Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci
ISSN: 1545-0740
 
Volume 9 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 46), January 1, 2011
 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

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1

Application of GA3 and NAA as a Means for Improving Yield, Fruit Quality and Storability of Black Monukka Grape Cv.

 

Rizk-Alla, M.S.1, Abd El-Wahab, M.A.*1 and Fkry, O.M.2

1 Viticulture Res. Dept., Hort. Res. Instit., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

2Fruit Handling Res. Dept., Hort. Res. Instit., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: This study was carried out for two successive seasons: 2009 & 2010 in a private vineyard located at El-Khatatba, Menoufiya governorate; to study the possibility of increasing yield, improving cluster quality, reducing berry shattering and enhancing storability of Black Monukka grapes through spraying with GA3 and different doses of NAA either in the single or in the combined form. The chosen vines were ten-year-old, grown in a sandy loam soil, spaced at 2 X 3 meters apart, irrigated by the drip system, and cane-pruned and trellised by the double "Y" shape system. Eight treatments were applied as follows; spraying with tap water (control), spraying with 20 ppm GA3, spraying with 25 ppm NAA, spraying with 50 ppm NAA, spraying with 75 ppm NAA, spraying with 20 ppm GA3 + 25 ppm NAA, spraying with 20 ppm GA3 + 50 ppm NAA and spraying with 20 ppm GA3 + 75 ppm NAA. All treatments were applied after fruit set stage (at 2-3 mm berry diameter). Spraying with 20 ppm GA3 + 75 ppm NAA gave the best results in comparison with control. This treatment resulted in the best yield and its components as well as the best physical properties of cluster and improved physical and chemical characteristics of the berries. Histological studies showed the existence of a negative correlation between pedicel diameter and shattering through the increase in thickness of the cortex and xylem layers in all treatments specially that of spraying with 20 ppm GA3 + 75 ppm NAA. Concerning the effect of GA3 and/or NAA on clusters during cold storage for four weeks at 0C, RH 90-95%, it was noticed that spraying with 20 ppm GA3 + 75 ppm NAA was the best treatment on enhancing storability, since it reduced wastage resulting either from disease infection or physiological disorders and inhibited the rate of deterioration of physical and chemical properties of grapes during cold storage by reducing weight loss (%), decay (%), shattering (%), total spoilage (%) and the decrease in firmness, it also increased berry colour, TSS and TSS/acid ratio and decreased acidity compared to control. The economical study indicated that spraying clusters with 20 ppm GA3 + 75 ppm NAA resulted in the highest net income of Black Monukka grape as compared to the control.

[Rizk-Alla, M.S., Abd El-Wahab, M.A. and Fkry, O.M. Application of GA3 and NAA as a Means for Improving Yield, Fruit Quality and Storability of Black Monukka Grape Cv. Nature and Science 2011;9(1):1-19]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.01

Keywords: Application; GA3; Improving Yield; Fruit Quality; Storability; Black Monukka Grape

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Impact of sources on waste production in activities across supply chain:

A new approach

 

Mohamad Reza Parsanejad, Mansor Momeni, Ali Mohaghar

 Department of Industrial Management, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran parsanejad@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Productivity of construction industry is low especially in waste production. To demonstrate how it can be better than this situation, its waste sources should be identified. Whereas sources of waste are different for any material, construction activities across supply chain that use so many kinds of materials have some different sources of waste. In order to respond to the question, "which kind of sources effect on waste production in activities? 30 questionnaires were distributed between experts. By following question about impact of five top sources on waste in activities, using binominal test, it is observed that sources of waste for any activity are the same as waste sources of materials used in that. Indeed, a category of sources which influence on waste production of some materials are effective on waste in activities that use them.

[Mohamad Reza Parsanejad, Mansor Momeni, Ali Mohaghar. Impact of sources on waste production in activities across supply chain:A new approach. Nature and Science 2011; 9(1):20-28]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.02

 Keywords: Waste, source of waste, waste in activities, supply chain, dimensional and weight based materials

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Pasting Properties of Heat-Moisture Treated Starches of White and Yellow Yam (Dioscorae species) Cultivars

 Oladebeye Abraham Olasupo1, *, Oshodi Aladesanmi Andrew2, Oladebeye Aderonke Adenike3

1. Department of Polymer Technology, Auchi Polytechnic, P.M.B. 13, Auchi, Nigeria

2. Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Nigeria

3. Department of Food Technology, Auchi Polytechnic, P.M.B. 13, Auchi, Nigeria

folabeye@yahoo.com, oladebeye@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Starches of white and yellow yam cultivars (Dioscorae species) were extracted, physically modified by means of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and evaluated for pasting properties, such as gelatinization temperature, paste viscosity, retrogradation and stability by using Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA). The modified white yam starch samples exhibited lower values than the native starch sample in terms of viscosity and stability while an opposite trend was obtained in terms of pasting time and gelatinization. Heat-Moisture treated white yam starch at 18% moisture content exhibited the least tendency to retrograde among the starch samples. As heat-moisture treatment increased, there was a noticeable progressive decrease in the values of pasting viscosity and stability for yellow yam starch coupled with a sequential increase in terms of retrogradation, pasting time and gelatinization temperature. An inverse proportionality between the values of retrogradation and paste stability of the starch samples was observed. However, the native yellow yam starch possessed relatively higher paste stability (312 RVU) than the corresponding native white yellow yam (308 RVU). The heat-moisture treated samples seemed to be more applicable in pastries than the native starch samples.

[Oladebeye Abraham Olasupo, Oshodi Aladesanmi Andrew, Oladebeye Aderonke Adenike. Pasting Properties of Heat-Moisture Treated Starches of White and Yellow Yam (Dioscorae species) Cultivars. Nature and Science 2011;9(1):29-33]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.03

 

Key words: Starch, heat-moisture treatment, pasting properties

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Flavone-5-O-Glycosides from Cheilanthes dalhousiae (Hook)

 

 Rachana Mishra and D. L. Verma

 

Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, SSJ Campus, Almora-263601

(Uttarakhand) India. Email: 09411102476m@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Fern fronds (about 500gm) of Cheilanthes dalhousiae Hook. Vouch. Sp. No. 21 was collected from Pindari glacier routes (2200-2800m) of Almora district of Uttarakhand state. It was extracted with acetone-water (1:1, V/V) and extract was concentrated under reduced pressure until H2O layer (up to 50ml) remained. The H2O layer was partitioned with CH2Cl2, EtOAc and BuOH Successively. The CH2Cl2 fraction gave antibacterial tests against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli by the standard method of disc-diffusion using DMSO-d6 solution of CH2Cl2 residue impregnated on Whatman No. 3, paper disc (6 nm) and base plates containing 10ml MH agar. Antibacterial activity was expressed as the ratio of the inhibition zone (nm) produced by CH2Cl2 extract and the inhibition zone caused by the reference, neomycin (2μg). No antibacterial activity was observed in ethyl-acetate and n-butanol fractions. EtOAc fraction was evaporated to dryness and residue obtained was dissolved in MeOH. The MeOH soluble of EtOAc fraction was fractionated on Whatman No. 3 chromatographic papers using BAW (n- BuOH-AcOH-H2O, 4:1:5, V/V, upper layer) as an eluent. Two blue UV fluorescent flavone-5-O-glycosides: Quercetin-3-methyl ether-5-O-glycoside and Kaempferol-5-O-(6”-O-malonyl)-glycoside were isolated by RPPC from EtOAc fraction of acetone-H2O (1:1) extract of fern fronds of Cheilanthes dalhousiae. The structural elucidation of the compounds was carried out by UV, 1HNMR and MS spectral studies.

[Rachana Mishra and D. L. Verma. Flavone-5-O-Glycosides from Cheilanthes dalhousiae (Hook). Nature and Science 2011;9(1):34-38]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.04

Keywords:Kumaun Himalaya, Cheilanthes dalhousiae (Hook), Medicinal plants

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Optimization Of 2, 4 Dichlorophenol Degradable Crude Extracts Produced By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Using Box Behnken Design

 R. Manikandan*, H. Janardhana Prabhu, P. Sivashanmugam, CN Pratheeba and Pankaj Sah*

 †Department of Chemical Engineering, NITT (India), Department of Chemical Engineering, Kalasalingam University, TN (India), *Department of Applied Sciences, Higher College of Technology, Muscat (Sultanate of Oman).

drpankaj_sah2002@yahoo.com; pankaj@hct.edu.om; drpankajsah1@gmail.com; ramachandran@hct.edu.om

ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa was grown on mineral medium containing 2, 4 dichlorophenol as a sole source of carbon and energy. Process optimization was carried out by developing 17 combinations using Box Behnken design to identify the best combinations of the parameters which involved in the production biomass to obtain high yield of crude extract. The highest protein concentration in biomass from 17 combinations obtained from the experiment is 4.99 mg/ml (35 ml of medium, 6 ml of inducer and 6 ml of inoculum). The point prediction from the analysis of variance for response surface cubic model for the production of protein concentration (4.88 mg /ml) is 35 ml of medium, 4.5 ml of inducer and 4 ml of inoculum.

[R. Manikandan, H. Janardhana Prabhu, P. Sivashanmugam, CN Pratheeba and Pankaj Sah. Optimization Of 2, 4 Dichlorophenol Degradable Crude Extracts Produced By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Using Box Behnken Design. Nature and Science 2011;9(1):39-44]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.05

 

Key words: 2, 4 Dichlorophenol, Crude extract, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Optimization , ANOVA and Box Behnken design

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Eco-Toxicological Implications Of Crude Oil Pollution On Rhizophora Racemosas (G.F.W. Meyer)

 

Agbogidi, O.M.

 Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Faculty of Agriculture, Delta State University, Asaba Campus.

omagbogidi@yahoo.com, +2347038679939

 

 Abstract: An experiment was conducted in 2008 in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria to evaluate the eco-toxicological implications of crude oil pollution on Rhizophora racemosa seedlings. Five crude oil levels of crude oil (0.0, 12.0, 18.0, 24.0 and 30.0%) per 1.5kg of flood soils served as the treatments. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with four replications. The results showed that oil pollution at 18.0, 24.0 and 30.0% significantly affected (P>0.05) the seedlings of the test plant in terms of plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, collar diameter and root, growth at the 5% probability level when compared with the seedlings grown in the unpolluted soils and those exposed to 12.0% of the oil. Root growth of the seedlings was significantly reduced (P>0.05) with increasing oil levels. At 30.0% oil treatment, root hairs were totally absent. The study has established that R. racemosa seedlings tolerated all the crude oil concentrations used. No death was recorded throughout the trail period although significant reductions were noticed with increasing oil levels and this may have implications on the growth and establishment of the red mangrove. Conclusively, R .racemosa seedlings conserve as a bio-indicator of pollution and can be recommended for use in area of low levels of pollution for environmental clean-up or bioremediation.

[Agbogidi, O.M. Eco-Toxicological Implications Of Crude Oil Pollution On Rhizophora Racemosas (G.F.W. Meyer). Nature and Science 2011;9(1):45-49]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.06

Key words: Toxic implications, crude oil pollution, Rhizophora racemosa, ecosystem

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Effect Of Particulate Materials On Lactic Fermentation Of New Local White Variety Cassava (“Bianbasse”) Using Both Spontaneous And Starter Culture

 

Adetunde L. A., Onilude A. A., Adetunde I. A.

 *Adetunde L. A., University For Development Studies, Faculty Of Applied Sciences Applied Biology, Department Of Botany And Microbiology, Navrongo Campus. Ghana. Uer

 Onilude A. A., University Of Ibadan, Department Of Botany And Microbiology, Ibadan. Oyo State

 Adetunde I. A., University Of Agriculture, College Of Natural Sciences, Department Of Mathematical Sciences. Abeokuta. Ogun State

  The Author To Be Communicated: lawadetunde@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Lactic acid bacteria isolated in the fermentation of cassava for ‘fufu’ were Lactobacillus plantarium, Lactobacillus sp and Leuconostoc mesenterodes. L plantarium was identified as the most predominant lactic acid bacteria and was used as a starter culture for the fermentation of ‘fufu’ production. The mean value counts during spontaneous fermentation, the total dissolved loads in all the samples, the total reducing sugars of all samples, the microbial loads in all the samples, the contents of crude protein, crude father, ash, crude fidbe, phytic acid and Tannin were determined. The mean value counts during spontaneous fermentation process from zero hour to 72hours were found to increase 0.67 x 1012cfu/ml to 3.56 x 1012 in lactic acid bacteria than total bacteria with an increase from 0.69 x 1012 to 2.94 x 1012cfu/ml and yeasts which increased from0.07 x 1012 to 2.06 x 1012cfu/ml. There was corresponding increase in total dissolved solids of sample from 600mg/l to 2500mg/l, when varying the concentration of particulate materials for 72 hours and from 500mg/l to 1400mg/l when varying the concentration of Osmoregulators. The total reducing sugar for all the samples ranged from 5.8mg/l to 5.7mg/l at zero hour. At 24 hours, it ranged from 3.0mg/l to 5.4mg/l, at 48 hours it ranged from 3.5mg/l to 6.2mg/l and 72 hours, it ranged from 4.8mg/l to 6.4mg/l. Sample A inoculated with starter culture highest counts of Lactic acid bacteria ranged from 3.35 to 5.50 x 109cfu/ml while total bacterial counts ranged from 1.23 to 1.32 x 109cfu/ml. Other samples with supplemented materials had lactic acid bacterial counts ranged from 2.60cfu/ml to 3.92 x 109cfu/ml while bacterial counts ranged from 3.15 to 3.80 x 109cfu/ml. Control had LAB counts ranged from 2.52 to 3.04 x 109cfu/ml while total bacterial counts ranged from 2.48 to 2.80 x 109cfu/ml.

[Adetunde L. A., Onilude A. A., Adetunde I. A. Effect Of Particulate Materials On Lactic Fermentation Of New Local White Variety Cassava (“Bianbasse”) Using Both Spontaneous And Starter Culture. Nature and Science 2011;9(1):50-56]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.07

KEY WORDS: Lactobacillus planetarium, Lactobacillus sp, Leuconostoc mesenterodes, fufu, Osmoregulators, Lactic acid bacteria and fermentation.

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Floristic structure and phytodiversity along an elevational gradient in Peepalkoti-Joshimath area of Garhwal Himalaya, India

 

V P Bhatt, Vijay Kant Purohit

 V P Bhatt1, Department of Botany, Govt P G College, Gopeshwar, 246401, Chamoli, Uttarakhand, India

Vijay Kant Purohit2, High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal) Uttarakhand, India

E Mail: bhattvp3@yahoo.com , vishwapati_bhatt@rediffmai.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted in temperate Himalayan forests of Joshimath area in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand to understand the effect of altitudinal variation on structure and composition of the vegetation and to record the floristic diversity and economic utilities of the plants in the study area. Three altitudinal zones viz., upper zone (U) = 2000-2200m asl, middle zone (M) = 1800-2000m asl and lower zone (L) = 1600-1800m asl were selected for the study. In the present floristic survey the total of 74 families (72 Angiospermous and 2 Gymnospermous), 149 Genera (145 Angiospermous and 4 Gymnospermous) and 177 species (173 Angiospermous and 4 Gymnospermous) were recorded in the study area. Out of these 177 species identified in the study area 100, 47, 20 and 10 were herbs, shrubs, trees and climbers respectively. Rosaceae was the dominant family recorded with 16 species in the study area followed by the Asteraceae (15), Lamiaceae (11), Fabaceae (11) and Caryophyllaceae (5). In Ethnobotanical survey very useful information was recorded about the economic utility of the plants species present in the study area. Uses recorded were medicinal, fuel, fodder, edible and timber. Tree Species richness (SR) decreased from lower altitude to higher altitude. Species diversity (richness) and dominance (Simpson index) were found to be inversely related to each other. Tree density decreased from lower altitude to upper altitude, whereas TBC showed reverse trend.

[V P Bhatt, Vijay Kant Purohit, Floristic structure and phytodiversity along an elevational gradient in Peepalkoti-Joshimath area of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Nature and Science 2011;9(1):57-67]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.08

Keywords: Phytosociology, floristic composition, diversity indices, economic utility of plants, altitude

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9

Community Participation for Educational Planning and Development

 

 Abrisham Aref

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

abrishamaref@yahoo.com

Abstract: This research set out to explore the roles communities in the development of education. The concept of community participation has been important around the world. In developed countries communities have important role in the processes of educational planning and development. But in third world countries there are some important barriers in face of community participation in education activities. This paper looks at the barriers of community participation in educational activities as well as role of community participation in educational planning. This research draws from my scientific experience in a variety of disciplines namely; anthropology and education. [Nature and Science. 2011; 9(1): 68-71]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.09

Keywords: participation, development, education

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Growth And Photosynthetic Pigments Of Fodder Beet Plants As Affected By Water Regime And Boron Foliar Fertilization

 

Hussein1, M.M.; Shaaban2, M.M., El-Saady2, A.M. and El-Sayed2, A.A.

 1Water Relations & Irrigation Dept.; 2 Fertilization Technology Dept.

National Research Centre, Dokki-Cairo, Egypt

 

ABSTRACT: Pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre, Dokki- Cairo, Egypt during the winter season of 2006/2007 to evaluate the effect of available water depletion before irrigation (AWDBI) and boron foliar spray on growth and photosynthetic pigments of fodder beet plants c.v. Red Forshenger. The experiment contained 3 levels of AWDBI in combination with 2 boric acid treatments in addition to the control treatment i.e. 9 treatments in 6 replicates arranged in split plot design. Negative relationship was found between leaf area, and fresh and dry weights of fodder beet plants and AWDBI. The whole fresh weight/plant showed the same response while the dry weight of whole plant with the two drought treatments showed approximately the same values. Top, root and whole plant fresh or dry-weight gave their higher values when plants received 75 ppm boric acid which exceeded than those received 150 ppm boric acid or sprayed by fresh water. However, leaf area and shoot/root ratio increased as the boric acid concentration increased up to 150 ppm. Plant height and number of leaves/plant did not significantly affect by boron spraying. Top/root ratio increased with boron application under different AWDBI. The highest percentages of Chl a, Chl b, carotenoids and total chlorophyll were obtained by spraying 75 ppm boric acid compared to spraying with 150 ppm or control plants. This was true for Chl a / Chl b and total chlorophyll / carotenoids ratio. Positive relations were found among the concentration of N, K, Ca and Zn and drought treatments. Phosphorus, Mg and Na concentrations did not affect. Either Fe or Cu concentration decreased by both drought treatments, however, the concentration of Mn decreased with the 50 days period AWDBI and tended to increase to be more than the control treatment. Increasing the period of available water depletion before irrigation induced positive effect on N and Ca uptake, while, K, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn and Cu uptake showed opposite trend. In the same time the dose 75 ppm boric acid increased both concentration and uptake of macro and micro-nutrients by the plant tops; however the higher dose (150 ppm) led to a reverse effect.

[Hussein, M.M.; Shaaban, M.M., El-Saady, A.M. and El-Sayed, A.A. Growth And Photosynthetic Pigments Of Fodder Beet Plants As Affected By Water Regime And Boron Foliar Fertilization. Nature and Science. 2011;9(1):72-79]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.10

Keywords: Fodder beet, Available water depletion, Boron, Growth, Pigments, Mineral status

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Evaluation Of Garhwal Springs Water For Drinking Purpose By Using Water Quality Index

 

Avnish Chauhan*, Suman Chauhan#, Amit Pal Singh, Neha Chamoli and Krishna Kumar Pande

 *Dept. of Applied Sciences, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, UP-India, 244001

#Research Officer, Paramhans Sanstha (N.G.O.), Dehardun, Uttarkhand, India

Dept. of Biotechnology, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India

Director, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad-UP, India.

avnishchauhan_phd@aol.in, sumansingh_in@aol.in, pandekk@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A very few studies have been carried out on natural springs of Garhwal Himalayas which is the main source of potable water in Garhwal Himalayas. This paper based on water quality status of these springs, for this purpose parameters like alkalinity, acidity, DO, BOD, free CO2, nitrate, chlorides, hardness, pH and coliform number were studied. The study elucidates that the water quality of selected natural water springs is suitable for drinking purpose.

[Avnish Chauhan, Suman Chauhan, Amit Pal Singh, Neha Chamoli and Krishna Kumar Pande. Evaluation Of Garhwal Springs Water For Drinking Purpose By Using Water Quality Index. Nature and Science. 2011;9(1):80-84]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.11

Keywords: - Spring water, DO, BOD, Alkalinity, Hardness, coliform, Garhwal

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Physiological Studies on the Effect of Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (AM) Fungi on Superior Grape Rootings under Salt Stress Conditions

 

Abd El-Wahab, M.A.*1; El-Helw, H. A.1 and Tolba, H. I.2

 1Viticulture Res. Dept., Hort. Res. Instit., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

2Microbiology Res. Dept., SWE Res. Instit., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to disclose the effect of soil inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under different water salinity levels (1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm) in an attempt to improve vegetative growth parameters, nutritional acquisition and microbial and enzyme activity in the rhizosphere of Superior grape rootings through two successive seasons (2008 & 2009).The results indicated that increasing levels of water salinity, particularly in case of high salinity concentration (3000 ppm) decreased survival percentage and vegetative growth parameters (i.e. shoot length (cm), shoot diameter (cm), number of leaves/plant, average leaf area (cm2), total leaf area/plant (cm2), coefficient of wood ripening, shoot and root biomass, total biomass and root/shoot ratio). Leaf total chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur content and shoot total carbohydrate content decreased with increasing salinity concentration. On the contrary, leaf proline amino acid, sodium, and chloride content increased with increasing levels of salinity. Concerning the microbial and enzyme activity in the rhizosphere of Superior grape rootings, it was noticed that populations of total microbial count, spore numbers of AM fungi, the percentage of infection of AM fungi, dehydrogenase enzyme activity in the rhizosphere were also decreased with increasing levels of water salinity. Superior grape rootings strategy for salt stress tolerance could be achieved by AM fungi colonization. AM fungi inoculation benefits the plants by avoiding the undesirable effects of saline water and improving of survival percentage, vegetative growth parameters, nutrient acquisition and microbial and enzyme activity in the rhizosphere of Superior grape rootings under low to medium level salt concentrations (1000-2000 ppm). However, AM fungi inoculation didn’t protect the plants at the highest salt concentration (3000 ppm) used in this experiment.

[Abd El-Wahab, M.A.; El-Helw, H. A. and Tolba, H. I. Physiological Studies on the Effect of Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (AM) Fungi on Superior Grape Rootings under Salt Stress Conditions. Nature and Science. 2011;9(1):85-100]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.12

Keywords: Inoculation, Arbuscular Mycorrhizae, Superior Grape

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Cytologenetical Study of some Wild Plants from Taif, Saudi Arabia

 

Soliman, M.S.A.*, El-Tarras. A. and El-Awady, M. A.

 Biotech. & Genet. Eng. Res. Unit, Taif University, Taif, KSA

Permanent Address: *Botany & Microbiology Dept., Fac. of Science, Helwan Univ., Helwan, Egypt (*Corresponding author); Genetics Dept., Fac. of Agriculture, Cairo Univ., Egypt. prof.msoliman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Saudi Arabia is the largest country of the Arabian Peninsula which has a diverse higher plant flora in its varied landscapes with more than 2243 plant species which has a valuable economic importance due to its usage as pharmaceuticals, nutritional, fire wood suppliers as well as its use in popular remedy. Due to the scant of wild plant species studies of Arabian in literatures, the present study aim to report the chromosome numbers of 8 taxa belonging to 4 families of angiosperms collected from Taif province, Saudi Arabia flora. These taxa are: Solanum villosum Mill., Datura stramonium L., Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. Ex Shult, Calotropus procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, Acacia tortilis subspecies tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne, Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf, and Acacia gerrardii Benth.

[Soliman, M.S.A., El-Tarras. A. and El-Awady, M. A. Cytologenetical Study of some Wild Plants from Taif, Saudi Arabia. Nature and Science. 2011;9(1):101-104]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.13

Key words: Chromosome number, Solanum, Datura, Aerva, Calotropus, Acacia.

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Using ISO 5130and ISO 362 for determination of both stationary and pass–by vehicles noise and discuss the difference between them.

 

Abd-elfattah A. Mahmoud

 National Institute for Standard, Acoustics Dep, Geiza, Egypt

yy_abd_elfattah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The traffic noise is considered as one of the most important public annoyances. Using ISO 362 measurements of vehicles pass- by noise are needed to predict any change in traffic sound levels. Also, ISO 5130 is used for determination the noise emitted by stationary road vehicles. The difference between the two cases, namely, stationary and pass-by, depends on different parameters (tires-road surface – etc). From the measurements carried out on vehicles, using the two mentioned methods, the parameters values could be evaluated.

[Abd-elfattah A. Mahmoud. Using ISO 5130and ISO 362 for determination of both stationary and pass–by vehicles noise and discuss the difference between them. Nature and Science. 2011;9(1):105-110]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

doi:10.7537/marsnsj090111.14

 Keywords: Using ISO 5130and ISO 362 for determination of both stationary and pass–by vehicles noise and discuss the difference between them

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting December 12, 2010
 
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