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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN: 1545-0740; Monthly 
Volume 12 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 87), June 25, 2014
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1204

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Abstracts / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Trace Metal Contaminants in Tissues of the Orinoco Sailfin Catfish Pterygoplichthy smultiradiatus, (Hancock, 1828); Sri Lanka

 

B.K.K.K. Jinadasa*, D.S. Ariyarathne and S.B.N. Ahmad

 

Institute of Post-Harvest Technology, National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, Crow Island, Colombo-15, Sri Lanka.

e-mail: jinadasa76@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify the presence of trace metals in Orinoco Sailfin Catfish Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus from the freshwater reservoir of the Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. A total of 48 fish samples was analysed for cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) during the period of Aug.-Nov. 2013. The mean values of all trace metals in muscles of P. multiradiatus were within the international safety limits and pooled mean concentration of trace elements were in following order; Fe>Zn>Cu>Hg>Pb>Cd>As.

[B.K.K.K. Jinadasa, D.S. Ariyarathne and S.B.N. Ahmad. Trace Metal Contaminants in Tissues of the Orinoco Sailfin Catfish Pterygoplichthy smultiradiatus, (Hancock, 1828); Sri Lanka. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.01 

 

Key Words: Orinoco sailfin catfish, trace metals, freshwater fish, Sri Lanka, AAS

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2

Improve the drainage water using In-stream Wetland (Case study)- Egypt

 

Salwa M. AbouElElla

 

Associated professor, Channel Maintenance Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Delta Barrage, P.O. Box 13621, Egypt. salwaabouelella@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agriculture waste water in open drains makes their waters suitable for reuse in irrigation in many cases. However, it is uneconomic to construct waste water treatment plants at villages because of the low discharges that are insufficient for economic operation of the treatment plants. This raises the need to use the In- Stream Wetland (IW) waste water treatment system technology that treats the waste water in the open drain itself.IW treatment system technology uses the natural processes such as plant absorption of pollutants which results significant improvement in the downstream water quality. The objective of this work is to investigate the potentiality of the In-Stream wetland treatment system as the most appropriate natural treatment systems that can be used on existing drains inEgypt.The potential of application of the proposed methodology is applied on Emtdad El Umum drain. To achieve the objectives of the research, the field work divided into two phases, the first phase was to evaluate water quality conditions for Emtdad El Umum drain monthly during the period from March 2011 to February 2012. The second phase was to study the effect of water hyacinth on the agricultural drainage water seasons. The water hyacinth is stocked with natural water hyacinth, across its width for about 1 kilometer along the drain. Temporal analysis of physical and chemical parameters for the inlet and the outlet along the entire system is provided. From the result, water samples of outlet water showed lower in most parameters than inlet in spring and summer seasons because the growth rate of water hyacinth and its capability for removing pollutants depends on temperature. The findings of the In-stream drain water treatment pilot testing program brings to light several important aspects of existing drain water quality conditions, and presents a simple, low-cost technology to provide effective treatment for drain water.

[Salwa M. AbouElElla. Improve the drainage water using In-stream Wetland (Case study)- Egypt. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):5-13]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.02

 

Keywords: In stream wetland- water quality – water hyacinth

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3

Rarity and viability value of different type of ecosystem and plants species in tropical forest ecosystem of Bungoh Catchment, Sarawak, Malaysia

 

1Latifah, A.M., 2Gabriel T.W and 3Les Met

 

1Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

2Centre for Applied Learning and Multimedia, University Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia

 

Corresponding Authors: 1Tel :(+603)-89466733/732; Fax: (+603)-89438109; 2Tel: (+6082)-583688; Fax; (+6082)-583676; E-mail: latifah@env.upm.edu.my; 2gtnoweg@calm.unimas.my; 3lesmet@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Bungoh catchment is located in the southern part of Sarawak, Malaysia and south east of Kuching town and densely covered by tropical forests. A study was conducted to determine the rarity and viability values of plant species and also the rarity and viability values of the four different types of forest ecosystem of Bungoh Catchment. The four major forest ecosystems include the primary forest, old secondary forest, young secondary forest and agroforestry. The numbers of trees were recorded from the entire three different forest ecosystem using single plant method of size 400 square meters (20m X 20m). A total of 373 individual trees representing 148 species were recorded from the four different types of forest ecosystem. Out of 148 species, 22 species were recorded from the primary forest, 72 species were recorded from old secondary forest whereas 37 species were recorded from young secondary and the remaining 17 species were recorded from agroforestry. The rarity and viability value of plants species or ecosystem types is of immediate importance for the biodiversity conservation. The approach is designed for assessment of the rarity and viability values of plants species in the four major forest ecosystems in Bungoh Catchment. The rarity values are measured based on the frequency of certain plants species or ecosystems types are encountered whereas the viability value is assessed by considering three indicators which includes the core area, isolation and disturbances. The results indicate that the rarity value of all the four types of ecosystem namely the primary forest, old secondary forest, young secondary forest and agroforestry were relatively high indicating that the species in the ecosystem are distributed equitably and reflect the commonness of the species. Conversely, the viability value of the entire four ecosystems relatively low indicating that the species are prone to extinction.

[Latifah, A.M., Gabriel T.W and Les Met. Rarity and viability value of different type of ecosystem and plants species in tropical forest ecosystem of Bungoh Catchment, Sarawak, Malaysia. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):14-20]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.03

 

Keywords: Tropical forests, rarity values, viability values, ecosystem, biodiversity conservation, Bungoh Catchment.

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4

The impact of globalization, on the tendency of nationalism to Radical Islam in the central Asia and its threat to Russia

 

Seyed Salman Moradi

 

Abstract: the globalization has affected on the two different approaches Nationalism in Central Asia: The one hand, causes the weakening of the national state, and can accelerates the process of ethnic – nationalistic movement ; On the other hand, the Central Asian countries are facing with serious problems of social, economic, cultural and ideological; But due to the economic numerous problems in this country, In this case, the nationalism has tended to Islam and led to design ideas of "Islamic socialism" by extremist groups. The various factors are effective to this issue such as: First, The economic problems which helps to growth of Islamism; second, the ability of Islamic Ideology in the response to the moral demands of society; third, the low level of education of the people of this region; fourth, it is associated with a the ethnic of Muslim population in these countries. The ascent of Islam in Central Asia is not primarily the result of agitation of missionaries. Rather, it is the result of a series of intertwined economic, political and historical factors.

[Seyed Salman Moradi. The impact of globalization, on the tendency of nationalism to Radical Islam in the central Asia and its threat to Russia. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):21-26]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.04

 

Keywords: globalization, Nationalism, Radical Islamism, Russia, central Asia.

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5

Survey of aflatoxins and fungi in some commercial breakfast cereals and pastas retailed in Ogun State, Nigeria

 

Ezekiel, C.N.1,* and Sombie, J.I.1

 

1Mycology/Mycotoxicology Research Unit, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

* chaugez@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The incidence of aflatoxin and fungal load were determined in 30 samples of five commonly consumed maize-based breakfast cereals (cornflakes and golden morn) and wheat-based pastas (macaroni, noodles and spaghetti) retailed within Ogun State, Nigeria. Aflatoxin was quantified in all food samples at concentrations ranging 0.8–3.5 ppb (mean = 1.3 ppb). Golden morn had a mean aflatoxin concentration of 2.3 ppb, a level significantly (p < 0.05) higher than all other food commodities. Furthermore, the maize-based breakfast cereals (mean = 1.7 ppb) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher aflatoxin concentrations than the wheat-based pastas (mean = 1.2 ppb). Obviously, all the food commodities were contaminated with aflatoxin far below the stipulated 20 ppb limit. In contrast to the aflatoxin data obtained, none of the moulds belonging to the aflatoxigenic species was recovered from any of the commodities. However, fungi belonging to the Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium genera were broadly identified alongside some unidentifiable moulds in 46.7% of the food samples. Aflatoxin contamination in processed foods such as those investigated in this study may not necessarily pose an acute health risk to consumers; however, a long term effect is likely.

[Ezekiel CN, Sombie JI. Survey of aflatoxins and fungi in some commercial breakfast cereals and pastas retailed in Ogun State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):27-32]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.05

 

Keywords: Aflatoxins; Aspergillus; cereal; fungi; maize; wheat.

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6

Water Quality Evaluation of Abu Elgharadig groundwater wells with Assessment of Reverse Osmosis plant

 

Ahmed A. Ghareeb1, Maher. H. Helal2, Omnia I. Mohamed2, Mohamed M. Yehia3 and Seleem E. Gaber3

 

1 Department of Chemical laboratories, Khalda Petroleum Company

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt.

3 Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring (CLEQM)

ghareeb_aa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study area, Abu El Gharadig, is located in western desert is an oil field for a petroleum company, Brackish groundwater in this field is the sole source supply for desalination plant used to treat the brackish groundwater to fresh water, where it is used for human usage in area. The reverse osmosis (RO) technology with polyamide membrane is used in desalination plant for that purpose. The purpose of this paper is to study the quality of brackish groundwater at the studied area and to investigate the efficiency of Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination plants to produce potable water. Samples have been collected from brackish groundwater represented in three water wells (AG well No.11, AG well No.14 & AG well No.15) in addition to the produced water after desalination process. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out for all samples. Results show that the source brackish groundwater is free from bacterial contamination & organic pollutant and the produced water comply with WHO drinking standard and acceptable for human usage.

[Ahmed A. Ghareeb, Maher. H. Helal, Omnia I. Mohamed, Mohamed M. Yehia and Seleem E. Gaber. Water Quality Evaluation of Abu Elgharadig groundwater wells with Assessment of Reverse Osmosis plant. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):33-39]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.06

 

Key words: Groundwater, Desalination, Abu El Gharadig, Reverse Osmosis.

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7

Narrow Band Imaging: A New Tool for Diagnosis of Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy

 

Yehia Mohamed El Shazly *, Hesham Ezz Eldin Said *, Mona Mohamed Rafik **, Marcel William Keddeas *, Engy Yousry Elsayed *,  Hany Samir Rasmy *

 

*From Internal Medicine Department (Hepatology and gastroenterology unit), **Clinical Pathology Department, Ain Shams University. ashorengy@yahoo.com

 

Background: Patients with cirrhosis are at an increased risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, with the most common source being gastroesophageal varices. However, there are gastrointestinal mucosal lesions typical of cirrhosis that may also bleed in these patients, namely portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic micro-vascular architecture of the gastric mucosa in patients with liver cirrhosis by using the magnifying narrow band imaging system (NBI) and to evaluate the different non invasive markers for prediction of PHG. Material and Methods; 100 Helicobacter pylori-negative cirrhotic patients; 50 with clinical or radiological evidence of portal hypertension (groupA), 50 without portal hypertension (groupB) were enrolled in this study. Relevant clinical parameters assessed included ascites and splenomegaly. Laboratory parameters like hemoglobin level, platelet count,WBC count, prothrombin time, serum bilirubin, albumin and ultrasonographic characteristics like splenic size, portal vein diameter were assessed, as well as upper gastrointestinal endoscopy using white light endoscopy (WLE) and Narrow band imaging technique for assessment of esophageal varices and PHG. Results: (i) Abnormality of reddening mucosa (mild PHG), red spots (severe PHG) and mosaic-like pattern were observed on the gastric mucosa. By WLE, mild PHG was observed in 24 patients (48%) of group A and also group B patients.  Severe PHG (24 patients (48%) vs 8 patients (16%)) and normal gastric mucosa (2 patients(4%) vs 18 patients (36%)) were observed in group A and group B respectively. (ii) On magnifying endoscopy with NBI, reddening mucosa was observed as extended and swollen gastric pits and various degrees of dilated and convoluted capillaries surrounding the gastric pits. Red spots were demonstrated as extended and swollen gastric pits, dilated and convoluted capillaries surrounding the gastric pits, and intramucosal hemorrhage around these capillaries. (iii) 10 patients with normal gastric mucosa by WLE showed mild PHG by NBI (2 patients from group A and 8 patients from group B).Conclusion: NBI is more sensitive than conventional WLE for detection of mild PHG.Thrombocytopenia and platelet count/splenic diameter are considered to be good non invasive predictors for presence of PHG rather than other parameters like WBC's count, portal vein diameter and splenic diameter.

[Yehia Mohamed El Shazly, Hesham Ezz Eldin Said, Mona Mohamed Rafik, Marcel William Keddeas, Engy Yousry Elsayed, Hany Samir Rasmy. Narrow Band Imaging: A New Tool for Diagnosis of Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):40-47]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.07

 

Key words: Narrow band imaging, portal hypertensive gastropathy.

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8

Sociology of Addiction and the Role of Social Work Fields in Facing It

 

Sherif Yehia Mahmoud Fahmy

 

Social Work and Community Development Department, Faculty of Education, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

Alsharifa_amel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Addiction is a very harmful and destructive phenomenon that affects the individual, the family and the society. An addict is a negative, helpless, dependant person who cannot face his problems and lives in an imaginary world through using narcotics to escape from reality for a period of time. Unfortunately, some of the Youth are involved in such problem which has bad impact as youth are the builders of the future; therefore, a great effort should be done to face this problem by means of union of all the institutions with the social work fields’ institutions to prevent its occurrence and to treat who are already involved in it. The aim of this study to focus upon the role of some of social work fields with the help of the family and the social environment in facing such a hazardous phenomenon. In addition, the study includes the types of addictive substances and its harmful consequences.

[Sherif Yehia Mahmoud Fahmy. Sociology of Addiction and the Role of Social Work Fields in Facing It. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):48-57]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.08

 

Keywords: Addiction, Narcotics, Social worker, Social Institutions.

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9

The Tecnological Reserves Of The Development.

 

V. Nesnov.

 

Doctor of the technological and organization sciences, professor, corresponding member of Petrovsky Academy of the Science and Arts

Email: drnesnov@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Author is a doctor of the technological and organizational sciences professor. He studied problems of new science “ Theoretical Technology” more than thirty years. When he arrived to the USA, he saw that quality of the technology country is degrading and some states will say about independent very soon, because the country is going to the destruction. The Author published in three book some knowledge of new science to protect country from destruction:1.”The Technological Laws and Intellectual Conquest of the USA”-2009; 2.”Technological Mistakes and Reserves of the Government System”-2012; 3.”The Crisis of Economic Knowledge”-2012. Using knowledge of new science allowed scientists to have a new view at the condition of the country.

New science is the main science of the century. The knowledge of this science already allow to create the best pace of development of the country in the world, have the best efficiency of businesses and rich population, the best results of science researches, and etc.

[V. Nesnov. The Tecnological Reserves Of The Development. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):58-64]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.09

 

Keywords: tecnological reserves , development.

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10

Investigation the Relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Student Adjustment

 

Farnaz Dada

 

Lecturer in Payam-e-Noor University, Doolatabad, Isfahan

 

Abstract: Most social scientists who study intelligence estimate that IQ accounts for only 20 to 30 percent of outcome. Even if, as proponents assert, IQ is the best known predictor of things like financial success, these numbers are not the king you would want to wager on. It is easy to interact with the person with normal emotions but to deal with the person who is emotionally imbalance is very difficult. Emotional Intelligence is a phrase that incorporates the intricate aspects of both emotion and intelligence. Emotions rule the heart while intelligence reigns supreme in the brain. The twin qualities are inseparable and they exercise tremendous influence in the everyday lives of individuals. Now, intelligence and success are not viewed the same way they were before. New theories of intelligence have been introduced and are gradually replacing the traditional theory. Today, the whole students have become the centre of concern, not only his reasoning capacities, but also his creativity, emotion and interpersonal skills. IQ alone is no more the only measure for success, emotional intelligence; social intelligence and luck also play a big role in the person success and adjustment. Today there are lots of behavioral problems like; stress, adjustment, achievement etc are main concerns among the teenage groups which we are observing regularly.

[Farnaz Dada. Investigation the Relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Student Adjustment. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):65-72]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.10

 

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Student Adjustment

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Detection of Thrombogenicity Induced by Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation

 

Ayman Fattoh1, Hussain Shahlan2, Adel Gamal2, and Gamal Shahban1

 

1 Cardiovascular department, National Heart Institute Imbaba, Giza, Egypt

2 Cardiovascular Medicine department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

Ama_fattoh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The incidence of thromboembolic complications of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation (RF-A) is between 0.6% to 1.3%. Thrombogenesis provoked by RF-A has been considered to be caused by hemostasis from the placement of the intravascular catheters, and that it disappears immediately after removal of the catheters and introducer sheaths.However, The potential mechanisms of thrombogenesis during ablation procedures are multiple and include endothelial disruption, coagulation necrosis, electrical injury, mechanical damage in the vessel wall, and heating of circulating blood elements by radiofrequency energy. The above mechanisms can cause activation of the cascade of events that ultimately results in thrombin generation and platelet activation. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the independent and incremental procoagulant effect of RF ablation by assessing biochemical marker of thrombogenicity. The biochemical markers used in this study are direct measures of fibrinolysis (d-dimer, DD). Methods: This study is a comparative clinical trial that was conducted in EP laboratory of National Heart Institute. It has been started since 7/11/2006. To 1/09/2007 This study included forty patients are divided into twenty patients referred for EP laboratory to do radiofrequency transcatheter ablation in right side of the heart ( twenty patients with AVNRT) and in the left side of heart(twenty patients with left accessory pathway). From each patient undergoing RF ablation, four blood samples were taken for D-dimer measurement. Initially, blood sample is obtained immediately after insertion of the venous sheaths and before introduction of the electrode catheters (baseline measurements). Subsequently, blood sample is taken on completion of EPS and mapping, just before application of the first RF ablation (post-EPS measurements).The third sample is taken after completion of the RF procedure (post-RF measurements) and before sheath removal. At 36 to 40 hours later and before discharge from the hospital, a fourth blood sample was obtained. Results: Comparison between the two groups regarding the D-dimer level at the different stages of the procedure showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05) which means that both right sided and left sided ablation procedure is associated with significant elevation of the D-dimer. Conclusion: The D-dimer level in all the studied patients increased significantly after ablation and decreased before discharge but is still significantly higher than that of the baseline level. (1) In both right sided ablation and left sided ablation, the D-dimer level in patients with VNRT increased significantly (P < 0.001) after EPS and rose higher after ablation and in spite of that it decreased significantly before discharge it is still significantly higher than that of the baseline level. (2) There was no significant difference between the right sided and left sided procedure (P > 0.05) which means that both right sided and left sided ablation procedure is associated with significant elevation of the D-dimer.

[Ayman Fattoh, Hussain Shahlan, Adel Gamal, and Gamal Shahban. Detection of Thrombogenicity Induced by Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):73-81]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.11

 

Key words: D-dimer; thrombogenicity; radiofrequncy transcatheter ablation; AVNRT.

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12

Food Forensics: Using DNA-Based Technology for the Detection of Animal Species in Meat Products

 

Yosef, T.A.1, 2*; Al- Julaifi, M.Z.2 and AL-Rizqi, A.M.2

 

1Dept. of Forensic Med. and Toxicology, Fac. of Vet. Med., Kafrelshiekh Univ., 33516, Egypt.

2Toxicology lab. Management of Vet. Laboratories, Min. of Agric, Riyadh, 11418, KSA.

tarekyosef70@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Meat species specification is an area which needs specialized attention in food forensics. It is a vital field to ensure the food safety to the consumers and conserves the laws related to meat and meat products. The adulteration of inferior quality meat into superior quality meat is a common practice all over the world. DNA-Based techniques can easily solve the problems of vetro-legal or forensic cases and related laws existing worldwide. In this study, DNA Microarray and Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques were applied for the detection of meat adulteration in processed meat samples. Seventy seven samples of processed beef meat products (Hamburger, luncheon, sausages, hot dog, corned loaves, meat balls, shish kebabs) 11 samples each, were subjected to DNA Microarray analysis (LCD array kit, Meat 4.0)while fourteen samples, 2 of each meat product, including the two positive samples for pig were reanalyzed by  RT-PCR (7500 Fast Applied BioSystems, ABI,). The results obtained by both of DNA Microarray and RT-PCR were identical to each other with the range of 100%. The results showed that 51 out of 77 samples (66.2%) were labeled incorrectly, and adulteration was made in contrary to the notifications on the label. The adulteration was detected mostly in meat balls (90.9%), shish kebabs (81.8%), luncheon (72.7%), corned loaves (72.7%), hot dog (54.5), sausage (54.5%) and hamburger (36.4%). It was mostly seen that meat balls, shish kebabs, luncheon and corned loaves have significantly potential jeopardy for adulteration. Hot dog; sausage and finally hamburger samples were lower profile than the others. On the other hand, all these types of food were having a claim of 100% beef on the labels. Hence, detected meat species were chicken, turkey, goat, sheep and pig. Only two samples (one luncheon sample and one sausage sample) were adulterated with pig. No equine species were detected in any of the samples.

[Yosef, T.A.; Al- Julaifi, M.Z. and AL-Rizqi, A.M. Food Forensics: Using DNA-Based Technology for the Detection of Animal Species in Meat Products. Nat Sci 2014; 12(6):82-90]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.12

 

Keywords: LCD Microarray, RT-PCR, adulteration, processed meat.

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Prevalence of Syphilis infection Among Adult Rural Residents of Hassai and Bir Agam Areas in Red Sea State (Sudan)

 

Osama Mairgani Ismail 1 and Alsadig Mohammed Abdalla 2

 

1. Sudan Academy of Sciences-Khartoum-Sudan

2. Department of microbiology-Faculty of Medicine-Sebha University-Sebha-Libya

E-mail: alsadig58@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Syphilis is a very serious infection that causes acute cutaneous manifestations including genital ulcers, chronic severe and debilitating compromise of the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and serious effects on reproductive and neonatal health. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of syphilis infection and associated risk factors among adults aged 20-50 years within the local villagers in rural areas to provide baseline information for national, provincial estimates and future projections of syphilis infections. A total of One hundred and twenty five samples of respondents attended Hassai Clinic in Hassai and Bir Agam area, Red Sea State (Eastern Sudan), were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, using Immunochromatography Treponema specific rapid diagnostic test (ICT). The results revealed that 27 of the 125 samples tested (21.6 %) were positive for anti Treponema pallidum antibodies and 98 of them (78.4%) were negative. The prevalence of T. pallidum infection was highest among age groups (20-30) (8.8%) (n=11), followed by (8.0%) (n=10) among the age groups (31-40) years, and (4.8%) (n=6) among age group (41–50) and these revealed no significant effect, (P. value >0.05) equal (0.799).The prevalence of Syphilis infection among permanent residents in the area was (16.8%) (n=21), and (4.8%) (n=6) among those who traveling and partly residents, with no significant effect P. value>0.05. The prevalence of Syphilis infections in males was (20.8%) (n=26), and (0.8%) (n=1) among females tested, with no significant effect P. value>0.05 (0, 11). The prevalence of Syphilis infections among married respondents was (16.8%) (n=21), and (4.8%) (n=6) among unmarried with no significant effect P. value>0.05 (0, 98). Further community –based studies to investigate sexually transmitted infections using large sample size at different medical centers and hospitals are essential. Sex education, promotion of safer sexual behavior, prompt diagnosis of STDs and provision of effective, accessible treatment are recommended.

[Osama Mairgani Ismail and Alsadig Mohammed Abdalla. Prevalence of Syphilis infection Among Adult Rural Residents of Hassai and Bir Agam Areas in Red Sea State (Sudan). Nat Sci 2014;12(6):91-95]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.13

 

Keywords: Syphilis infection Among Adult Rural Residents.

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Improve the drainage water using In-stream Wetland (Case study)- Egypt

 

Salwa M. Abou El Ella

 

Associated professor, Channel Maintenance Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Delta Barrage, P.O. Box 13621, Egypt. salwaabouelella@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agriculture waste water in open drains makes their waters suitable for reuse in irrigation in many cases. However, it is uneconomic to construct waste water treatment plants at villages because of the low discharges that are insufficient for economic operation of the treatment plants. This raises the need to use the In- Stream Wetland (IW) waste water treatment system technology that treats the waste water in the open drain itself. IW treatment system technology uses the natural processes such as plant absorption of pollutants which results significant improvement in the downstream water quality. The objective of this work is to investigate the potentiality of the In-Stream wetland treatment system as the most appropriate natural treatment systems that can be used on existing drains in Egypt. The potential of application of the proposed methodology is applied on Emtdad El Umum drain. To achieve the objectives of the research, the field work divided into two phases, the first phase was to evaluate water quality conditions for Emtdad El Umum drain monthly during the period from March 2011 to February 2012. The second phase was to study the effect of water hyacinth on the agricultural drainage water seasons. The water hyacinth is stocked with natural water hyacinth, across its width for about 1 kilometer along the drain. Temporal analysis of physical and chemical parameters for the inlet and the outlet along the entire system is provided. From the result, water samples of outlet water showed lower in most parameters than inlet in spring and summer seasons because the growth rate of water hyacinth and its capability for removing pollutants depends on temperature. The findings of the In-stream drain water treatment pilot testing program brings to light several important aspects of existing drain water quality conditions, and presents a simple, low-cost technology to provide effective treatment for drain water.

[Salwa M. Abou ElElla. Improve the drainage water using In-stream Wetland (Case study)- Egypt. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):96-104]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.14

 

Keywords: In stream wetland- water quality – water hyacinth.

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Exploiting gut microbial diversity of honey bees of temperate climate of Kashmir valley

 

Sajad Ahmad Bhat, Ruqeya Nazir, Fayaz ahmad shah and G. A Bhat

 

Microbiology and Pathology laboratory, Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir -190006 India

ruqeya.ku@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Invertebrates host numerous micro-organisms with interactions ranging from symbiosis to pathogenesis. The digestive tract of insect represents a large source of yet unexplored microbial diversity. These micro-organisms utilize a wide range of organic polymers and can be involved in methanogenesis and nitrogen fixation .The gut microflora also play significant part in pheromone production, degradation of pesticide, vitamin synthesis and pathogen prevention. Microbial communities in insect intestine have been studied by cultivation dependant techniques; however these methods do not reflect entire communities. This diversity is attributed to different feeding habits resulting in different gut structures and functions and promotes the establishment of different phylotypes. The focus of the study is to provide comprehensive data regarding micro-flora harboring honey bees of temperate climate.

[Bhat SA, Nazir R, Shah FA, Bhat GA. Exploiting gut microbial diversity of honey bees of temperate climate of Kashmir valley. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):105-110]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.15

 

Key Words: Pathogenesis, symbiosis, microflora, honeybees, phylotypes.

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Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyx Extract Alleviate Hepatotoxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride on Male Albino Rats

 

Jamilah M Hashemi

 

Home Economic Dept., Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdul-Aziz University

 

Abstract: Background: The liver disorders are one of the world problems. Unfortunately, conventional or synthetic drugs used in the pretreatment of liver diseases are inadequate and sometimes can have serious side effects. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L., family Malvaceae) is an annual shrub, it exhibits many biological activities, such as anti-atherosclerosis, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. Aim: The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HPEEE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury in male rats. Material and Methods: Male albino rats (n=30) were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CCl4 (1 mL/kg b.wt., 1:1 v/v mixture of CCl4 and liquid paraffin) every 72 h for 14 days to induce hepatotoxicity. Pretreatment with HPEEE was administered orally at three dosage levels (200, 400 or 600 mg/kg b. wt) daily started two weeks prior to CCl4 injection and continued until the end of the experiment. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, lipid profile and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured. As well as the liver tissues of different groups were examined. Results: The oral administration of HPEEE displayed a strong hepatoprotective effect as it significantly dose-dependent reduced CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, as judged from the serum activities of ALT, AST, and ALP. As well as it showed a significant decrease in CCl4- induced MDA formation in the liver and increase in hepatic GSH activity. Also HPEEE pretreatment, showed a significant increase in HDL-C concentration and a decrease in the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C as compared to untreated CCl4-group. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues of CCl4 group represented the presence of focal hepatic necrosis associated with leucocytic cell infiltration, and apoptosis of hepatocytes, multiple focal areas of hepatic necrosis, and marked congestion of central vein, while the pretreatment with HPEEE overcome most of these changes, the majority of the cells tend to be normal in group received 600 mg/kg b.wt. Conclusion: These results suggest that the extract of dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Possesses strong antioxidant, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects on CCl4-induced oxidative stress in rats. Therefore, HPEEE could be of potential help as a medicament or food supplement for alleviation of liver toxicity.

[Jamilah M Hashemi. Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyx Extract Alleviate Hepatotoxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride on Male Albino Rats. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):111-120]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature.

16 . doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.16

 

Key words: Carbon tetrachloride, Hibiscus sabdariffa L extract, male rats, liver enzymes, hepatic antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective.

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Effect of temperature on the hatching and post –diapause embryonic development time in Rice grasshopper, oxya japonica (Thunberg) (Orthoptera, Acrididae).

 

S. Tariq Ahmad & Mir Tajamul

 

Entomology Research Division, Postgraduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir-190006, India

drtariqento@kashmiruniversity.ac.in, drtariqiari@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: - A study was conducted to assess the effects of six constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40C) on the post diapauses embryonic development (PDD) and the hatching time in rice grasshopper, Oxya japonica. Egg hatching and development occurred over the entire range except at 40C and below 15C. The relationship between temperature and development rates was analyzed. The PDD duration was strongly temperature dependent and is crutial to the completion of the annual cycle. The optimum temperature range for the hopper development was 35C. Grasshopper survival exhibited a unimodal response to temperature, with highest survival at intermediate temperatures. The results are useful in predicting how changes in abiotic variables associated with climate change may affect species performance.

[S. Tariq Ahmad & Mir Tajamul. Effect of temperature on the hatching and post –diapause embryonic development time in Rice grasshopper, oxya japonica (Thunberg) (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Nat Sci 2014;12(6):121-125]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.17

 

Keywords: Diapause, Post embryonic development, Oxya japonica.

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Seven Days Levofloxacin, Tinidazole, Based Triple Therapy versus Standard Triple Therapy for Helicobacter Pylori, Eradication

 

Hesham Al Shabrawy, Hany Kamal and Ayman Rabie Abdelkader

 

Liver Unit, Ahmad Maher Teaching Hospital. Cairo, Egypt.

Heshamshabrawy64@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: the standard first-line therapies for helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) eradication are based on clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole plus ppi. Recent studies suggested levofloxacin as an alternative option for both first-and second-line H. Pylori eradication treatment. Levofloxacin based helicobacter pylori eradication, regimen have shown good efficacy and very few side effects. Failure of first line anti helicobacter pylori therapies is primarily the result of antibiotic resistance and poor compliance with medications. Shorter treatment regimen and absence of significant side effects should improve compliance to therapy and increase the helicobacter pylori rate of eradication. The aim of this work: is to compare the effectiveness of seven days levofloxacin, tinidazole based triple therapy versus standard clarithromycin, amoxicillin based triple therapy for helicobacter pylori., age and sex variability effect. Material and methods: 100 patient with the H. pylori +ve histo-pathological biopsies by endoscopy divided into two groups, group( I) 50 patients will take levofloxacin, tinidazole, PPI and group (2) 50 patients will take clarithromycin, amoxicillin, PPI. Results: 7 days levofloxacin, tinidazole based triple therapy is significantly effective and better tolerated than the generally traditional treatment of 10 days clarithromycin, amoxicillin based triple therapy. No significance concerning age, and sex factors.

[Hesham Al Shabrawy. Hany Kamal and Ayman Rabie Abdelkader. Seven Days Levofloxacin, Tinidazole, Based Triple Therapy versus Standard Triple Therapy for Helicobacter Pylori, Eradication. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):126-132]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.18

 

Keywords: therapy; helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori); clarithromycin; amoxicillin; metronidazole

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Thermal effects of conductive heat resistant NBR/IIR rubber blends

 

Abdulkareem A. Redhwan *, A.A. El-Gamel, S.A. Khairy and H.H. Hassan

 

Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*abdulkareem.redhwan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene/Isoprene-Isobutylene (NBR/IIR) rubber with different ratios were prepared. SEM observations confirmed the usage of BIIR as compatibilizer for NBR/IIR blends. Each rubber blend was loaded with different ratios of N-326 and N-774 carbon blacks. I-V curves, joule heating effects and temperature-dependent electrical conductivity of the prepared blends were investigated. It was found that, the electric and thermal properties of the blends were enhanced upon increasing N-326 content.

[Redhwan Abdulkareem A, El-Gamel AA, Khairy SA and Hassan HH. Thermal effects of conductive heat resistant NBR/IIR rubber blends. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):133-138]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.19

 

 

Keywords: acrylonitrile; butyl rubber; SEM; thermal; electrical conductivity

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Electrical Transport Properties of Some Sodium Silicate Glasses Containing By-Pass Cement Dust

 

A.M. Abdel-Ghany 1, A.A. Bendary 2, T.Z. Abou-El-Nasr 2, M.Y. Hassaan 2 and  A.G. Mostafa 2*

 

1. Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Engineering Science, Sinai University, El-Arish, Egypt

2. Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

*drahmedgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Some sodium-silicate glasses containing different amounts of by-pass cement dust (BCD)were prepared by the melt quenching method. The selected molecular composition was [(70-x)% SiO2-x% BCD-30% Na2O(x = 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35). The experimental density and molar volume were studied and were then compared with the empirically calculated values (the close packed structure).  The comparison evidenced the short range order of the studied glass samples. The electric and dielectric properties were thoroughly investigated. The appearance of a maxima and minima in the total conductivity of the BCD concentration dependence was attributed to the mixed alkali effect as well as to the presence of a considerable amount of CaO. It was concluded also that all glasses behave like semiconductors. The Cole-Cole diagrams indicated a single relaxation process and the Cole-Cole distribution parameters (α) indicated that all samples are of high homogeneity.

[Abdel-Ghany AM, Bendary AA, Abou-El-Nasr TZ, Hassaan MY and Mostafa AG. Electrical Transport Properties of Some Sodium Silicate Glasses Containing By-Pass Cement Dust. Nat Sci 2014;12(6):139-147]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj120614.20

 

Keywords: By-pass Cement Dust; Silicate glasses; Electrical Transport Properties

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from April 27, 2014.
 
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