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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

Volume 2 - Issue 1, Cumulated 7, January 15, 2010, ISSN 1553-9873

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Report0201

CONTENTS  

  No.

Titles / Authors

page

1

The Intelligent Hybrid

M.F.A. Alrazak

Email: theintelligenthybrid@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract: The origin of the human species has been a constant research of both science and religions for countless years, with both sides offering their own unique perspectives. However a new theory has come into light which presents itself from both science and religious facts, with each providing evidence to aid the other. This distinguishes the theory from many others, as it removes the common assumption that science and religion are in constant opposition regarding human origin and evolution. Human Beings are an Intelligent Hybrid species, an offspring of reproduction between Mankind (who in this case descendants of Adam) and Humankind (who in this case descendants of Homo sapiens).” The recent discovery of the IDA fossil in Germany plans is another evidence and an important part in the scientific chain of events, as its presence implies that it most likely the renowned “missing link”. Knowledge gathered and combined from such figures as the Greek philosopher Empedocles, the Arabic biologist Al-Jahiz and  the Muslim philosopher Ibn Miskawayh and the Chinese philosopher Zhuangzi and others was the core of any evolution idea that emerge later and  tried to explained the origin, the adaptation, the existence of the species including mankind and human species. The  idea of evolution and  transmutation of species  by Al-Jahiz, Ibn Miskawayh's al-Fawz al-Asghar and the Brethren of Purity's Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity (The Epistles of Ikhwan al-Safa) developed theories on evolution  was most likely studied by  Charles Darwin, Alfred Wallace and many others. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):1-5]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.01

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The Macrobenthos And The Fishes Of A Tropical Estuarine Creek In Lagos, South-Western NigeriaBabatunde E. Emmanuel* and Christiana A. Ogunwenmo

Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos,

Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

 monetemi@yahoo.com  

Abstract: The physico – chemical parameters, macrobenthos and the fishes of Abule Agege creek were examined between January and July 2004. The creek exhibited the usual alkaline properties with pH values ranging between 7.30 and 9.20.The physical and chemical and sediment parameters exhibited known ranges and regimes for a tropical estuarine system. Five species belonging to the phyla mollusca and annelida were recorded. The species richness or evenness for the macrobenthos was highest in July (0.73) and the least value was recorded in April (0.38). Furthermore, Margalef’s species richness was highest in January (1.12) and lowest in May and June (0.54). Likewise, the species diversity was highest in January (1.11) and lowest in April (0.61). The most abundant fin fish was Sarotherodon melanotheron (70.34%) and the least occurring were Clarias gariepinus, Parachanna obscura, Citharus linguatula and Liza falcipinnus which all recorded 0.13% each. The most abundant shell fish was Callinectes amnicola (4.82 %) and the lowest occurred was Penaeus notialis (1.27%) of the overall catch. The effect of anthropogenic induced stressors had resulted in an unstable physically controlled environment characterized by a low density of species for both macrobenthos and fish species. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):6-13]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.02

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Biomonitoring of indicator and emerging pathogens in piped drinking water in Ludhiana

P. Sahota and G. Pandove

Department of Microbiology, Punjab   Agricultural University,   Ludhiana-141 004, India

Email:  psahota5@yahoo.com and gpandoveg@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: The coliform group of bacteria has remained the corner stone of national drinking water regulation. Epidemiological surveillance of 110 samples in Ludhiana city included treated source water, treated piped water and treated piped filtered water. A total of 73 (66%) of samples were non-potable. The piped water tested potable by conventional indicator technique were positive for emerging pathogens so researchers has focused on safe drinking water regulation amendment. The emerging and environmental contaminants isolates were Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterocolitica Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas. These contaminants capable of growth in low nutrient condition, (similar to water distribution system) should be proposed as indicators of distribution system integrity. The occurrence is suggestive of inadequate chlorination and potential biofilm formation in pipes. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):14-21]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.03

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Dietary Methionine Requirement Of C. Gariepinus Fingerlings And Its Effect On The Growth And Body Composition

Ovie S. O. and Eze S.

National Insstitute for Freshwater Fisheries Research, P.M.B.6006 New Bussa Nigeria

Stella_ovie@yahoo.com; 08054504166

Abstract: The experiment was conducted to determine the methionine requirement for Clarias gariepinus and its effect on growth and body composition. Hatchery bred fingerlings of C. gariepinus (2.97.036g) were stocked in eighteen 54L glass aquaria. Six diets (40% crude protein) consisting of a basal diet containing 1.81g methionine/100g protein from the ingredients soyabean and guinea corn was formulated, a reference diet (3.12g methionine/ 100g protein) and others having graded levels of crystalline methionine (2.87, 2.97, 3.00 and 3.07g/100g protein). Each diet was fed to three aquaria twice daily (8.00 – 18.00hrs) for 56 days. The mean weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were significantly influenced by the level of methionine (P<0.05). Second order polynomial regression analysis showed that the requirement of C. gariepinus for methionine is 2.97g/100g protein. Carcass protein showed an increase above that of the initial fish stocked before feeding commenced. The percentage lipid also increased except for the fish fed 3.07g methionine/ 100g protein. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):22-27]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.04

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[Report and Opinion 2010;2(1):28-32]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.05

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Performance and Egg Quality Characteristics of Layers Fed Diets Containing Combinations of Brewers Dried Grains, Jack Bean and Cassava Root Meal

Martins Chukwudi Uchegbu1, Udo Herbert2, Ifeanyi Princewill Ogbuewu1*, Chibuzo Hope Nwaodu1, Babington Onyemaechi Esonu1, Adive Boniface Ikeli Udedibie1

1. Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B.1526,

Owerri, Imo State - Nigeria.

2. Department of Animal Production and Management, College of Animal Science and Animal     Production, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State - Nigeria.

Princiano2001@yahoo.com

Abstract: The performance, egg quality characteristics and feed cost of layers fed combinations of maize/sorghum-based brewers dried grains (MSBDG), jack bean (JB) and cassava root meal (CRM) in replacement of maize. Four treatment diets: LD1, LD2, LD3 and LD4 were formulated such that they contained maize, MSBDG, JB and CRM in the following proportions: 50, 0, 0, 0%; 0, 10, 15, 25%; 0, 10, 20, 20% and 0, 10, 25, 15% respectively. Ninety six Shika brown layers were divided into 4 treatment groups of 24 birds each and each group subdivided into 3 replicates of 8 birds. The birds were randomly assigned to the diets in a completely randomized design experiment. Nine eggs were selected from each treatment group on the last day of the 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th week for egg quality analysis. The egg weight of LD2 birds was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of LD3 birds. The birds on LD1 had superior feed conversion ratio value which was significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of LD2 and LD3 birds. The Haugh unit for LD1 and LD2 birds were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of LD3. The shell thickness value for LD1 birds differed significantly (p<0.05) with that of LD4 birds. All the other parameters measured were similar among the groups. In terms of cost of feed required to produce 1kg egg, MSBDG/JB/CRM diets were cheaper, being 6.27%, 5.59% and 14.42% lower than the cost of feed required to produce 1kg egg for LD1 diet. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):33-37]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.06

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Autoregressive model of Sweet orange ( Citru sciensis L. osbeck) productivity in Ibadan, Nigeria

 *Oludare, O.Ariyo1, Taofeek.O.Dauda 2 Abayomi, A.Olaniyan1 and Bernard, O. Okafor1

 1. National Horticultural Research Institute, Citrus Programme, PMB, 5432, Jericho Idi Ishin, Ibadan, Nigeria.

   2. Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University

PMB 5029, Moor Plantation. Ibadan, Nigeria.

*.Corresponding Author E-mail ariyosam@yahoo.com; Tel:+234-08035206932.

 Abstract: Autoregressive model of citrus productivity is important in view of the need to strike a balance between its meeting consumers’ demand as well as justifying farmers’ input. This study was carried out to evaluate citrus productivity through an autoregressive model using data from the citrus orchard established by the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan in 1977. The citrus orchard covered 20ha of alfisoil, composes of twelve varieties of sweet oranges which represents the blocks while the annuals yield represents the treatments. The results of the analysis of variance showed that the annual yields of citrus regardless of the variety are significantly different from one another because the F- statistics 1578120  returned for the year is greater than F (23, 576: 0.01) = 2.26. Also, there exist significant difference in the mean yield of the variety irrespective of the year because, the 369479 returned for the variety is greater than F (11, 576: 0.01) = 3.60. The interaction of the year by variety of the yield of citrus clearly indicated a significantly different result since the mean (9095.06) returned for the interaction was greater than F (253, 576: 0.01) = 1.00. Yield extension rate (YER) of the citrus yield does not follow a regular pattern and it differs across the different period with no two periods (xij) having the same mean YER. The auto regression analysis of the citrus yield gave a linear relationship between the current yield and preceding year’s yield of citrus with a very high coefficient of determination (0.993) and a very low residual ().. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):38-42]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.07

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8

Effect of Mass of Flowing Oil on Its Erosional Velocity and Corrosion in Pipeline

Chukwuka Ikechukwu Nwoye

Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri,  Nigeria.

chikeyn@yahoo.com

Abstract: Studies carried out to investigate the effect of mass of flowing oil on its erosional velocity and corrosion in pipeline. The result of the investigation reveals that increase in both volume of oil flow and internal radius of pipeline increases the erosional velocity and invariably enhance erosion corrosion due to mechanical wears resulting from relative movement between the fluid and wall of the pipe. It was discovered that increase in mass of flowing oil slows down the erosional velocity due to the gliding effect of oil particles on each other, hence reducing the tendency for erosion corrosion. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):43-45]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.08

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9

Oral Vaccination of Nile Tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) Against Motile Aeromonas Septicaemia

Noor El Deen Ahmed  Ismail(1), Nagwa Sad. Atta I (2 and Abd E Aziz ,Mohamed .Ahmed(3)

1)    Dept. of Hydrobiology , National Research Centre(, N.R.C).

(2) Dept. of Microbiology, N.R.C.

 3) Dept. of Fish Diseases, Fac.of Vet Med. Cairo.

 dr_ahmednoor2002@yahoo.com

Abstract: The present study was planned for preparation of formalin inactivated wet-packed whole cells Aeromonas hydrophila   bacterin for oral vaccination. The humeral antibody response of vaccinated Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus (O. niloticus) was determined by micro-agglutination test. Moreover efficacy of the prepared bacterin against infection with Aeromonas hydrophila   was detection and calculated as a relative level of protection. Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) immunized orally with formalin-inactivated  Aeromonas hydrophila  .wet-packed while cells had low level of antibody titer reached 2 and 3 by log2 at first and fourth week post-immunization respectively while Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) fed on minced meat without vaccine had antibody titer reached 1 by log 2 throughout the experimental period . The relative level of protection among Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) immunized orally were 86.8. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):46-51]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.09

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10

Technical Efficiency and Cost of Production among Gum Arabic Farmers in Jigawa State, Nigeria

 Giroh, D.Y. Waizah,  Y, and  H.Y.Umar

 Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 1049, Benin City, Nigeria.

 girohdengle@yahoo.com , yzer338@yahoo.com  , uhaliru@yahoo.com

Abstract: The paper investigated the cost of gum arabic production with a view to understanding the functional relationship between cost of production and technical efficiency of gum arabic farmers as well as some socio- economic variables. The study covered some selected local government areas of Jigawa State. Stochastic and cost functions were fitted to the data. The results showed that the variance parameters (sigma squared (σ2 ) and gamma(γ) are  statistically different form zero at 1 percent. The coefficients for farm size and hired labour are statistically significant. Farmers were efficient in the use of resources with greater reduction in cost which can be achieved through efficiency improvement. It is therefore recommended that improvements in the efficiency levels of farmers by training them at minimal cost would sustain gum arabic production. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):52-57]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.10

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11

Effects Of Supplementing Fish Meal With Garden Snail (Limicolaria Spp.) In Clarias gariepinus Diets

Ovie SO1, Adejayan  AB1

National Institute For Freshwater Fisheries Research, P. M. B. 6006 New Bussa Niger State,  Nigeria stella_ovie@yahoo.com

Abstact: Fingerling C. gariepinus of mean weight 3.0g were stocked 20 fish per through in a mini flow-through system consisting of fifteen troughs and fed diets containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of garden snails as replacement for fish meal for 42 days. Each treatment was replicated thrice. It was observed that garden snails were better utilized than fish meal as the fish fed 25% garden snail had a superior growth to the control. There was no significant difference (P.0>05) in the mean weight gain, food conversion ratio, specific growth rate, gross feed conversion efficiency and condition factor of fish fed the varying levels of garden snail. The fish fed 75% garden snail had a lower growth as a result of mortality. It is suggested that 25% garden snails can be efficiently utilized in C. gariepinus diets. This study also showed that the protein quality of garden snails compares well with that of fish meal. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):58-62]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.11

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SOCIO-ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF CATFISH, Clarias gariepinus PRODUCTION IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

*Emmanuel, B.E. and Omotoriogun, W.M.

Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka – Yaba, Lagos.

monetemi@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: The socio-economic viability of catfish, Clarias gariepinus culture was investigated in some farms in Lagos State between October, 2006 and March, 2007.  Two of the farms operated earthen ponds while other used concrete ponds.  The market fish price (N400 – N1, 200), revealed that fish business is more viable for fish mongers than the growers (farmers).  The debt/asset ratio of the farms was less than one indicates a solvent business.  The net worth of the farms indicated that the farms were growing.  The equity/asset ratio of the farms was equal to 1.  The financial outcome of the farm ranged between N48, 210 (USD 401.75) and N1, 841,002 (USD 15,341.68) depending on the size of the farm.  The larger the farm, the higher the profit catfish culture is economically viable in Lagos State. [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):63-73]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.12

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Exploitation of Genetic Variability in Cowpea Improvement to High Soil Moisture Tolerance: 1.  Effects on growth and yield in diverse environments

 D. O. Idahosa J. E. Alika2 and A. U. Omoregie1

    1. Department of Crop Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

    2. Department of Crop Science, University of Benin, Nigeria.

E-mail: danielidahosa@yahoo.com  

Abstract: The adaptability of a genotype over diverse environments is evaluated by the degree of its interaction wth different environments in whch it is grown. In this paer, twenty-five germplasm lines together with three local cultivars of cowpea were assessed in four environments (E1, E2, E3 and E4) for vegetative, grain yields and related traits. Variance mean squares indicated highly substantial significant differences among germplasm for all characters and resulted in genotype-environment interaction for days to 50% earliness, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, seed size and grain yield. Mean effects for yield and its attributes over the four pooled environments revealed substantial genotypic difference as influenced by high soil moisture in the expression of the characters with changes in environments. Most of the characters expressed highest mean performance in E2 for plant height (87.47 cm), leaf area index (LAI) (7.08), days to 50% maturity (84.33), pod length (21.87g), seeds per pod (16.87) and grain yield (541.8kg/ha). The wide genotypic variations observed in characters in the diverse environments in the germplasm tested can be explored in improvement and selection programmes to high moisture tolerance in cowpea. [Report and Opinion 2010:2(1):74-77] (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.13

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Radius of photon orbit of rotating Black hole

Manjunath.R

#16, 8th Main road, Shivanagar, Rajajinagar, Bangalore-560010

Karnataka, India

manjunathr1988@yahoo.in

Abstract: A photon sphere is a spherical region of space where gravity is strong enough that photons are forced to travel in orbits . As photons travel near the event horizon of a black hole they can escape being pulled in by the gravity of a black hole by traveling at a nearly vertical direction known as an exit cone. A photon on the boundary of this cone will not completely escape the gravity of the black hole. Instead it orbits the black hole. These orbits are not stable. Radius of  photon orbit around the rotating black hole is defined as a function of intense gravitational field intensity of rotating blackhole ,Spin parameter of rotating blackhole and Angular momentum of rotating blackhole.  The above equation was developed based on the newton gravitational concepts,basic concepts of  blackhole and Einstein’s famous  mass energy equivalence relationship. [Report and Opinion 2010:2(1):78-81] (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.14

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 [Report and Opinion. 2010;2(1):82-87]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.15

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Response to Sulfur and Organic Matter Status by the Application of Sulfidic Materials in S-Deficient Soils in Bangladesh: Possibilities and Opportunities 

Abul Hasnat Md. Shamim1, 2 and Farook Ahmed1

1Graduate School of environmental Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan

2School of Agriculture and Rural Development, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur-1705, Bangladesh

abulhasnats@yahoo.com

Abstract: The sulfidic materials (SM)/layers of acid sulfate soils deserve attention to use these soil materials for the reclamation of sulfur deficient soil and other poor soils such as saline, alkaline, or calcareous (Khan et al. 2002). The availability of land for growing crops is limited; it may become inevitable to utilize marginal and problem soils. Sulfur deficiency has become widespread over the past several decades in most of the agricultural areas of the world including Bangladesh, which have need of sustainable measures for their reclamation. The content of available sulfur in the soils were increased by the application of SM, regardless of soil conditions and the effects were significantly positive (p≤0.05) with the ahead of time in compared to other treatments like gypsum, magnesium sulfate etc. At the same time, all the rates of SM showed the significantly (p≤0.05) positive effects on organic matter status in the soils and increments were more striking with the higher rates. This means the SM has potential and effective impacts than that of gypsum or magnesium sulfate not only as a source of fertilizer but also to enrich the fertility and productivity status of soil. Moreover, the SM treatment was found to be maintained the high nutrient status in the soil till the final harvest at maturity of different crops, reflecting a good indication for its long term use. It is mentioned that the use of SM did not show any harmful effect on the plant and soil in Bangladesh so far. [Report and Opinion 2010;2(1):88-93] (ISSN:1553-9873).

doi:10.7537/marsroj020110.16

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Effect of Sacrificial Anode Power Dissipation on Its Anode Life

Chukwuka Ikechukwu Nwoye1, Udeme Okure1, Uzoma Odumodu2  and Chizoba Chinedu Nwoye3

1 Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

2 Pipeline Maintenance Department, M. F. Kent Services Nig. Ltd. Port-Harcourt Nigeria.

3 Pipeline Maintenance Department, Weatherford Nig. Ltd. Port-Harcourt Nigeria.

chikeyn@yahoo.com

Abstract:  Studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of sacrificial anode power dissipation on its anode life. The results of the investigation show that decrease in the power dissipated by the sacrificial anode during the discharge of current, increases the anode life. This resulted from the fact that decrease in the power dissipation implies increased resident energy of the sacrificial anode hence, the greater the length of time the sacrificial anode can perform its protective function. It was also found that increase in the electrical resistance of the sacrificial anode increases the anode life. This results from reduction in the discharged current and minimization of power dissipation. [Report and Opinion. 1010;2(1):94-97]. (ISSN: 1553-9873).

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