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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 6 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 47); January 25, 2013, ISSN 1554-0200

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Mechanism of ESBL Production of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Egypt

 

Hesham M. Mahdy 1, Abdel-Moniem M. Sharaf, Mahmoud M. Al-Aaser 2 and Hamdy M. El-Sayed

 

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2. Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

1. Present address: Biology Department, Faculty of Science and Arts, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, KSA

hamdimustafa1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Extended spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBL) of Klebsiella pneumoniae was studied by investigation the plasmid mediated AmpC, and genes of SHV and TEM enzymes as well as INT and Delta T-cells virulence genes. Out of 92 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains 26 (23.2%) were plasmid mediated AmpC and 10 (10.9%) strains were ESBLs producer. Four clusters of either two or three strains demonstrated more than 50% similarity in their PFGE patterns. The strains with similar PFGE patterns did not have any relationship with each other in time and place of occurrence.

[Hesham M. Mahdy, Abdel-Moniem M. Sharaf, Mahmoud M. Al-Aaser and Hamdy M. El-Sayed. Mechanism of ESBL Production of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Egypt. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):1-8]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.01

 

Keywords: ESBL, Klebsiella pneumoniae, plasmid mediated AmpC, PFGE

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2

The Synthesis and Characterization of Polyoxyethylene Modified Rotenone derivatives

 

Lin Hu*, Yuwen Yu, Juan Wang, kui jiang Wang, Yaqin Zhang, Xiancong Yang, Wenyuan Xu

 

Institute of Applied Chemistry, East China JiaTong University,Nanchang, 330013, PR China. hulin21@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Rotenone is an efficient and safety pesticides, neither pollute agricultural ecological environment and agricultural products, nor do harm to the health of humans and animals, and has a broad prospect for development in the effect of the chemical insecticides[1]. Rotenone and most of its derivatives are highly lipophilic compounds. In some case, it is necessary to improve the water solubility for expanding the application of rotenone as a bio-pesticide. It is well known that polyethers are such kind of hydrophilic compounds due to there are polyalkoxy chains in their structures. If a suitable length of polyalkoxy chain is coupled to the rotenone structure, the hydrophilicity of rotenone should be increased significantly. Here, the molecular structure of rotenone was modified by two processes, first, one of the rotenone’s double bound produced to a hydroxyl by both addition reaction and hydrolysis via reacting with 75% sulfuric acid and water successive, then, the new hydroxyl bound of rotenone reacted with different ratio of ethylene oxide to produce rotenone derivatives with different length of polyalkoxy chains. TLC, IR, NMR are employed to identify the properties of the target products. The results of UV determination indicated that the water solubility of polyoxyethylene modified rotenone derivatives have increased greatly depending on the polymer chain length or the ratio of reactants.

[Lin Hu, Yuwen Yu, Juan Wang, kui jiang Wang, Yaqin Zhang, Xiancong Yang, Wenyuan Xu. The Synthesis and Characterization of Polyoxyethylene Modified Rotenone derivatives. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):9-13]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.02

 

Key words: rotenone, ethylene oxide, polyoxyethylene ether, rotenone hydrolyzate

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3

Effect of Fungal Degradation of Wood Chips on Pulp and Paper Properties at Panafrican Paper Mills, Webuye, Kenya

 

Francis G. Mburu1, Fred N. Muisu1, Peter K. Sirmah1, Joseph M. Mugo2, J.M. Senyanzobe3 Josiah Chepkwony1

 

1Chepkoilel University College Department of Forestry and Wood Science Department, Moi University, P.O. Box 1125-30100 Eldoret, Kenya.

2Karatina University College, School of Natural Resource Management, Moi University, Nyeri, Kenya

3Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (ISAE)- BusogoDepartment of Forestry and Nature Conservation, P.O.Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda

 

Abstract: Losses caused by wood decay fungi in a Pinus patula chip pile in storage were studied for six months at Panafrican Paper Mills, Webuye, Kenya. The losses were quantified in terms of pulp yield, pulp quality, and paper properties. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscope observations confirmed that soft rot, white rot and brown rot caused fungal decay in the pile. Tests on pulp quality showed that severe fungal attack at 1m height reduced fibre length to less than 2.0 mm compared to 3.8 mm for the control at both 1m and 4m height. Pulp yield loss of up to 12.0% was recorded amounting to about 40 ha of pulpwood going to waste per year. Statistical comparisons using the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test indicated that strength values for paper specimens from the degraded chips were significantly lower than that of the control. Paper strength properties decreased substantially within six months with the tensile, tear and burst strengths decreasing by almost 17%, 19.0% and 14.0% respectively. Results indicate that the storage of pulpwood in multiple piles to reduce pile height and reduction in storage time to less than one month coupled with processing of chips on a “first in first out basis” can minimize the amount of degradation. They may be used as a basis for formulating control measures to minimize degradation at different chip heights. It is recommended that the firm adopt these storage practices, install porous material under each pile and construct drainage system to avoid retention of rainwater underneath the piles.

[Mburu F G., Muisu F N., Sirmah P K., Mugo J M., Senyanzobe JMV and Chepkwony J. Effect of Fungal Degradation of Wood Chips on Pulp and Paper Properties at Panafrican Paper Mills, Webuye, Kenya. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):14-19]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.03

 

Keywords: pulp, fungi, degradation, Pinus patula, strength properties

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4

Evaluation and analysis of process of addressing administrative violations in Iran

 

Salari, osman1, Gorji, ali Akbar2

 

1. Ma In Public Law, University Of Tehran

Phone number: 00989124107789; Email: Salariosman@yahoo.com

2. Assistant Professor at School of law at Shahid Beheshti Unversity

 

Abstract: Since meeting general needs of people is one of the most important duties of government, government may neglect some individuals’ rights in implicating these duties; therefore, administrative procedure is an important juridical issue which is considered by Iranian lawyers during the last years. Accordingly, based on laws of addressing administrative violations of governmental employees or some private organizations employees, the court of addressing administrative violations have been created. The present paper is a case study which discusses the process of addressing Iran’s administrative violations according to the relevant laws and executive regulations. Since the involvement of government in doing general affairs and executing industrial and economic plans has increased, there should be special regulations to determine government’s limitations for doing juridical duties and to guarantee individuals’ public interests.

[Salari, osman, Gorji, ali Akbar. Evaluation and analysis of process of addressing administrative violations in Iran. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):20-25]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.04

 

Keywords: addressing administrative, violations, Evaluation, government, organizations employees

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5

Observing the position of fair hearing principles in Iran‘s administrative courts

 

Salari, osman1, Gorji, ali Akbar2

 

1. Ma In Public Law, University Of Tehran

Phone number: 00989124107789; Email: Salariosman@yahoo.com

2. Assistant Professor at School of law at Shahid Beheshti Unversity

 

Abstract: One of the most important and well-known rights among humans is the justice and right during the “fair hearing“, which it has been emerged during the changes in juridical civilization among humans. The justice and right both attributes to the England‘s principle. Surely, the right is in accordance with the human‘s inherence and wisdom, in which divine religions have attracted the humans to the point “justice and right”. As a matter of fact, fair hearing is a judicial proceeding that is conducted in such a manner as to conform to fundamental concepts of justice and equality. Fair hearing means that an individual will have an opportunity to present evidence to support his or her case and to discover what evidence exists against him or her. The present paper is a case study, in which the position of fair hearing principles in Iran‘s administrative courts has been considered ; it could be mentioned that the administrative hearing is one of the important and new units of hearing, in which observing the fair hearing and principles in the hearing is interesting to be discussed.Nonetheless, some prerequisite preconditions in courts and administrative hearings, have made some rights related to fair hearing in courts and punitive, civil and international hearings, which based on particular characteristics of administrative system in different perspectives particularly structure and qualification, this matter could be defined.

[Salari, osman, Gorji, ali Akbar. Observing the position of fair hearing principles in Iran‘s administrative courts. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):26-31]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.05

 

Keywords: administrative, trial principles, inferior board, Court

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Valuation of Trademarks and factors affecting it in the context companies listed in Tehran stoke Exchange.

 

Mohammad Hossein Dasti1, Ali Nasiri Aghdam2, Habibullah Rasouli3

 

1. Persian Gulf International Educational Branch-Islamic Azad University- Khorramshahr-Iran

2. Assistant Professor of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Branch

3. Assistant Professor of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Branch

 

 Abstract: Valuation of Trademarks and factors affecting it in companies Listed in Tehran stoke Exchange. The purpose of this research is to investigate the value of trademarks and factor affecting it in companies listed on Tehran stoke Exchange, the factor that were examined in terms of their impact on trademarks included profitability, sales revenue, operating cash flow, intensity of advertising cost, the ratio of earnings to price per share, size and age of the firm. The data of the research have been analyzed using a statistical sample including 76 listed companies on Tehran stoke Exchange for a time period between the years 1383 to 1388, in the method of combing all data and ordinary least squares regression. The current research included seven hypotheses which studied the relationship between independent variable. the results of the research suggested that profitability, sales revenue, operating cash flow, intensity of advertising cost, the ratio of earnings to price per share, and the age of the firm in the studied companies are significantly associated whit the valuation of trademarks; however, the size of the(manufacturing) company is not significantly associated with trademarks.

[Mohammad Hossein Dasti, Ali Nasiri Aghdam, Habibullah Rasouli. Valuation of Trademarks and factors affecting it in the context companies listed in Tehran stoke Exchange. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):32-38]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.06

 

Keywords: Trademarks, Brand, Performance indices, operating cash flow, the cost of Advertising.

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7

Influence of Climate Changes and Geological Features on Water table Changes in Ghir Plain, Iran

 

Ali Naseri Ghiri1, Farshid Aref2, Bahram Amiri3, Ashkan Khosropour4, Reza Naseri Ghiri5

 

1. Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Firouzabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

2. Department of Soil Science, Firouzabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

3. Department of Soil Science, Firouzabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

4. Department of Mathematics, Frouzabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

5. Department of Computer and Information Technology, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran

ilia_nas@yahoo.com; ilianas2530@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Groundwater in the south of Iran is the most important and the most widely used water resources. Therefore, it is essential to study about groundwater resources in this region. In order to study the influence of climate changes such as rainfall, temperature and also geology on water table changes in Ghir plain, Iran has conducted an eight-year study from 2004 to 2011. Rainfall, temperature, water table and geological formations were evaluated in this study. Also, the relation between climate (temperature and rainfall) and water table and water table changes were appraised through multiple regressions in SPSS. Using Arc GIS, maps were provided to identify plains of Iran, considered wells, water table and geological formations along statistical period. According to the obtained results, it was clear that temperature is inversely related with water table so that water table showed 1.86 meter decrease per each degree more than 25.07ᵒC. There was a direct relation between rainfall and water table height and its changes so that each 477.7 millimeter increases in rainfall increased 1 meter of water table. Based on the results, when data such as temperature and rainfall are available, water table and water table changes are 90% and 87% predictable respectively. It is worth noting that those areas with Gurpi formation showed less change in water table along statistical period in compare with other formations of the plain.

 [Naseri Ghiri A, Aref F, Amiri B, Khosropour, A, Naseri Ghiri R. Influence of Climate Changes and Geological Features on Water table Changes in Ghir Plain, Iran. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):39-49]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.07

 

Keywords: Climate, Geology, Water table, Correlation, Quantity

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8

Construction Of 2-D Electrical Resistivity Field To Characterize The Subsoil In North-Eastern Part Of Alimosho Area Of Lagos State, Nigeria.

 

Oseni S.O*, Adebgola R.B, Ometan O.O and Adeboye D.

 

Department of Physics, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos Nigeria

*Corresponding Author, email: husseinsaheed@yahoo.co.uk

 

ABSTRACT: The Baruwa community of Alimosho Local Government area of Lagos State was surveyed to characterize the subsoil. Results from three (3) 2-D resistivity imaging (tomography) shows a lithologic unit of 3 – 4 geoelctric layers which are clay, clayey sand and coarse sand of resistivity range from 50 -500Ωm with thickness range of 0.5 – 5m. The 2-D resistivity structure shows the subsurface layers, horizontally and vertically up to a depth of 5m clearly indicating the areas of low resistivity that may affect agricultural produce and groundwater development in the study area. It has been shown that geophysical methods are good tools for mapping/imaging subsoil.

[Oseni S.O, Adebgola R.B, Ometan O.O and Adeboye D. Construction Of 2-D Electrical Resistivity Field To Characterize The Subsoil In North-Eastern Part Of Alimosho Area Of Lagos State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):50-54]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.08

 

Keywords: Subsurface, Resistivity, Geoelectric layer, Tomography.

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Flexural Behavior of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Beam with Metakaoline as Partial Replacement for Cement

 

Olowofoyeku Adeoye. Moses1,*, Olowofoyeku Olukemi Oyefunke2, Ofuyantan Olatokunbo3, Nwagwo, Alexander4,*

 

1,3Department of Civil Engineering, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.

adeolowoo@yahoo.com1

2Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria 4Department of Mathematics, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba,College of Technology, Nigeria

naxander2000@yahoo.com4

 

Abstracts: Concrete is one of the most common materials used in the construction industry. In the past few years, many researchers have study and modification has been done to produce concrete which has the desired characteristics. There is always a search for concrete with higher strength and durability. In this matter, blended cement concrete has been introduced to suit the current requirements. Cementitious materials known as pozzolans are used as concrete constituents, in addition to Portland cement. Originally the term pozzolan was associated with naturally formed volcanic ashes and calcined earths will react with lime at ambient temperatures in the presence of water. Recently, the term has been extended to cover all siliceous/aluminous materials which, in finely divided form and in the presence of water, will react with calcium hydroxide to form compounds that possess cementitious properties. The current area of research in the concrete is introducing clay (metakaolin) in the concrete.

 

[Olowofoyeku Adeoye. Moses, Olowofoyeku Olukemi Oyefunke, Ofuyantan Olatokunbo, Nwagwo, Alexander.. Flexural Behavior of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Beam with Metakaoline as Partial Replacement for Cement. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):55-59]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.09

 

Key Words: Metakaolin, High Strength Concrete, Cement, Beam, Pozzolan.

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An Evaluation on the Farmers’ Attitude on Soil Conservation Practices (Case study: Agricultural area of Kardeh Dam- Iran)

 

Bahram Mohammadi Golrang 1, Lai,F.S 2, Shekoofeh Neinavaie 3, Mohad Noor Kamurudin 4, Abd Kudus Kamziah 5, Mojgan Mashayekhi 6

 

1. Department of Forestry Management (ph.D Candidate), Faculty of Forestry, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Malaysia

2. Department of Sustanable (ph.D Candidate), Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Malaysia

2,4,5. Department of Forestry Management (Assoc. Professor), Faculty of Forestry, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Malaysia

6. Department of English (ph.D Candidate), Faculty of Modern Language, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Malaysia

b_golrang@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During the last years, natural resources in Iran have suffered severe degradations. For the sustainable and better management of these resources, various policies have been advised, the most promising of which is the management of natural resources through participation of the local people. However, it has proven difficult to involve local people in natural resources management activities. Therefore there is a great need to know the reason for the low level of participation by the local communities. This study was designed to analyze the relationship between attitude toward watershed management plans and people participation in Iran. The purpose of this study is to assess Farmers’ attitude toward the soil conservation practices in the Kushk-Abad catchment basins in the province of Khorasan Razavi. A sample of 200 farmers was randomly selected from 1200 farmers living in Kardeh catchment basin. A questionnaire was developed and revised by experts’ panel of agricultural education and promotion to confirm the validity of the questionnaire and satisfactory reliability coefficient was obtained as well. The results showed a medium level of soil conservation use by most farmers. It was also found that there is a significant positive correlation between the amount of communication channels, information resources, and access to the IT infrastructures use with our dependent variable i.e. soil conservation implementation. The hierarchical regression analysis was applied in two steps to determine the predictive variables of soil conservation practices which, at the first step, the variables pertaining to the amount of communication channels and information resources were entered followed by variables of access to the ICT infrastructures on the second step as the independent variable. They explain 16.1% of variance of soil conservation practices. The results of this research also showed that the level of the respondent’s attitude toward SCP was relatively high. This study also proved that participation in SCP is positively and significantly correlated with attitude toward SCP (r = 0.534, p =0.000).

[Mohammadi Golrang. B, Lai. F.S, Neinavaie. S, Kamurdin. M.N, Kamziah. A.K, Mashayekhi. M. An Evaluation on the Farmers’ Attitude on Soil Conservation Practices. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):60-67]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.10

 

Keywords: Attitude, People participation, Kushk-Abad, Iran, Soil Conservation Practices (SCP)

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A Comparative Study of Parasites Infecting Some fishes of Shallabugh Wetland, Kashmir

 

Ibraq Khurshid, Fayaz Ahmad and Tanveer A. Sofi.

 

Post Graduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190 006, Kashmir

kibraq@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An investigation of Helminth parasites of Schizothorax (Native fish) and Cyprinus carpio (Exotic fish) collected from Shallabugh Wetland was undertaken for a period of one year from august 2010 to July 2011. Out of 486 fishes collected equally throughout the year, a marked helminth infestation was observed in Schizothorax in comparison to Cyprinus carpio which showed a little trematode infection during the entire period of study. Species of Schizothorax were found to be abundantly infested with trematodes followed by Cestodes and Acanthocephala. However, less infestation oftrematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans was observed in Cyprinus carpio, indicating the susceptible nature of the Schizothorax species to helminth infestation. From the present study, it may be inferred that the susceptibility of Schizothorax species to helminth infestation may be considered as one of the factors responsible for the decline of this native fish from the water bodies of Kashmir valley.

[Ibraq Khurshid, Fayaz Ahmad and Tanveer A. Sofi. A Comparative Study of Parasites Infecting Some fishes of Shallabugh Wetland, Kashmir. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):68-72]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.11

 

Keywords: Helminth, Schizothorax, Cyprinus carpio, Shallabugh Wetland

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Effect Of Fermentation By Pure Cultures Of Lactobacillus Fermentum I And Saccharomyces Cerevisiae As Starter Cultures In The Production Of ‘Burukutu’

 

Ogunbanwo S T,*1 Adewara AO, 2 Patience T, Fowoyo3

 

1&2Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

3.Microbiology Department, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Salem University, P. M. B. 1060, Lokoja, Nigeria

 

Abstract: Single starter cultures of Lactobacillus fermentum 1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their combination were used during fermentation of red sorghum variety (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) to produce burukutu. The proximate, mineral and anti-nutritional analyses of burukutu produced were analyzed. L. fermentum 1as starter culture exhibited the highest acid producing ability, decreasing the pH of the malt from 5.26 to 2.90, with a corresponding increase in the titratable acidity (TTA) from 0.06% to 0.35% during the 72 h fermentation period. The effected changes in pH and TTA by other starter cultures ranged respectively from 5.80 to 4.26 and 0.09% to 0.19% when S. cerevisiae was used as starter culture and 5.12 to 3.09 and 0.05% to 0.30% using combined starter cultures of L. fermentum 1 and S. cerevisiae for pH and TTA respectively. The highest alcohol content (2.650.07%) was observed in burukutu produced with the combined starter cultures of L. fermentum 1 and S. cerevisiae while the lowest alcohol content (1.900.03%) was seen in burukutu produced with L. fermentum 1. The protein content ranged between 1.35% for burukutu samples produced with the combined starter cultures of L. fermentum 1 and S. cerevisiae to 1.31% for samples produced with L. fermentum 1 only. The highest mineral content and lowest antinutritional content was observed in burukutu produced with the combined starter cultures of L. fermentum 1 and S. cerevisiae compared to burukutu produced using the single starter cultures of L. fermentum 1 or S. cerevisiae. The combined use of L. fermentum 1 and S. cerevisiae contributed to the highest characteristic taste, aroma, color and overall acceptability of burukutu produced.

[Ogunbanwo ST, Adewara AO, and Patience T, Fowoyo. Effect of fermentation by pure cultures of Lactobacillus fermentum 1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of burukutu. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):73-81]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.12

 

Keywords: Lactobacillus fermentum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, starter cultures, burukutu, fermentation, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L). Monech).

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Effects of International Fund for Agricultural Development (Ifad) Credit Supply On Rural Farmers In Rivers State, Nigeria.

 

Orebiyi J.S1, Tasie C.M2, Offor U.S2, Uche F.B3

 

1 Agricultural Economics Department, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State.

2Department of Agricultural Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port-Harcourt, Rivers State.

3Department of Agricultural Technology, Rivers State College of Arts and Science, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

tasiecm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study evaluated the effect of IFAD credit supply on rural farmers in Rivers State. Data for the study were collected using a structured questionnaire administered to 90 farmer’s beneficiaries using a multi-stage sampling technique. The regression result shows that semi-log function gave the best fit with the highest value of coefficient of multiple determination (R2) of 0.8758 and seven explanatory variables were significant and a significant F-value. The significant variables are farm size, off-farm income, total household labour, and educational level of farmer, gender, farm household size and IFAD credit. The study also shows that IFAD credit impacted positively on the well-being of rural farmers. The IFAD programme has contributed to increase in farm output and income. The study recommended that IFAD and their collaborating government agencies should expand their credit delivery in the study area to enable more farmers benefit from their services. Also training programme should be organized for all farmers in view of the fact that education produced significant influence on the income of the farmers.

[Orebiyi J.S, Tasie C.M., Offor U.S, Uche F.B. Effects of International Fund for Agricultural Development (Ifad) Credit Supply On Rural Farmers In Rivers State, Nigeria. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):82-88]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.13

 

Keywords-credit supply, rural farmers, Rivers States.

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The Impact of Nutritional Status on the Oral Health in a Group of Egyptian Preschool Children

 

1Wafaa A. Fahmi, 2Mohamed H. Mostafa; 3Magda A. El-malt and 3Al-Shaimaa Abdel Hafiz Abdel Rahim

 

1 Growth and Nutrition Requirement Department, National Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Orthodontic, 3 Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry and Oral Medicine, Alazhar University, Egypt

Drwafaa.fahmi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To study the influence of nutritional status on the oral health. Introduction: Nutrition is one of the modifiable factors that impacts on the host's immune response and integrity of the hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. Diet and nutrition play key roles in tooth development, gingival and oral tissue integrity, bone strength, and the prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Moreover, the impact of nutrient intake systemically affects the development, maintenance, and repair of the teeth and oral tissues. Nutrition and diet affect the oral cavity, and the reverse is also true. A thorough examination of oral cavity can reveal symptoms of nutritional deficiencies, microbial infections, immune disorders and injuries. Few studies have been conducted in Egypt on the inter-relationship between the nutritional status and the assessment of oral health, so the present study was done to clarify the impact of nutritional status on the oral health in a group of Egyptian preschool children. Subjects and Methods: This study is a case control study conducted with a sample of 300 children divided equally. Cases are children aged from 3-5 years attending the pediatric malnutrition outpatient clinic of National Nutrition Institute (NNI), Cairo. Both sexes were included. Malnourished cases with hormonal, metabolic, genetic disorders were excluded. Controls were selected from nurseries and kindergarten department of some schools who were apparently healthy and with normal body weight matching with cases in sexes and age range. The sample was subjected to anthropometric measures (weight and height) Dietary intake data of subjects was collected by a specialist dietitian using 24-hour recall and food frequencies of selected food items. General examination for manifestations of malnutrition was performed for all subjects followed by oral examination of subjects which was taken place under adequate illumination in an ordinary chair. Diagnosis of dental caries was carried out according to dmf index for deciduous teeth Assessment of gingival condition was carried out using Gingival index (GI). Data were collected, checked, revised and entered in the computer. Statistical analysis was performed with PASW Statistics 18.0. Results: The study showed the presence of significant association between caries and malnutrition. Oral soft tissue lesions as tongue glossitis and gingivitis are statistically associated with malnutrition. Malnourished cases consume more cariogenic foods (sweets, crunches and fizzy drinks) than controls, however, the difference was not statistically significant. The daily intake of carbohydrates rich foods regarding tubers and sweetened beverages is more among cases compared to controls although no statistical difference. On the other hand the daily intake of fruits is more among controls although no statistical difference. Cases consumed statistically less mean amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fibers, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and vit D contributing to their bad nutritional status. Mean amount of iron showed higher intake among controls although not significant Protein,calcium, phosphorus, vit D, iron and zinc adequacy is statistically low among cases compared to controls.

[Wafaa A. Fahmi, Mohamed H. Mostafa; Magda A. El-malt and Al-Shaimaa Abdel Hafiz Abdel Rahim. The Impact of Nutritional Status on the Oral Health in a Group of Egyptian Preschool Children. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):89-95]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.14

 

Keyword: malnutrition dental caries

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The Protective Role of the Royal Jelly against Histological Effects of Endoxan Drug on the Testis of the Male Albino Mice

 

Nagla Zaky El–Alfy; Mona Isa; Mahmoud Fathy Mahmoud and Asma Emam

 

Biological and Geological Sciences Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Mahmoudfathy76@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the protective role of royal jelly on the mice after endoxan treatment. Mice were divided into three groups. The first group served as control while the other two groups were treated with endoxan doses and with endoxan and royal jelly respectively. Each endoxan treated animal was intraperitoneally injected one day in week for 4 weeks with 200g/kg body weight while royal jelly treated animals were orally injected daily for 4 weeks with 1g/kg body weight. The damage caused in the testes of mice after endoxan treatment displayed variable changes in both the seminiferous tubules and the interstitial tissue. The histological changes were also significantly increased by time and dose. While treatment with endoxan and royal jelly showed advanced observations.

[Nagla Zaky El–Alfy; Mona Isa; Mahmoud Fathy Mahmoud and Asma Emam. The Protective Role of the Royal Jelly against Histological Effects of Endoxan Drug on the Testis of the Male Albino Mice. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):96-101]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.15

 

Key words: Endoxan, Histology, Histopathology, Testis and Mice.

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Structure - Antioxidant Activity Relationship Study of Eugenol Derivatives Using semi-empirical Method

 

Musa E. Mohamed

 

Department of Chemistry, College of Applied and Industrial Sciences, University Of Bahri, Khartoum State, Khartoum, Sudan

Email address: musa.elballa@gmail.com; Telephone: 00249923023519, Fax: 00-24985294191

 

Abstract: In spite of the large quantity of experimental work, the electronic and structural aspects of Eugenol derivatives responsible for free radical scavenging ability are theoretically analyzed in this paper. Electronic parameters were calculated using the PM6 semi empirical level to calculate a set of molecular properties of Eugenol derivatives. The electronic features found as being responsible for the antioxidant activity of the Eugenol derivatives compounds studied, are the Mullikan net charge of oxygen atom (-OH), the energy of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), the energy gap (EL-EH ), ionization potential and dipole moment.These values are interpreted with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value. The 7th O position in the eugerol compounds have higher charges, hence chelation by metal occur in the 7th position hydroxy group. The antioxidant activities increase with small the energy gap value (EL-EH) and high the net charge. The results of the antioxidant activity are in the following order: diisoeugenol (4) > hydroxymethyl eugerol (3) > eugenol (1) > dihydroeugerol (2) as can be obtained from experimental data. On the basis of these results we are able to design a novel antioxidant with enhanced activity.

[Musa E. Mohamed. Structure - Antioxidant Activity Relationship Study of Eugenol Derivatives using semi-empirical Method. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):102-106]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.16

 

Key words: Eugenol, semi-empirical, Free radical, PM6, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO).

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Lead, zinc and strontium distribution in the oxidation zone, wadi abu ghorban Deposits, Red Sea Coastal Zone, Egypt.

 

Sayed M. Sakr

 

Al- Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Geology Department. sayedsk2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: the lead, zinc and strontium distribution in the oxidation zone of miocene sulphide mineralization occurs at abu ghorban area, red sea coastal zone of egypt was studied. The sulphide ore body is recorded in sandy limestone, consists of argillic–dolomite breccias surrounded by abu dabbab miocene formation. The primary recorded ore minerals are galena (pbs), sphalerite (zns) and celestite srso4. Supergene minerals are cerussite [pb (co)3], shannonite [pb2oco3], lanarkite [pb2(so4)o], lead oxide sulphate [pbso4.pbo], lead silicate hydroxides [pb10(si2o7)3(oh)2], smithite [agass2], embolite [ag (br, cl)], smithonite [znco3], hemimorphite [zn4si2o7(oh)2.h2o], zinc sulphite [znso3], zinc chromium oxides [zncr2o4], and strontium dolomite [mgsr(co3)]. Principal gangue minerals are calcite, dolomite (occasionally smoky), ankerite and quartz. The highest contents of pb (up to 1270 ppm), zn (up to 3400 ppm) and mo (up to 200 ppm) are recorded in the rocks of the fault zone. High content of both pb and mo is recorded in the overburden located nearby the fault zone as well. The bed rock chemical analysis indicates presence of cu (up to 219 ppm), pb (up to 82 ppm), zn (up to 699 ppm) and sr (up to 9932 ppm) reflecting presence of disseminated ore minerals. Moreover, these ore minerals and element distribution favour that, this oxidized mineralized zone represents an upper zone of a deposit. Its lower zone chiefly sphalerite can be expected at deeper level. Lithogeochemical studies to re-evaluate the perspectives of abu ghorban deposit are recommended by drilling to reach its lower zone.

[Sayed M. Sakr. Lead, Zinc and Strontium Distribution in the Oxidation Zone, Wadi Abu Ghorban Deposits, Red Sea Coastal Zone, Egypt. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):107-117]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.17

 

Keywords: Wadi Abu Ghorban, Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Sulphides mineralization, Oxidation zones.

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Mitigation of Excessive Drawdowns via Rotational Groundwater Withdrawal (Case study: El Kharga Oases, Egypt)

 

Safaa M. Soliman

 

Research Institute for Groundwater, National Water Research Center, El Kanter El Khairia, Kalubia, Egypt. safaa_soliman_m@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Groundwater in Egypt plays important roles in the country's water budget. One of these roles is being the sole source of water for the nomads’ communities in the Western Desert. For this role to be sustainable, careful and scientifically based plans for groundwater withdrawal should be developed. The study area of El Kharga Oases depends on groundwater as the primary source for water. The oases are suffering from continuous increase in groundwater drawdowns due the excessive groundwater withdrawal, so it was necessary to study the aquifer of El Kharga Oases to find a solution to this problem that is accepted from stakeholders. In this study a numerical groundwater model was constructed to evaluate the effect of switching to rotational groundwater withdrawal on mitigating excessive drawdowns. In this regard, a MODFLOW package Visual MODFLOW 4.2 was utilized to simulate the proposed rotational withdrawal policy. The model was calibrated for steady state flow conditions with acceptable accuracy; the calibrated model has been run under the rotational withdrawal policy for 3 years to predict the rate of change in groundwater drawdowns. The results show sustainable recovery of groundwater levels throughout the prediction run period.

[Safaa M. Soliman. Mitigation of Excessive Drawdowns via Rotational Groundwater Withdrawal (Case study: El Kharga Oases, Egypt). N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):118-123]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 18

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.18

 

Key word: El Kharga, groundwater, drawdowns, sustainability

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Contribution to the Wild Vascular Floristic Diversity of the Campus of G.B Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India

 

Bhavana Joshi*, Arjun Prasad Tiwari & A.A. Ansari

 

Botanical Survey of India, Central Regional Centre, Allahabad-211002, Uttar Pradesh, India

*bhavanas_joshi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The paper presents the details of vascular plants found wild in the campus of G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India. Out of a total 271 species, 3 are gymnosperms, whereas the remaining 268 species belong to angiosperms representing 204 genera and 69 families. The dominant families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Poaceae. In enumeration (table I) the species are arranged according to the classification of Bentham & Hooker (1862- 1883) with alphabetical arrangement in respective families. The details include correct binomial with authority, basionym if any, local name in capital in inverted commas if any, habitat and flowering and fruiting period. The information will be helpful to teachers, students, research scholars as a checklist and plants under various categories viz. seasonal plants, fast growing / attractive plants, details of the past vegetation of this vast and second largest university campus in the world. Economic plants growing naturally are dealt separately under various categories and for medicinal plants the uses are given in bracket against each species.

 [Joshi B, Tiwari AP, Ansari AA. Contribution to the Wild Vascular Floristic Diversity of the Campus of G.B Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):124-132]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 19

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.19

 

Keywords: Wild floristic diversity; Agricultural University; Seasonal vegetation; Economic plants.

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An Investigation Of The Impact Of Intellectual Capital Elements On Stock Returns Of Companies Listed ON Tehran Stock Exchange

 

Adel Deris1, Hossein Jabbari2, Alireza Jerjerzadeh3

 

1Master of Accounting, Persian Gulf International

Educational Brunch-Islamic Azad University- Bandar Abbas -Iran

2.KASHAN Branch, Islamic Azad University, KASHAN ad University, KASHAN Branch, KMember of Islamic Azad University, KASHAN Branch shan anies Listed ON Tehran Stock Exchang, IRAN.

3.Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN.

 

Abstract: One of the Major Existing limitations and Weaknesses in Traditional Accounting System is the Lack of Intellectual Capital assessment and is Reflection in Companies` Financial Statements. Due to the Importance of intellectual Capital Issue and Willingness of Companies to Asses and report it, This Paper investigates the Impact of the added Value of intellectual Capital Elements (Physical, Human, and Structural Capital) on Stock Returns of Companies Listed on Tehran Stock Exchange During the Years 1385 to 1389. The Study Sample consists of 60 Companies. To Test the Hypotheses, First, Necessary Data Is Collected Based on PULIC Model. In Order to Analysis Data, Combined Data Method and Multivariate Regression Analysis are Used. Software used to Perform Statistical Methods is Eviews6. By Studying Research Literature, Three Hypotheses Were Developed. Results of the First Hypothesis Testing Shows That There is a Positive and Significant Relationship Between Value Added of Physical Capital and Stock Returns. Results of the Second Hypothesis Testing Also Shows that There is a Positive and Significant Relationship Between Value Added of Human Capital and returns on Stocks. Finally, Based on the Third Hypothesis Testing, it Was determine That There is a Positive and Significant Relationship Between Value Added of Structural Capital and Stock Returns.

[Adel Deris, Hossein Jabbari, Alireza Jerjerzadeh. An Investigation of the Impact of Intellectual Capital Elements on Stock Returns of Companies Listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. N Y Sci J 2013;6(1):133-138]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 20

doi:10.7537/marsnys060113.20

 

*KEYWORDS: Physical Capital, Human Capital, Structural Capital, Stock Returns.

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from December 11, 2012. 
 
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