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Science Journal

 

Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi:10.7537, Monthly
Volume 15 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 118), January 25, 2017
Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, nsj1501

 

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CONTENTS   

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Titles / Authors

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1

Amounts of Added Sugar in selected foods from the Sri Lankan Market

 

G.D.T.M. Jayasinghe and B.K.K.K. Jinadasa

 

Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL), Institute of Post-Harvest Technology (IPHT), National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA), Colombo-15, Sri Lanka

Email: thilinijayasinghe123@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Sri Lanka is a developing country in the South Asian region of the world. In the Country’s efforts in the overall development of its people, dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intake, as it plays a major role in the health and well being leading to productivity. Sugars are a class of carbohydrates and thus one of the most common elements found in the foods and a major source of energy. In this study, we analyzed six food samples broadly representing nine food categories from the Sri Lankan market in 2014. Fehling’s method was used in our analysis. The high sugar content was found to occur in the spreads, jams and chewing gums having 53.34 – 56.67 and 40.97-43.41 g per 100 g respectively. The lowest sugar content was found in the soft drinks, which was around 13 g/100 mL. American Heart Association recommends the daily added sugar level for women to be below six teaspoons and for men should be below nine teaspoons in order to fulfill their calorie requirements. Increased sugar intake through food is associated with chronic diseases like diabetes. Further study is necessary to evaluate a wider range of food items and continuous monitoring of their sugar content to ensure the safety of food and to maintain good health among people.

[G.D.T.M. Jayasinghe and B.K.K.K. Jinadasa. Amounts of Added Sugar in selected foods from the Sri Lankan Market. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):1-4]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.01.

 

Key words: Sugar, energy, calorie, Sri Lankan food

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Can Residual Myometrial Thickness Measured by Transvaginal Ultrasound Predict Successful Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Section?

 

Reham Saeed Mohamed Ali1Sally Mohamed Osama Ali2

 

[1]Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology,2 Department of Radiology, Al- Zahraa University Hospital, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

rehamclinic2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To predict successful vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) based on measurement of residual myometrial thickness during second and third trimester of pregnancy. Study Design: Longitudinal observational study in the ultrasound and obstetrics units of Al-Azhar University hospital. Patients and Methods: Thirty women with history of previous one cesarean delivery were recruited from ante natal care outpatient clinic. They were examined by transvaginal sonography (7.5 MHz) at 3 visits: at first enrollment (20-26wks), during 3rd trimester (32-36wks), and during TOLAC intrapartum. Results: Successful VBAC group had 6 (20%) patients with augmented TOLAC and 12 (40%) patients with spontaneous TOLAC. Failed VBAC group had 7 (23.34%) patients with augmented TOLAC and 5 (16.66%) patients with CS. There were highly significant statistical differences of means between both groups as regard; 2nd trimester RMT and 3rd trimester RMT (p=0.001 and 0.002) respectively. There was insignificant statistical differences of means between both groups as regard; Δ RMT (p=0.30) and insignificant statistical differences of means between both groups as regard; Δ RMT between 2nd and 3rd trimesters with spontaneous and augmented TOLAC in successful VBAC and in failed VBAC; augmented TOLAC & CS (p=0.74 & 0.40) respectively. Conclusion: The optimal cut off value of RMT of LUS in 2nd trimester to predict successful VBAC is 2.9 mm; in 3rd trimester, it was 2.25 mm; both with high predictive value, while the cut off for ΔRMT of LUS to predict successful VBAC it was 0.45 mm, with low predictive value.

[Reham Saeed Mohamed Ali andSally Mohamed Osama Ali. Can Residual Myometrial Thickness Measured by Transvaginal Ultrasound Predict Successful Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Section? Nat Sci 2017;15(1):5-9]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.02.

 

Key words: Vaginal birth, Cesarean section, ultrasound, myometrial thickness.

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Prevalence of Malaria Parasitaemia in Pregnant Women WHO Attended General Hospital Shendam, Plateau State, Nigeria

 

James G. Damen1 and Victoria M. Daminabo2

 

1Deaprtment of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State

2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic, Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. jamesgdamen@yahoo.com; babediko40@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaria infection during pregnancy is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. The study was designed to determine the prevalent of malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women who attended general hospital in shendam, Jos, Plateau State of Nigeria between the period of January and March, 2016. Participation was voluntary, pregnant women who gave consent to be part of the study were randomly selected. Questionnaires were distributed to the subjects to obtained demographic data. Blood samples were collected; thin and thick blood films were made and stained using Giemsa stain. The blood films were examined using oil immersion objective. The study revealed that an overall 5.6% of the 250 pregnant women were found to have malaria infections. It was found that women between the ages of 20-23 years had the highest prevalence of 2.0%. Highest prevalence of 3.6% was also recorded in non-formal education women. The results also showed that pregnant women in the first trimester recorded the highest prevalence of 4.8%. The study concludes that the low prevalence might be due to the intermittent prophylaxis given to pregnant women on antenatal care (ANC) and the use of long lasting insecticidal net by most pregnant women.

[Damen, J. G and V. M. Daminabo. Prevalence of Malaria Parasitaemia in Pregnant Women Who Attended General Hospital Shendam, Plateau State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):10-17]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.03.

 

Keywords: Malaria infection, pregnant women, malaria parasitaemia, public health problem.

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Review On Public Health Importance Of Bovine Salmonellosis

 

Daniel Adamu, Askale Abrhaley and Anemaw Eshetie

 

School of Veterinary Medicine, college of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

 

Corresponding author: Daniel Adamu and Askale Abrhaley, e-mail address: daniadamu2016@gmail.com and abrhaleyaskivet2015@gmail.com

 

Summary: Salmonellosis is the most common food-borne and zoonotic bacterial disease in the world. Salmonella is a significant pathogen for food-producing animals and these animals are the primary source of salmonellosis. The pathogen is spread by trade in animals and non-heated animal food products. Sporadic disease is more common than outbreaks. Salmonellae are able to breach the intestinal barrier via phagocytosis and trafficking by CD18-positive immune cells, which may be a mechanism key to typhoidal Salmonella infection. Microscopically, Hemorrhage, oedema, necrosis and leucocytic infiltration (mainly macrophages) are seen in the Mucosae of intestinal wall. The economic loss associated in human salmonellosis is due to investigation, treatment and prevention of illness. Diagnosis of salmonellosis depends on clinical signs and isolation of the pathogen from feces, blood, or tissues of affected animals. Salmonellosis affect animal of all stages but, the elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune systems are more likely to develop severe illness and show prominent clinical sign. The most common presentation includes fever, nausea, and diarrhea, cramping and sometimes vomiting. Antimicrobial therapy (or treatment with antibiotics) is not recommended for uncomplicated gastroenteritis. In contrast, antibiotics are recommended for persons at increased risk of invasive disease, including infants younger than 3 months of age. To prevent Salmonella one should use caution when handling and storing raw meat. Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium are the most important serotypes for salmonellosis transmitted from animals to human.

[Daniel Adamu, Askale Abrhaley and Anemaw Eshetie. Review On Public Health Importance Of Bovine Salmonellosis. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):18-26]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.04.

 

Key words: Bovine salmonellosis, Zoonotic; Public Health; Salmonellosis

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Major Constraints And Mitigation Schemes For Declining Honey Bee Population In Ethiopia

 

Askale Abrhaley, Malede Birhan, Yitayew Demessie and Ayalew Negash

 

College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Faculty of veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, P.O. BOX: 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Corresponding author: Askale Abrhaley, e-mail address: abrhaleyaskivet2015@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Bee keeping is environmentally friendly and non-farm business activity that has immense contribution to the economies of the society and to the national economy as a whole. Ethiopia has a huge natural resource base for honey production and other hive production, and beekeeping is a well-established household activity in almost all parts of the country. The country produces about 43,373 metric tons of crude honey per year, thus shares 23.5% of African and 2.35% of world honey production. These makes the country rank first in Africa and tenth in the world. However, the benefit from the subsector to the nation as well as to the farmers, traders, processors and exporters is not satisfactory. The main challenges that are facing the promotion and development of honey production and marketing are dependent on traditional and low technology input, poor pre and post-harvest management, poor management (such as pesticide poisoning, pests and bee diseases), inadequate extension service and poor marketing, infrastructure. Furthermore, lack of small holders access to finance contributes to inhibiting the adoption of improved technologies for honey production poor quality, limited supply in the face of highly local demand entailing higher domestic process, coupled with the absence of organized market channels lack of adequate beekeeping trainings, and lack of information have made Ethiopian honey uncompetitive in the international market. Adopting improved technologies and market development, improved management practices such as proper use of agrochemicals and pesticides, effective honeybee health delivery service and appropriate control of pests and predators, proper management of natural resources, encouraging involvement of women in beekeeping development, applying of queen rearing technique and colony splitting technique, providing technical and professional trainings for beekeepers would greatly improve the yields and qualities of honey bee.

[Askale Abrhaley, Malede Birhan, Yitayew Demessie and Ayalew Negash. Major Constraints And Mitigation Schemes For Declining Honey Bee Population In Ethiopia. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):27-33]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.05.

 

Keywords: beekeeping, honey bee, honey production

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Residual soil fertility status as influenced by Mn and Zn fertilizers in sesame based cropping system on lithosols of northern guinea savanna of Nigeria

 

H. E. Shehu

 

Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

Email: harushe2003@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A study was carried out to assess the influence of Mn and Zn fertilizers on residual soil N, P, K, Mn and Zn in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) based cropping system during the 2005 and 2006 rainy season, at the Food and Agriculture Organisation/Tree Crop Programme (FAO/TCP) Teaching and Research farm of the Adamawa State University, Mubi, northern guinea savanna of Nigeria. The experiment consisted of 2 Mn rates (0.5 and 1 kg ha-1) and 2 Zn rates (0.5 and 1 kg ha-1) with various treatment combinations added to nitrogen (75 kg ha-1), phosphorus (45 kg ha-1) and potassium (22.5 kg ha-1) as basal, laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), replicated three times. The results showed that Mn at 1 kg ha-1 increased soil N by 0.01%, P, Mn and Zn by 1.35, 20.14, and 1.47 mg kg-1, respectively. Zn application at 0.5 kg ha-1 increased soil build up of N by 0.17%, K by 0.02 cmol kg-1 while at 1 kg Zn ha-1 soil P, Mn and Zn increased by 2.35, 14.34 and 4.89 mg kg-1, respectively. Agronomic efficiencies of both Mn and Zn were 25 and 61, respectively at 0.5 kg Mn and Zn ha-1. Uptake of N and K is related to soil Mn and Zn balance.

[Shehu HE. Residual soil fertility status as influenced by Mn and Zn fertilizers in sesame based cropping system on lithosols of northern guinea savanna of Nigeria. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):34-41]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.06.

 

Keywords: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, potassium, Manganese, Zinc, Sesame

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Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Helminthes Of Donkey In And Around Mekelle

DVM Research article

 

Atsede Gebreyohans, Askale Abrhaley and Elias Kebede

 

College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Faculty of veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, P.O. BOX:196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Corresponding author: Atsede Gebreyohans, e-mail address: atsedegebreyohanes@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 up to March 2016 in and around Mekelle to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes of donkey and their mean egg count and to assess the associated risk factors. Faecal samples were collected from 404 randomly selected donkeys were examined for nematode cestode and trematode infections. The overall prevalence of GIT helminthes in the study area was found to be 80.2% and the relative percentage of the encountered parasites during the study period were 52.0% Strongyle type, 6.4% Parascaris equorum, 2.0% Strongolides westeri, 2.5% Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, 2.7% Anaplocephala Spp, 2.2% Fasciola and 12.4% mixed parasites infection. Furthermore ovaculture identification of third stage larvae of strongyles reveals that 34.8% S vulgaris, 22.9% S. edentatus, 9.5% S. equinus, 23.8% Cyathostomum Spp and 9.1% mixed strongyles. In the current study the mean EPG count of nematode parasites was found to be 925.25662.82. Concerning severity of infection in this study 57.6%, 26.4% and 32.5% of donkeys were infected severely, moderately and mildly respectively. There were statistical significant difference both in prevalence and mean EPG count between body condition score, manure removal frequency, type of house and purpose of the animals (p < 0.05). However age and feeding systems were only statistically significant difference in prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. In conclusion the findings of the present study indicated a high prevalence of helminthic parasites compromising the health and welfare of donkey. Sustainable prevention and control methods should be developed to prevent the burden of gastrointestinal helminthes of donkey in and around Mekelle.

[Atsede Gebreyohans, Askale Abrhaley and Elias Kebede. Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Helminthes Of Donkey In And Around Mekelle DVM Research article. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):42-57]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.07.

 

Key words: Donkey, GIT helminthes, Mean EPG count, Mekelle, Prevalence.

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A Research Article On Assessing The Effect Of Human Impact On Plant And Soil Conservation On Hill Slope At Mecha Woreda West Gojjam Of Amhara Regional State

 

Teklebrhan Mesfun1, Askale Abrhaley2 and Bikila Werkineh1

 

1 College Of Natural Science, Department Of Biology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2 College Of Veterinary Medicine And Animal Science, Faculty Of Veterinary Medicine, University Of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

 

Abstract: Degradation of ecosystem and subsequent reduction in services are major problems to sustain livelihoods in sub Sahara African region. As part of SSA Ethiopia faces various hurdles related in environmental degradation particularly in plant and soil conservation. Land is one of the most important assets. However conversion of natural vegetation and habitat destruction is main challenge in Mecha Woreda particularly in Addis Alem, Felege Hiwot and Midre Genet Kebeles. Although several stakeholders such as scientists, local and regional government bodies are working to improve plant and soil conservation, the problem persist in the study area due to inadequate efforts and various human induced negative impacts. This study aimed to identify the effect of human impact on plant and soil conservation, compare with similar area but model Kebele and come up at possible recommendation related with the effect of human impact on plant and soil conservation on hill slope. Three sites were selected purposely due to the fact that they are devoid of vegetation and highly eroded in the Woreda. Sampling design approach was used through stratified random sampling for farmers’ questionnaire. Data was collected through field observation, interview, questionnaire and secondary data from recorded document. The data was organized through tabular and analyzed in frequency, percentage and figuratively. several factors contribute this study including poor socioeconomic conditions, cutting of tree for fire wood, charcoal production, home construction, furniture’s and infrastructure expansion such as road construction. The result of the study showed soil erosion as a result of those human negative impacts. The present study showed severe soil erosion due to these anthropogenic factors.

[Teklebrhan Mesfun, Askale Abrhaley and Bikila Werkineh. A Research Article On Assessing The Effect Of Human Impact On Plant And Soil Conservation On Hill Slope At Mecha Woreda West Gojjam Of Amhara Regional State. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):58-78]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.08.

 

Keywords: Impact, Plant, Soil and Conservation.

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Risk factors for Peri-implant fractures

 

Ahmed Shamma1, Tharwat Abd-Elghany2 and Muhammad Barakat2

 

1Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

3Resident of Orthopedic Surgery, Maadi Armed Forces Medical Complex, Egypt

drmedicine2012@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To determine the risk factors for peri-implant fractures in orthopedic surgery, which is being used in our setup for fixation of different fractures. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted from May 2015 to December 2016. A total of 20 patients were retrospectively identified and included in the study. The inclusion criteria were patients of both gender, who presented to our unit with complaints of pain, deformity or inability to bear weight after fixation of fracture of either upper limb or lower limb. Exclusion criteria were age under 18 years old and infected implants. Type of fracture and implant used and adherence to AO trauma surgery principles were also assessed. Results: A total of 20 patients with peri-implant fractures. There were 11 males and 9 females with a mean age of 55.25 years (from 30 to 78 years). They presented with peri-implant fracture proximal or distal to DHS, Intramedullary nails, PFN, and conventional plates. Conclusion: The most important risk factors for peri-implant fractures are smoking, obesity, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates treatment and hyperparathyroidism.

[Ahmed Shamma, Tharwat Abd-Elghany and Muhammad Barakat. Risk factors for Peri-implant fractures. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):79-82]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.09.

 

Key Words: peri-implant fractures, risk factors.

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Evaluation of Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Levels in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

 

Mohamed R Elbasiony1, Ezzat A Rezk1, Abdelmonem Elshabrawi1, Ramdan S Abdelazeez1, Atef W Elrefaei1, Tarek M Omran2, Omar A Fetieh1.

 

1Department of chest diseases, Faculty of medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Department of Clinical pathology, Faculty of medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

omarfetieh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: IgG4 has recently been a subject of great interest in human pathology. No data are available about the characteristics of asthma patients with different IgG4 levels. Subjects and methods: case control study was conducted from October 2015 to May 2016 on sixty asthma patients divided into HR and LR subgroups based on their response to bronchodilators (HR = FEV1 post bronchodilator≥ 20%) and (LR =FEV1 post bronchodilator below 20%), subgroups were subdivided into uncontrolled, partly controlled and controlled patients according to severity of symptoms, compared with twenty normal healthy nonsmoker subjects as control group. Blood eosinophilia percentage, total IgE and total IgG were compared between groups to better characterize asthma patients with different serum IgG4 levels. Results: the majority of patients in the HR and LR subgroups displayed poor disease control. HR was more frequently associated with uncontrolled patients and lower lung function than LR group (FEV1 49.57 11.9% of predicted vs 64.07 9.1% predicted; P <.001). Mean IgG4 concentrations were18.55 9.4mg/dl, 20.73 11.49mg/dl and 13.79 4.69 mg/dl in high reversibility group, low reversibility group and control group respectively with significant difference between HR, LR groups and control group (p=0.023) and (p=0.005) respectively. Mean IgG4 concentrations were 24.30 11.24mg/dl,10.894.mg/dl in partly controlled and uncontrolled patients in LR group respectively. Mean blood eosinophilia percentage was 8.17 6.1%, 8.30 4.9%, 5.50 3.7% in HR group, LR group and control group respectively with significance difference between LR group and control group. The IgG4 level correlated to a certain extent with the level of serum IgE and blood eosinophilia percentage. Conclusion: Increased levels of IgG4 in asthmatic patients when compared with healthy nonsmoker individuals and increase levels of IgG4 in some asthmatic patients which characterized by partly controlled symptoms and there is negative correlation between IgG4 levels and blood eosinophilia percentage, total IgE.

[Mohamed R Elbasiony, Ezzat A Rezk, Abdelmonem Elshabrawi, Ramdan S Abdelazeez, Atef W Elrefaei, Tarek M Omran, Omar A Fetieh. Evaluation of Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Levels in Patients with Bronchial Asthma". Nat Sci 2017;15(1):83-88]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.10.

 

Keyword: IgG4, asthma, pulmonary function, total IgE.

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Study of Inferior Vena Cava Collapsibility Index in Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia in Al-Azhar University Hospital in Damietta.

 

Abdelmonem Elshabrawi1, Hussein A Hussein1, Sherief K Hussien2, Ahmad M Ewis1, Mokhles Abdel Fadil1, Esam M Shawky1, Mohammed M Mansour 1.

 

1Department of chest diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Department Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Introduction: Assessment of intravascular volume status is an essential parameter for the diagnosis and management of critically-ill patients specially in pneumonia. Ultrasonography measurement of inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVC-CI) were used in the present study to evaluate the intravascular volume status of CAP patients. Subjects and methods: case study was conducted from January 2016 and September 2016. On 40 patients with CAP assessed by pneumonia scores (CURB65 score and SMARTCOP score) and classified according to CURB65 score to mild (0-1), moderate (2) and severe CURB65 (> 3). And classified according to SMART- COP score to low score (in low score of requirement of intensive respiratory or vasopressin support (IRVS) (0-2), moderate (3-4), high (5-6) and very high (>7). IVC-CI measured and correlated with(CURB65&SMART-COP) in CAP Patients. Results: Of the 40 enrolled patients, with a mean age of 25.731.32, there was significant increase of IVC-CI (37.55+21.58) in mild CURB65 score (0-1); IVC-CI was(65.433+29.9) in moderate (2) (direct proportional), but in severe (>3) IVC-CI decreased (56.66+30.6) in comparison to moderate (2); significant correlation was found between the CURB65 and IVC-CI (p < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant correlation between SMART-COP and IVC-CI (P = 0.037). (IVC-CI increased (36.09+24.80) in low SMART- COP score (0-2), in moderate (3-4) IVC-CI was (47.24+20.54) and high (5-6) IVC-CI was (55.02+30.77) (direct proportional), but in very high (>7) the IVC-CI decreased (36.25+3.330) in comparison to moderate (3-4). Conclusion: The present study showed increased IVC-CI with the increase of CURB65 score in mild (0-1), in moderate (2) (directproportional), but in severe (> 3) IVC-CI decreased in comparison to moderate pneumonia (2). Increased IVC-CI with increase of SMART- COP score in low (0-2), in moderate (3-4), and in high (5-6) (direct proportional), but in very high (>7) the IVC-CI decreased in comparison to moderate (3-4).

[Abdelmonem Elshabrawi, Hussein A Hussein, Sherief K Hussien, Ahmad M Ewis, Mokhles Abdel Fadil, Esam M Shawky, Mohammed M Mansour. Study of Inferior Vena Cava Collapsibility Index in Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia in Al-Azhar University Hospital in Damietta. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):89-94]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.11.

 

Keywords: IVC-CI, CAP, CURB56, SMART-COP, Intravascular fluid volume, Ultrasonography.

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Comparative study between intralesional Candida antigen and tuberculin PPD in treatment of multiple warts

 

Yasser Fathy Mohamed MD, Ahmad saeed Al-Adl MD, and Yasser Mamdouh Hasanein

 

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Yasser_nd@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: warts represent a troublesome therapeutic issue for both patients and physicians. Despite the existence of numerous therapeutic modalities, treatment of warts still represents a real challenge and a uniformly effective remedy has not been explored to date. Intralesional Candida Antigen and purified protein derivative (PPD) were not previously compared regarding their efficacy or mechanism of action in treatment of warts. We aimed to compare their efficacy in treatment of multiple warts 60 patients with multiple warts were included (30 treated with Candida antigen and 30 treated with PPD). Injection was done every 3 weeks until clearance or maximum of three treatments. Clinical response of target and distant warts was evaluated. A significantly higher rate of complete response was found in target and distant warts with Candida antigen (66.7%, 56.7 respectively) and with PPD (60%, 50% respectively) and with no significant difference between both treatments. With no serious side effects so treatment of multiple warts by intralesional injection of Candida antigen and PPD. So finally intralesional injection of Candida antigen and PPD is safe and effective, with good cure rates and excellent safety profile in treatment of multiple warts.

[Yasser Fathy Mohamed, Ahmad saeed Al-Adl, Yasser Mamdouh Hasanein. Comparative study between intralesional Candida antigen and tuberculin PPD in treatment of multiple warts. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):95-98]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.12.

 

Keywords: Comparative study; intralesional Candida; antigen; tuberculin; treatment; multiple wart

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Role of Endobronchial Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Mediastinal and Pulmonary Lesions

 

Gamal E. A. Elsayed1, Mousa M. Elshamly2, Abd Allah S. Ayob3, Khaled M. zamzam4, Saad E. H. Salah Eldin5

 

1Professor of Pathology – Faculty of Medicine – Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Assist. Professor of Chest Diseases– Faculty of Medicine – Al-Azhar University, Egypt

3 Lecturer of Chest Diseases– Faculty of Medicine – Al-Azhar University, Egypt

4MD, FCCP of Chest Diseases- Military Chest Hospital in Kobbry Alkobba Hospital, Egypt

5Resident of Chest Diseases – El-Abassia Chest Hospital, Egypt

Saadwafa@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Lung cancer is one of the most common tumors worldwide. Now it ranks as the leading cause of cancer related death in the world, both in men and women. Pulmonary lesions detected during screening for lung cancer need to be evaluated further and tissue should be obtained. Technical development in last two decades has made it possible for pulmonologists to do endobronchial ultrasound “EBUS”. Objective: The aim of the work is Assessment of the role of endobronchial ultrasound TBNA in diagnosis of mediastinal lesions as accurate rapid less invasive procedure. Subject and Methods: This is a Prospective study was conducted on 30 patients presented with chest symptoms (dyspnea, cough, expectoration, chest pain and hemoptysis) diagnosed as mediastinal, hilar and pulmonary lesions as confirmed by CT chest, routine laboratory investigations and proper history taking and through clinical examination and underwent EBUS-TBNA and the sampled lesion was sent for histopathological examination and reporting at Kobbry Alkobba military Hospital during the period from (November 2015 to October 2016). Result: The mean age of the patients participating in our study was 44.9 15.9 years (ranges 17-73). 56.7% of them were males while 43.3% were females. Radiological finding showed Hilar & mediastinal lymphadenopathy was found in 40.0% of patients, mediastinal lymphadenopathy (6.7%), hilar lymphadenopathy (10.0%), pulmonary lesions (33.3%), pulmonary lesions with mediastinal lymphadenopathy (6.7%). pulmonary lesions with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy (3.3%). EBUS findings showed that 20 patients were having lymph node lesions (85% were benign and 15% were malignant by pathology) and 10 patients were having pulmonary parenchyma mass lesions (100% were malignant). No major complications were detected only minor bleeding in 1 patients (3.3%). Conclusion: Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial fine needle aspiration EBUS-TBNA is the procedure of choice for staging of lung cancers and for the investigation of unexplained mediastinal lymphadenopathy and masses. EBUS guided TBNA is an accurate, cost effective and minimally invasive procedure and if successfully performed, TBNA may spare patients additional, more invasive procedures or surgery.

[Gamal E. A. Elsayed, Mousa M. Elshamly, Abd Allah S. Ayob, Khaled M. zamzam, Saad E. H. Salah Eldin. Role of Endobronchial Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Mediastinal and Pulmonary Lesions. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):99-104]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.13.

 

Keywords: Lung Cancer; EBUS; Pulmonary; Mediastinal lesions.

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Nesting behaviour and biology of Indian great reed warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus brunnescens Jerdon, at Lake Wular, Kashmir (India).

 

Mustahson Farooq Fazili

 

Wildlife Research Division, Postgraduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal Srinagar-190006, Kashmir. drfaziliwl@yahoo com

 

Abstract: Some parameters of nesting biology and behaviour of Indian great reed warbler were studied for three successive years (2011-2013) in the lake Wular Kashmir, India. Breeding occurred from May to August and was initiated by nest building. Nesting sites were chosen in bushy willows and dense emergent reeds dominated by Phragmites communis where average reed density was 48.8 9.5 per m2 and average reed height 156.5 10.3cm. Maximum percentage of nests (96%) was in reeds and among reeds Phragmites communis patches were mostly preferred for nesting (98% nests). Distance of the nests to open waters averaged 13.8 6.2m. Nests were built in different habitats only by female warblers in 4-7 days. The nests on willows differed significantly both in diameter and in depth from those in reeds (P<0.05). In 80% clutches the eggs were laid daily between 7 hours and 10 hours and peak laying was from June, 18 to July, 7. Average clutch size was 3.2 0.7 and mean egg measurements were 22.4 0.5 x 15.7 0.16 mm. Incubation was performed by female warblers only during mean duration of 14.4 0.66 days. Eggs lost 16% of weight during incubation. Daily survival rate of eggs during incubation was 0.97. Females spent 82% of day time in attending nest and mean attentive period was 44.9 minutes. Hatching period ranged from 8-12 hours and overall hatching success was 62.7%. Hatching success varied in different habitats. Nidicolous hatchlings weighed on an average 2.275 0.25g. Fledging period varied from 13-15 days. Nestling survival during nestling period was 0.75 and breeding success calculated from exposure was 0.42. It was observed that predation was main cause of low breeding success.

[Mustahson Farooq Fazili. Nesting behaviour and biology of Indian great reed warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus brunnescens Jerdon, at Lake Wular, Kashmir (India). Nat Sci 2017;15(1):105-113]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.14.

 

Key words: Nesting, Incubation, Clutch, Hatching, Breeding success, Wular Lake, Reed Warbler

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Analysis of Postharvest Losses Management among Cassava Farmers in Nigeria

 

Oluwatusin, Femi Michael

 

Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Services, Ekiti State University, P. M.B 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

E-mail: femi.oluwatusin@eksu.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Food wastage through poor postharvest loss management has contributed to food scarcity and massive importation of food items in Nigeria. The research was mainly carried out to determine the factors influencing postharvest loss management among cassava farmers. The study was conducted in Southwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and fractional regression model were used to analyse the data collected. The results revealed that most (65.8%) of the farmers were below 41 years of age, while 77.5 percent of the household heads were married with the mean household size of about 8 persons. Also the majority (76.3%) were male, while the respondents’ average farm size was 2.3 hectares and 61.3 percent had no access to loans. Most of the farms were far from the markets with the mean distance of 9 kilometers. Those who had formal education were 75 percent while the majority (66.3%) were in contact with extension agents. Those that belonged to farmers groups were 90.8 percent while just 15.4 percent had formal postharvest handling training. In addition, 75 percent got information on postharvest handling practices from friends and relatives while in order to reduce postharvest loss, the majority (67.5%) processed the cassava roots to garri. The main significant determinants of postharvest loss management among the cassava farmers were age, farming experience, farm size, distance of farm to market and educational level. Based on the results of the study, it is recommended that the farmers should be trained formally on postharvest management practices and procedures involved in accessing loans from banks should be reviewed by Central Banks of Nigeria in such a way to attract farmers to bank loans.

[Oluwatusin, Femi Michael. Analysis of Postharvest Losses Management among Cassava Farmers in Nigeria. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):114-121]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.15.

 

Keywords: postharvest loss, training, management, farmers, cassava roots.

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The Utility the Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting Angiographic Reflow After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

 

Safwat Ahmed Hagag Elhawary1, Mamdouh Attia Mohamed Mahmoud2, Ali Ali Ramzy1, Mohamed Sarhan ELsayed1 and Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelaziz Ibrahim3

 

1 Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2 Clinical Pathology Department -Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

3Cardiology Resident, Nasr City Insurance Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

ahmed.m.abdelaziiz@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Impaired coronary flow after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is associated with short and long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Recent studies have demonstrated that platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between admission PLR and angiographic reflow following PPCI. A total of 72 patients with acute STEMI (age 55 10 years; 91% men) occurring within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms who underwent PPCI were enrolled. The PLR and other laboratory parameters were measured before PPCI. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the post-intervention Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade: normal reflow group (defined as post-intervention TIMI grade 3 flow) and none-reflow group (consisted of both patients with angiographic no-reflow defined as post-intervention TIMI grade 0-1 flow and slow flow defined as post-intervention TIMI grade 2 flow). There were 31 patients (22.5%) in none- reflow group (age 54 10 and 93.5% male) and 41 patients in normal reflow group (age 55 11 and 37% male). None-reflow group had significantly higher PLR compared to normal reflow group (196-262) versus (139-180), P=0.009). In logistic regression analysis, PLR (odds ratio (OR): 1.008, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.002-1.014, P<0.001) and were independent predictors of none-reflow after PPCI.

[Safwat Ahmed Hagag Elhawary, Mamdouh Attia Mohamed Mahmoud, Ali Ali Ramzy, Mohamed Sarhan ELsayed and Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelaziz Ibrahim. The Utility the Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting Angiographic Reflow After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):122-126]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.16.

 

Keywords: Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, post-intervention angiographic reflow, ST-segmentelevation myocardial infarction.

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Abnormal heart rate recovery after treadmill stress testing; correlation with clinical, exercise testing and myocardial perfusion parameters in Diabetic patients versus non-Diabetics

 

Abdelrahman Sharaf (1), Islam Shawky (1), Shady Mansy(2) and Ahmed Farouk(2)

 

1Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2Cardiology Department, Al-Mokattam Insurance Hospital, Egypt.

a_f_251@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The increase in heart rate during exercise is considered to be attributed to sympathetic system activation combined with parasympathetic withdrawal. The prognostic importance of heart rate recovery 1 minute after exercise has already been established. Aim of the work: The aim of this study is to evaluate the degree of heart rate recovery after treadmill testing as an index of myocardial ischemia by focusing on the correlation between heart rate recovery and clinical, exercise testing and myocardial perfusion scanning parameters related to ischemia. Material and methods: a prospective study done over a period of one year that included 100 patients (50 diabetics and 50 non diabetics) aged 27-84 years The patients underwent single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging combined with symptom-limited exercise testing with technetium 99m sestamibi. The value for heart rate recovery was defined as the decrease in heart rate from peak exercise to 1 minute after termination of exercise. Nineteen beats per minute was defined as the lowest normal value for heart rate recovery. Results: We found 31 patients with abnormal heart rate recovery 14 patients in the non diabetic group and 17 patients in diabetic group. We also found a significant correlation between heart rate recovery 1 minute after exercise and stress myocardial perfusion results. Patients with an abnormal value of heart rate recovery were generally of an older age, were more likely men and had a higher frequency of risk factors for coronary artery disease. Conclusion: It seems that the heart rate recovery value 1 minute after peak exercise may be considered a reliable index of the severity of myocardial ischemia.

[Abdelrahman Sharaf, Islam Shawky, Shady Mansy and Ahmed Farouk. Abnormal heart rate recovery after treadmill stress testing; correlation with clinical, exercise testing and myocardial perfusion parameters in Diabetic patients versus non-Diabetics. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):127-134]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.17.

 

Keywords: Heart rate recovery • Exercise stress testing • Myocardial perfusion imaging • Myocardial ischemia

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Rheumatoid Arthritis: Cardiovascular Diseases and Dyslipidaemia

 

Saad M. Elzokm1, Mahmud Farag2, Mohamed Adel3 and Ali Mansur4

 

Rheumatology, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation1, Clinical Pathology2, Cardiology3 and Public health & Community Medicine4 Departments, Al-Azhar University - Faculty of Medicine, Damietta, Egypt.

saadalzokm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as myocardial infarction and stroke associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are an increased in the past years. Cardiovascular risks factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia are important but not explain all of the excess risk. Systemic inflammation with classic risk factors may also contribute. The aim of this study to investigate CVDs and lipid profile in RA patients and to determine the correlation between lipids and CVDs. One hundred patients with RA diagnosed according to American Collage of Rheumatology (ACR1987) and ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria were included in this study. The patients subjected to clinical evaluation, lipid profile & Apo lipoprotein A-I, radiological (plain x ray hand and chest), Echocardiography (Echo), stress electrocardiography (ECG) and Carotid Duplex. This study was showed that, the most common cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among the studied cases were Carotid atherosclerosis, heart failure, ischemic heart disease and valvular diseases (59.0%, 34%, 30% and 30.0 % respectively). Most studded cases of RA that complicated with CVDs, had normal level of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride(TG) (86.36 %, 78.40% and 62.5% respectively), with no significant differences with RA patients that not complicated with CVDs. high density lipoprotein (HDL) and Apo lipoprotein A-I were low in most cases of RA that complicated with CVDs (96.59% and 92.05 % respectively), with no significant differences with RA patients that not complicated with CVDs. From this result we found that in spite of TC, LDL, and TG were normal in most our cases of RA, but the incidence of CVDs was high (88.00%) and the incidence of atherosclerosis also was high (59.00%). But HDL and Apo lipoprotein A-I were low in most our cases of RA that complicated with CVDs. So this dyslipidaemia may explain the risk of CVDs in RA patients.. So we recommend that cardiovascular assessment are important to RA patients and dyslipidaemia may correlate with CVDs in RA patients.

[Saad M. Elzokm, Mahmud farag, Mohamed Adel and Ali Mansur. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Cardiovascular Diseases and Dyslipidaemia. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):135-142]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.18.

 

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Dyslipidaemia and Cardiovascular diseases

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Helicobacter pylori infection as a risk factor for insulin resistance in diabetic patients

 

Mahmoud M. Bazeed1, Bahy E. Albahnasawey1, Hesham E. lashin1 and Mekky A. Ali2

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

hlasheen20@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: T2DM is a metabolic disease that is linked to different pathophysiological mechanisms; the role of inflammatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of this disease is highlighted in recent studies. It is believed that inflammation may increase IR. H. pylori gastritis and its role in mucosal activation of innate immunity and upregulation, IL-1B is also suggested in the pathogenesis of IR. Objective: to evaluate the association between H. pylori infection and HOMA-IR in patients with T2DM, who receive appropriate medical treatment other than insulin. Patients and Methods: two groups, the first 43 T2DM patients with H. pylori +ve while the second 17 T2DM patients with H. pylori –ve. All participated patients were subjected for full history taking and complete physical examination with special emphasis on age, duration of DM, type of treatment (oral or insulin), smoking habits, history of epigastric pain or H. pylori treatment, Height, weight, BMI, and BP. Laboratory investigations: CBC, ESR, FPG, 2 hours post prandial plasma glucose, ALT, creatinine, total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-C and HDL-C, HbA1c, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR were calculated and upper GIT endoscopy and CLO test for detection of H. pylori infection. Results: showed that significant increase in fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and HbA1c in +ve CLO group when compared to -ve CLO group while significant decrease in HDL in +ve CLO group when compared to -ve CLO group. Also the study showed that significant positive correlation between fasting insulin and HOMA-IR while significant negative correlation between HDL and HOMA-IR in studied groups. Conclusion: H. pylori infection in patients with T2DM might be a risk factor for increased insulin resistance and HbA1c, but decrease HDL.

[Mahmoud M. Bazeed, Bahy E. Albahnasawey, Hesham E. lashin and Mekky A. Ali. Helicobacter pylori infection as a risk factor for insulin resistance in diabetic patients. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):143-150]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.19.

 

Key Words: Diabetes mellitus Helicobacter pylori, insulin resistance, gastritis.

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A Study of transforming growth factor Beta (TGF β) in bronchial asthma and its relation with disease severity

 

Hendawy Abd El- Moaty Zedan1 and Mohammed Saied El- Shorbagy2

 

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2Department of Clinical Pathology Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

rehabsamy33@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Allergic asthma is classified as a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction. In which IgE plays the main role. The airway hypersensitivity is normally suppressed by regulatory T cells. CD4+ T reg cells secrete latent TGF-β efficiently suppress allergen-specific airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Aim: The aim of the work is to study the level of serum TGFβ1 in patients with bronchial asthma of variable severity. Subjects and Methods: It included three groups; 20 patients with mild asthma, 20 patients with severe asthma and 10 apparent healthy subjects were taken as controls. The diagnosis of bronchial asthma based on Global Initiative for asthma (GINA 2014). All included subjects were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, Pulmonary Function Tests (spirometry), Complete Blood Count (CBC), total IgE and serum TGFβ1 assessment by ELISA. Results: The included subjects were 21 males and 29 female their mean age ware 33+ 9.3 there ware no significant difference between groups regarding age and sex (p = 0.626) there was no significant difference (P = 0.542) in serum TGFβ1 between the bronchial asthma patients and the control subjects. There was no significant correlation (P. 0.122) between the airway hyperreponsiveness and the serum IgE level. There was a highly significance correlation (P. 0.000**) between studied groups as regard PFT. The current results indicated that we can’t use serum TGFβ1 in assessment of bronchial asthma.

[Hendawy Abd El- Moaty Zedan, Mohammed Saied El- Shorbagy. A Study of transforming growth factor Beta (TGF β) in bronchial asthma and its relation with disease severity. Nat Sci 2017;15(1):151-155]. ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj150117.20.

 

Keywords: TFGFB, Treg, bronchial asthma

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from December 21, 2017.

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