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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
 (Nat Sci)
ISSN: 1545-0740
 Volume 10 - Number 03 (Cumulated No. 60), March 25, 2012, doi prefix: 10.7537; Monthly 
Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1003
 
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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Investigation of Heavy Metals Binding to Jatropha Curcas Husk

 

Adelaja O. A*, Okoronkwo A.E., Abass L.T

 

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704 Akure, Nigeria.

seunmt@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Seed coat of Jatropha curcas was investigated for the removal of some selected metals from aqueous solutions. The selected metal ions are Cu, Ni and Cr. In this work, impact of pH of solution and sorption time on sorption capacity was investigated. At a pH of 5.0, 6.0 and 5.0 relatively to sorption time of 120mins, 60mins and 120mins respectively, 88.88%, 99.78% and 97.81% of Ni, Cu, and Cr were removed accordingly. Adsorption data analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models shows that Cu and Cr however followed Langmuir isotherms and not Freundlich while Ni adsorption conforms to both Langmuir and Freundlich models. This study shows that prepared biomass of Jatropha curcas husk can be used as an adsorbent for removal of Cu, Ni and Cr from wastewater or any industrial effluent.

[Adelaja O. A, Okoronkwo A.E., Abass L.T. Investigation of Heavy Metals Binding to Jatropha Curcas Husk

Nature and Science 2012;10(3):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.01

 

Keywords: Adsorption, Jatropha Curcas, pH –profile, time dependency.

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2

Reflection Seismic studies on the Razzak oil field, Western Desert, Egypt

 

Fathy Shaaban1&3, Fouad Shaaban2 and Sameh Ibrahim 2

 

1. National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Egypt

2. Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

3. Department of physics, faculty of science King Khaled University, K.S.A

Shaaban_F@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Twenty Reflection seismic sections have been used to shed light on the subsurface structural setting and the hydrocarbons entrapment styles in the Razzak field of the Egyptian Western Desert. This is achieved through integrated geological and geophysical studies utilizing a number of maps and cross sections. The interpretation has been traced four reflectors, the Massajid Formation, Alamein Dolomite Member, Abu Roash "G" Member, and the Apollonia Formation.The NW-SE and NE-SW trending seismic sections revealed a number of Late Cretaceous wrench and shear faults forming horsts allover the mapped field. These faults led to a very thin Lower Cretaceous section occupies the horst block area compared to very thick section on the downthrown side of the two main faults. For some instances dry hole conditions occur due to missing of an adequate structural closure on the horst block area.The TWT maps on the top of the traced reflectors reveal different structural closures with lateral strike-slip fault displacement. These maps revealed that the field almost tectonically ceased since the Late Cretaceous time with minor NE faulting accompanied with tilting tectonisms.

[Fathy Shaaban, Fouad Shaaban and Sameh Ibrahim. Reflection Seismic studies on the Razzak oil field, Western Desert, Egypt. Nature and Science 2012;10(3):7-15 ]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.02

 

Keyword: Reflection Seismic studies; Razzak oil field; Western Desert; Egypt.

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3

Antioxidant and Immunostimulant Effect of Carica Papaya Aqueous Extract in Acrylamide Intoxicated Rats

 

Kadry Mohamed Sadek

 

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Albostan, Damanhur University, Egypt.

ksaadek@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Sixty male wistar albino rats (195 – 230 g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat's stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract.

[Kadry Mohamed Sadek.. Antioxidant and Immunostimulant Effect of Carica Papaya Aqueous Extract in Acrylamide Intoxicated Rats. Nature and Science 2012;10(3):16-22]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.03

 

Keyword: Antioxidant; Immunostimulant; Carica; Papaya; Aqueous; Extract; Acrylamide; Intoxicated.

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4

Microorganisms Associated With Spoilage Of Stored Vegetables In Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

 

Adebayo-Tayo BC1, Odu NN2, Esen CU1, Okonko IO2

 

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria;

3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Microorganisms associated with spoilage of stored vegetables were studied using standard microbiological methods. The analysis was done on carrots, cucumber, cabbage and onions with soft rot symptoms using various media. It showed that Escherichia coli (28.6%) were the most predominant bacterial isolates associated with vegetable spoilage in Uyo metropolis. This was followed by Enterobacter spp. (21.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.3%), Erwinia spp. (14.3%) and Pseudomonas spp. (14.3%) while Salmonella spp. (7.1%) was least predominant. The results obtained from the microorganism s associated with the spoilage of stored vegetables showed that the total aerobic counts for cucumber ranged from 1.28 x 106 to 3.20 x 106 cfu/g and the total coliform count ranged from 2.35 x 106 to 3.28 x 106 cfu/g. The total aerobic count for carrots ranged from 2.07 x 106 to 2.20 x 106 cfu/g while the total coliform count ranged from 2.80 x 106 to 3.00 x 106 cfu/g. The total aerobic count for cabbage ranged from 1.43 x 106 to 2.10 x 106 cfu/g while the total coliform count ranged from 3.10 x 106 to 4.20 x 106cfu/g. Generally, the total Salmonella-Shigella counts ranged from 0.0 x 106 to 1.80 x 106 cfu/g. Only cabbage had the highest count for total Salmonella-Shigella. The aerobic count for onions ranged from 1.8 x 106 to 2.0 x 106 cfu/g and the total coliform count ranged from 2.00 x 106 to 3.10 x 106 cfu/g. Fungi isolated from these vegetables were Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus fumigatus with fungal count ranging from 1.80 x 106 to 3.0 x 106 cfu/g. The frequency of occurrences showed that bacterial isolates were most predominant (63.6%) compared to the fungi isolates (36.4%). No protozoa or viruses were found to be associated with vegetable spoilage in Uyo metropolis. The frequency of occurrences of bacteria isolates showed that Escherichia coli (28.6%) were most. This was followed by Enterobacter spp. (21.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.3%), Erwinia spp. (14.3%) and Pseudomonas spp. (14.3%). Salmonella spp. (7.1%) was least predominant. It also showed that of the three fungi species isolated from vegetables, Rhizopus stolonifer (37.5%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (37.5%) were most predominant while Aspergillus niger (25.0%) was least predominant. Pathogencity tests revealed that all the isolates were pathogenic to the different vegetables examined leading to rapid disintegration of treated fruits in 3-5 days. It showed that each infected vegetable gave the initial organism that caused the spoilage of the fruit. The rot symptoms obtained were similar to those observed previously on the fruits when subjected to identification procedures. The presence of indicator and other organisms examined in this study is of special concern and perhaps the greatest danger associated with food for human consumption is contamination by human excrement. The need for microbial assessment of vegetables for production of salads and other use is also emphasized to reduce possible contamination.

[Adebayo-Tayo BC, Odu NN, Esen CU, Okonko IO Microorganisms Associated With Spoilage Of Stored Vegetables In Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Nature and Science 2012;10(3):23-32]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.04

 

Keywords: Food spoilage, index of food quality, pathogens, Vegetables

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5

Study of the “Unculi” of Pseudocheneis sulcatus (McClelland) (Sisoridae) fish of Kumaun Himalaya.

 

S.C.Joshi 1, Ila Bisht 2 and S.K. Agarwal 2

 

1 Department of Zoology, Surjmal Agarwal Private Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Kumaun University, Nainital, India.

2Department of Zoology, S.S.J. Campus, Almora Kumaun University, Nainital – 263 601, India.

Joshi.drsuresh301@gmail.com sureshjoshi2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Different type of unculi in the general body epidermis, snout epidermis, lip epidermis, adhesive apparatus epidermis and paired fin epidermis of Pseudocheneis sulcatus (McClelland) (Sisoridae) have been characterized by using scanning electron microscopy techniques in an attempt to understand their functional significance in relation to friction. The epidermis is differentiated into rough and smooth P. sulcatus. The rough epidermis consists of the epithelial cells. The smooth epidermis in addition to these cells type also possesses mucous cells. The surface of rough epidermis and smooth epidermis of P. sulcatus are keratinized in nature, in the rough epidermis, the epithelial cell surfaces are modifying into epidermal growth the unculi. The present investigation shows that, P. sulcatus GBE, snout and lips are non-papilliated with uncular surface and the adhesive apparatus and fin epidermis are papilliated.

[S.C.Joshi, Ila Bisht and S.K. Agarwal. Study of the “Unculi” of Pseudocheneis sulcatus (McClelland) (Sisoridae) fish of Kumaun Himalaya. Nature and Science 2012;10(3):33-38]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.05

 

Key word: Epidermal unculi, Kumaun Himalaya, Hill-stream fish, P. sulcatus and SEM.

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6

Changes in metabolites of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) during progressive infection of Alternaria brassicae

 

PANKAJ SINGH PARIHAR*

 

Department of Biochemistry*, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology. Pantnagar- 263145. India. ppjalajpari@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Metabolites changes were studied in Brassica juncea genotypes infected with Alternaria brassicae causing black spot disease. The percentage disease severity was maximum in Varuna and EC-399302 as compared to EC-399313 and PHR-2 during progressive infection. The total phenols, o-dihydroxy phenols, flavanols, total soluble proteins contents were recorded at 65 DAS, 25 DPI and 50 SPI of seven genotypes of Indian mustard during Alternaria blight infection. The total phenols, o-dihydroxy phenols were accumulated maximally in EC-399296 and EC-399299 as compared to other genotypes. The phenolic contents tend to increase whereas flavanols contents decreased with increase in infection and plant age. Among all, EC-399296 and EC-399313 showed maximum increase in total soluble protein contents in all stages of Alternaria blight infection. These findings revealed that post infectional response of the metabolites under consideration in the susceptible genotype seems to be associated with its susceptible response and symptom expression.

[PANKAJ SINGH PARIHAR. Changes in metabolites of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) during progressive infection of Alternaria brassicae. Nature and Science 2012;10(3):39-42]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.06

 

Key words: Brassica juncea, Alternaria blight, metabolites.

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7

Application of Geographic Information Systems to produce descriptive maps for Poultry Farms in Egypt

 

Hassanein M. K., M. A. A. Abdrabbo, A. A. Farag, S.M. Abolmaaty and A. A. Khalil

 

Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are ideal tool to use for making informed decision makers related to the expansion of poultry enterprises. The goal of this study is to develop and evaluate spatial analysis tools as a Decision Support System (DSS) implemented in a GIS environment for making informed decisions maker the expansion of poultry enterprises in Sharqia governorate, and all over Egypt. Sharqia governorate has thirteen geographic districts counties, all of them were involved, in this study survey aimed all poultry farms. Licensed and unlicensed farms, infected and non-infected farms by bird flu disease and evaluations Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools in planning the potential expansion of poultry farms was applied. The result indicates that Al Husaineya county has the highest total number of poultry farms 960 and Al Ebrahemeyah county has the lowest total number of poultry farms 73. For licensed farms, Zaqaziq county has the highest total number of licensed farms 520 and Awlad Saqr county has the lowest total number of licensed farms 19 and for unlicensed farms, Al Husaineya county has the highest total number of unlicensed farms 860 and Al Ebrahemeyah county has the lowest total number of unlicensed farms 25. For infected farms by bird flu disease, Zaqaziq county has the highest total number of infected farms with bird flu disease181 and Al Ebrahemeyah county has only one infected farm with bird flu disease. The present paper is a step towards finding a common methodology to identify the vulnerable area of infectious disease using GIS,

[Hassanein M. K., M. A. A. Abdrabbo, A. A. Farag, S.M. Abolmaaty and A. A. Khalil. Application of Geographic Information Systems to produce descriptive maps for Poultry Farms in Egypt) Nature and Science 2012;10(3):43-48]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencpub.net. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.07

 

Key words: Poultry farms, GPS, Maps, Infected and non-infected, infected, Licensed and unlicensed and Bird flu.

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8

Effect of Price Policies on the Most Important Egyptian Cereal Crops

 

Eman Abd-Elghafour Ahmed1; Gamal Mohamed 1; Hussein Ahmed Ghoneim 2 and Samir Anwar Metwally 2
 

1Department of Economics, National Research Center

2Agricultural Economics Research Institute (ARC)

eman_6611@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Wheat and rice are considered to be the most important cereal crops in Egypt. The world prices for cereal extremely increased in the last few years. The main research problem and the objective was to determine the effect of price policies on wheat and rice, with respect to protection domestic prices in order to guarantee continuity of production that achieve the comparative advantage. Data were collected from different sources during the period (2005-2009). To display the effect of prices policies on wheat and rice, the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) was estimated. The results indicated that, there was a protection in wheat prices in 2005 and 2006 with respect to producer, while there was a policy of imposing taxes on wheat producers during (2007-2009). On the other hand, the results indicated that, there was a protection in rice prices in 2005 and 2007 with respect to producer, while there was a policy of imposing taxes on rice producers during in 2006, 2008, 2009. Both of wheat and rice are characterized with comparative advantage in their domestic production. The results of (PEM) for wheat showed that, the net economic loss as a result of importing wheat reached maximum in 2009, by 93.04 million bounds, while reached minimum in 2006 by 4.89 million pounds. Also, the results of (PEM) for rice showed that, the net economic loss as a result of exporting rice reached maximum in 2009, by 1.395 billion bounds, while it reached minimum in 2006 by 0.12 million pounds. It can be said that, the irrational behavior in resources due to input subsidies, led to non optimal allocation in the consumption expenditure. It could be recommended from this study, the need to increase the value added of wheat and rice, to achieve the comparative advantage from through high yield, and effective agricultural stabilization funds to insure stability of domestic farm gate prices, and minimize the fluctuations in prices of wheat and rice.

[Eman Abd-Elghafour Ahmed; Gamal Mohamed ; Hussein Ahmed Ghoneim and Samir Anwar Metwally Effect of Price Policies on the Most Important Egyptian Cereal Crops. Nature and Science 2012; 10(3): 49-54]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.08

 

Key Words: Policy Analysis Matrix

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9

 Quantum Chemical Calculations on Some Thiocarbamides as Corrosion Inhibitors for Brass in Acidic Media 

 

 Musa E. Mohamed 1,*, Kamal K. Taha 2 

 

1, 2 Department of Chemistry, College of Applied and Industrial Sciences, University Of Bahri, Khartoum State, Khartoum, Sudan

 *e-mail address: musaahimer5@hotmail.com

*Telephone number: 00249923023519 fax: 0011222142-249

 

Abstract: Quantum chemical calculations have been employed for the inhibition efficiency of some thiocarbamides namely thiocarbamides (TC), ethylenethiocarbamide (ETC) and thiobenzamide (TBA) for brass in HClO4 by means of density functional theory (DFT) methods B3LYP/6-31G*, RHF/6-31G* and semi-empirical method (AM1) in gas phase, The calculated quantum chemical parameters correlated to the inhibition efficiency are, EHOMO, ELUMO, energy of the gap (DE), charge on the reactive center , dipole moments and global hardness. The order of inhibition efficiencies as follows: TBA> ETC> TC as can be obtained from experimental data.

[Musa E. Mohamed; Kamal K. Taha. Quantum Chemical Calculations on Some Thiocarbamides as Corrosion Inhibitors for Brass in Acidic Media. Nature and Science 2012; 10(3): 55-60]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.09

 

Keywords: Thiocarbamides; Corrosion Inhibitors; Density Functional Theory Methods; Quantum Chemical Calculations.

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10

Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Organisms isolated from Sea-foods in Uyo, South-Southern Nigeria

 

1Adebayo-Tayo AC, 2Odu NN, 3Michael MU, 2Okonko IO

 

1Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +2348035380891

 

Abstract: This study reports on the incidence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms isolated from sea foods in Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, South-Southern Region of Nigeria. Studies were carried out microbiologically to isolate and identify MDR-organisms associated with different sea foods using standard methods. The microorganisms were subjected to disc diffusion techniques to test for their sensitivity to eleven different antibiotics. The microorganisms isolated from these sea foods were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella spp. It showed that Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant organisms isolated from seafood samples with a prevalence value of 23.3%. This was followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella spp. (16.7%), Aeromonas hydrophila (13.3%), Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica (10.0%). The microbial load ranging from 1.9 x 106 to 3.6 x 106 Cfu/g for bacteria count and 2.0 x 106 to 5.7 x 106 Cfu/g for coliform count. Most of the isolates were highly susceptible to augmentin and ofloxicin (100.0%) and resistant to chloramphenicol and gentamicin (66.7%). Amoxicillin was found to be resisted by both gram positive bacteria (GPB) and gram negative bacteria (GNB). This study has shown that sea foods samples were grossly contaminated by multi-drug resistant organisms and thus constitute potential hazard to the public. Augmentin and Ofloxicin were drugs of choice for the treatment of any diseases caused by the organisms however; antibiotics sensitivity testing should always be carried out to determine the most effective antibiotics when infection by these isolates occurs. The occurrence of these MDR organisms could lead to epidemic if these sea foods are consumed. There is therefore a need for proper and adequate cooking of sea foods prior consumption.

[Adebayo-Tayo AC; Odu NN; Michael MU;Okonko IO. Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Organisms isolated from Sea-foods in Uyo, South-Southern Nigeria. Nature and Science 2012; 10(3): 61-70]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.10

 

Keywords: Coliform count, Bacteria count, Augmentin, Ofloxicin, antibiotics susceptibility, Sea foods

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11

Microbial Quality Of Frozen Fish Sold In Uyo Metropolis

 

Adebayo-Tayo BC1, Odu NN2, Anyamele LM3, Igwiloh NJPN2, Okonko IO2

 

1Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

3Department of Microbiology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

 

ABSTRACT: Microbial quality of frozen fishes: Shinna (Auxis thazard), Bonga (Ethmalosa fimbriata) and Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) obtained from three different markets were carried out using standard methods. The total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 3.0 x10 5 to 5.0 x 10 5 cfu/g, 3.0x 10 5 to 4.8 x105 cfu/g and 3.0 x105 to 6.3 x105 cfu/g for Shinna, Bonga and Mackerel. The Total coliform count ranged from 2.0x10 5 to 4.0x 10 5 cfu/g, 2.8x10 5 to 3.9x105 cfu/g and 2.0 x10 5 to 6.0x105 cfu/g for the three fishes respectively. The Samonella count ranged from 2.0 x 105 to 1.5 x10 5 cfu/g for Shinna and Bonga only. The total Vibrio count ranged from 1.0 x 105 to 1.5 x 10 5 cfu/g for Shinna and Bonga only. Total fungi count ranged from 1.3 x 10 5 to 3.0x 10 5 cfu/g, 2.0 x 10 5 to 4.0 x 10 5 cfu/g and 1.0 x 105 to 2.4 x 10 5 cfu/g for the three fishes respectively. The Bacteria isolated from frozen fish samples were Staphylococcus aureus, Esherichia coli, Vibrio sp, Salmonella sp, and Pseudomonas sp Micrococcus sp while fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp, Rhizophus stolonifer and Monilia sp. The bacterial isolates that occurred most frequently in the three different types of frozen fish samples includes Staphylococcus aureus (20.0%), Escherichia coli (20.0%), and Pseudomonas sp (20.0%). Others were Micrococcus sp (15.0%) and Vibrio sp (10.0%). Among the fungal isolates, Aspergillus niger was the most predominant (35.0%), followed by Penicillium sp. (30.0%), Rhizopus stolonifer (20.0%) and Monilia sp (15.0%) occurred least. The study showed that the frozen fish samples were heavily contaminated which may be as a result of poor sanitary practices employed by the vendors. This is of public health concern as these organisms are known causes of food-borne diseases.

[Adebayo-Tayo BC; Odu NN;Anyamele LM; Igwiloh NJPN;Okonko IO. Microbial Quality Of Frozen Fish Sold In Uyo Metropolis. Nature and Science 2012; 10(3): 71-77]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.11

 

Keywords: Microbial quality, frozen fishes, total heterotrophic bacterial count, Vibrio count, Samonella count, Total fungi count

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Effect of Glabridin on the Structure of Ileum and Pancreas in Diabetic Rats: A histological, Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study

 

Maha M. Abo Gazia1 and Nermeen M. Hasan2

 

1Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Fayoum University

2Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

mahaabogazia@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The ileum and pancreas exhibit numerous morphological and functional changes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Glabridin, a major flavonoid of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice), possesses multiple pharmacological activities. This study was carried out to clarify the role of glabridin on immunohistochemical and ultrastructural changes and associated oxidative stress in ileum and pancreas of diabetic rats. For this purpose, 30 adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups (10 animals each); control group, diabetic group and the third group was concomitantly subjected to both induction of diabetes and glabridin treatment. After 28 days all animals were sacrificed and specimens from ileum and pancreatic cells were processed for light and electron microscopic examinations, morphometric analysis with immunohisto-chemical staining of pancreatic beta-cells by anti-insulin antibody. H and E stained ileal sections in diabetic rats exhibited, pleomorphism of villi, with erosion of their apical columnar epithelial cells and cellular infiltrations. Homogeneous material with increased crypt depth, goblet cell numbers and thickness of muscularis layer were also observed, using Scanning electron microscope, ileal villi appeared wider with marked convolutions and minimal loss of microvilli. Pancreatic β-cells ultrathin sections in the diabetic group showed shrinkage nuclei, depletion of β-cells granules, vacuolation and dissolution of mitochondria. Insulin immunoreactivity was apparently reduced by about 50% from total β-cell bulk in diabetic group. Glabridin treatment significantly reduced the observed histological alterations and morphometric changes in the ileum and pancreatic islet cells in diabetic rats. Biochemically, there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase with decline in glutathione peroxidase, increased levels of blood glucose, glycohaemoglabin, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) in group II. These parameters returned to normal respective values after glabridin treatment. Conclusion: Glabridin administration ameliorates diabetes-induced ileal mucosa and pancreatic β-cells morphological and biochemical changes with their associated oxidative stress.

[Maha M. Abo Gazia and Nermeen M. Hasan Effect of Glabridin on the Structure of Ileum and Pancreas in Diabetic Rats: A histological, Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study. Nature and Science 2012; 10(3):78-90]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.12

 

Key Words: Glabridin, Ileum, Pancreas, Diabetic rats, anti-insulin antibody.

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13

A Radio Resource Allocation Algorithm in Future Wireless Communication Systems

 

Zirarushya Pierre Celestin1, Mupenzi Jean de la Paix1,2, Ngamije Jean1, Habiyaremye Gabriel1

 

1. Independent Institute of Lay Adventists of Kigali ( INILAK), P O Box 6392 Kigali-Rwanda

2. State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Science, 818 Beijing Road south, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830011, China.

(z_pc_@yahoo.com/ jeandelapaixmup@yahoo.fr/jeanngamije@yahoo.com, gabrielhaby@yahoo.fr)

 

Abstract: This research project investigated the Radio Resource Allocation Algorithm in Future Wireless Communication Systems. The traditional resources that have been used to add capacity to wireless systems are radio bandwidth and transmitter power (1G). These two resources are simply not growing or improving at rates that can support anticipated demands for wireless capacity. From an engineering point of view, the best possible solutions to effectively deal with challenges of providing higher QoS (BER & Bit Rate) through supporting increased mobility and throughput of multimedia services and keeping in mind the scarcity of spectrum resources can only be achieved when, on top of efficient modulation and multiple access mode, elements of the radio network are properly configured and suitable radio resource management approaches/algorithms applied. The purpose of resource allocation at the base station is to intelligently allocate the limited resources; it has been proved that the system spectral efficiency can be significantly enhanced by adjusting the allocation of s/carrier, power and constellation sizes (modulation) in accordance with the user’s channel conditions and traffic requirements. The current paper is concerned with adaptive subcarrier allocation to users with their rate requirements put into consideration. Given that the complexity reduction is of big concern for practical implementation and that a fixed power allocation leads to a negligible throughput penalty if only the power is poured on sub channels with good channel gains, only subcarriers are adaptively allocated to users placed randomly in a cell and the constellation size is according to user’s channel condition and traffic

[Zirarushya Pierre Celestin, Mupenzi Jean de la Paix, Ngamije Jean, Habiyaremye Gabriel. A Radio Resource Allocation Algorithm in Future Wireless Communication Systems. Nature and Science 2012;10(3):91-98]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.13

 

Keywords: Radio resource, wireless communication, Spectrum efficiency

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from 2/8/2012

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doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.01

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doi:10.7537/marsnsj100312.13

 

 

 

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