S.S.J. Campus Almora – 263601, (Uttarakhand), India

Email – lata kabdwal@yahoomail.co.in

 

ABSTRACT: Cheilanthes bicolor (Roxb), a rare fern of Kumaun hills, is a member of psinopteridacea family of leptosporangiate group of ferns. The fern fronds of cheilanthes bicolor (Voucher Species No. 12) collected from Ranikhet and Jageshwar sites of Almora Uttarakhand (India). The air dried and powdered sample (1 kg) of botanically identified species of cheilanthes bicolor (VS No-12) was extracted with aqueous methanol (1:1) by cold percolation method for 6 days. The major part of aqueous methanolic extract was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure in rota evaporator to dryness at 650c until only H2O layer (approx 50ml) remained. It was partitioned with dichloromethane (50 ml) after separation of CH2Cl2 soluble (lower layer) the Upper layer of H2O further partitioned with n-BuOH. In order to catalog all the flavoniods present in the aerial parts of cheilanthes bicolor, 2 DPC was applied by fresh aqueous methanolic extract on whatman No-1 paper using BAW (n-BuOH-AcOH-H2O-4:1:5 v/v, Upper layer) and 30% ACOH solvent system.After developing chromatogram the spots were studied in visible and UV light both with and without the presence of ammonia vapour and after spraying with NA reagent.On the basis of UV, MS and 1HNMR the two compound (1) with Rf value (83) kaempferol 3, 5 dimethyl ether and compound (B) with Rf value (81) kaempferol -3- methyl ether. [Nature and Science 2010;8(10):369-371]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj081010.35

Keywords: Cheilanthes bicolor rare species, Kumaun Himalaya

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting June 25, 2010. 
 
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