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Science Journal

 

Report and Opinion

 

Volume 3 - Issue 4, Cumulated 22, April 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-9873

 

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

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CONTENTS  

 

  No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

  No.

1

Phytochemical Evaluation of some Anti-malarial Medicinal Plants used in the Dangbe West District of Ghana.

 

*Achel Daniel Gyingiri1, Asase Alex3, Akwetey George Ashong3 Adu-Bobi Nana Adu-Kobi, Adaboro Mba Rudolph1, Donkor Shadrack1,  Achoribo Elorm Seyram 1 Fianko Joseph Richmond2

 

1. Applied Radiation Biology Centre, Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, Accra, Ghana

2. Environmental Chemistry Division, National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, Accra, Ghana

3. Department of Botany, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana

gachel@um.es; gachel@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of six plants used to treat malaria by folklore in the Dange West district of Ghana were screened qualitatively for their photochemical constituents as well as evaluated for total flavonoids, phenolic contents and antioxidants capacities. Tannins, cardiac glycosides and saponnis were found to be present in most of the plant extracts studied. Alkaloids were absent in the extracts of G. Sp and S. siamea whereas D. pinnata and V. amygdalina lacked combined anthroquinones. Phlobatannins and anthroquinones were present in ethanol extracts of S. alata and aqueous extracts S. siamea.  Phlobatannins were further present in ethanol extract of G. sp as antroquinones were detected in aqueous extract of S. torvum. Even though the highest phenolic content of 6.858 0.495 % was measured in the ethanolic extract of S. siamea neither solvent seemed to perform better at extracting phenolic compounds from the different plants. Total antioxidant activity was measured based on the reduction of Mo (VI) to Mo (V) by the extracts and subsequent formation of green phosphate/Mo (V) complex at acid pH. Overall, ethanol extracts showed relatively high antioxidant concentrations, which were also demonstrated by correspondingly high flavonoid content. All the plants studied had remarkable ability to quench DPPH. Extracts of S, siamea, which gave the highest total phenolic content, elicited the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity as well as demonstrating high total antioxidant content. These findings suggest that the rich phytochemical content of the medicinal plants herein analyzed and their good antioxidant activity may be responsible for their popular and wide traditional use and may offer effective protection from free radicals leading to reduction in oxidant stress in malarial conditions. This probably validates the basis for the traditional use of these plants against for the ailments claimed.

[Achel Daniel Gyingiri, Asase Alex,  Akwetey George Ashong,  Adu-Bobi Nana Afua Adu-Kobi, Adaboro Mba Rudolph , Donkor Shadrack,  Achoribo, Elorm Seyram,  Fianko Joseph Richmond. Phytochemical Evaluation of some Anti-malarial Medicinal Plants used in the Dangbe West District of Ghana. Report and Opinion 2011;3(4):1-7]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030411.01

 

Keywords: Antioxidants, malaria, free-radicals, oxidant stress, phytochemical constituents

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2

Fermentation dynamics during production of ogi, a Nigerian fermented cereal porridge.

 

Omemu, A.M.

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB), PMB, 2240, Nigeria.  bjomemu@yahoo.com; amomemu@gmail.com; omemuam@unaab.edu.ng.

+234-8023218008

 

Abstract: Fermentation dynamics including growth kinetics and physico-chemical changes during fermentation of ogi was studied. The population of filamentous moulds declined significantly (P < 0.05) during fermentation from 6.8 log10 cfu/g at 0 h to 3.7log10 cfu/g at 12 h of steeping; thereafter no mould population was observed again throughout the fermentation period. The moulds isolated were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus,  Rhizopus nigricans, Fussarium subglutinans  and Penicilium citrinum. Continuous increase in yeast population was observed throughout the fermentation period. Similarly, LAB population increased significantly (P>0.05) from 4.65 log10 cfu/g at 0h of soaking to 7.0 log10 cfu/g at 48h soaking. The yeasts isolated during the fermentation period include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula graminis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, Geotrichum candidum  and Geotrichum fermentum. The LAB isolates were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis. The temperature of fermenting maize remained relatively constant between 28C to 30C throughout the fermentation. The pH decreased and acidity increased during fermentation. Reducing sugar increased gradually throughout the steeping period.  During the souring stage however, there was a progressive decrease in the level of reducing sugar with the length of the souring period.

Report and Opinion 2011;3(4):8-17]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030411.02

 

Key words: Ash, Fermentation, Moulds, Lactic acid bacteria, Reducing sugars and Yeasts.

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3

Assessing Adult characteristics and Compared with children

 

1 Khatereh siyar, 2 Ghasem Nikbakhsh and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adult illiteracy is like a disease that infects virtually every dimension of Kentucky life. Adult illiteracy saps the energy and capability of Kentucky’s people and its economy. Adult illiteracy feeds the state’s unemployment, its welfare rolls, and the correctional institutions. Adult illiteracy severely hinders the life chances of young children, undermines school reform, and limits the opportunities for postsecondary education. The field of adult education and literacy is plagued by confusion about definitions. Over the years definitions have evolved from provisions in federal law and initiatives of groups advocating particular methodologies or the needs of specific adult populations. The result is that definitions tend to merge statements about the goals to be achieved (e.g., improving the literacy of a particular population) with a particular means (e.g., adult basic education) to achieve the goal.

 [Khatereh siyar, Ghasem Nikbakhsh and  Mehdi Nazarpour. Assessing Adult characteristics and Compared with children. Report and Opinion 2011;3(4):18-22]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030411.03

Keywords: adult education, children education

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4

Distance education: its role in improving adult education

 

1 Mohammadreza Ghaffari, 2Khatereh siyar and 3 Abbas Emami

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

Abstract: Getting a college education can be difficult for people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Frequent trips to the restroom, exhaustion, doctor visits, and medication side effects are all barriers to the traditional college experience. What if you could get the degree without ever setting foot on a campus? You can do just that through distance or virtual learning. Distance learning has been around for a long time (we've all seen the commercials on TV). While there is still prejudice surrounding some distance learning, it is increasingly being accepted as an alternative to traditional classroom learning. Courses can be offered via the Internet, where students are able to interact with instructors and other students without physically being in the same room.

[Mohammadreza Ghaffari, Khatereh siyar and  Abbas Emami. Distance education: its role in improving adult education. Report and Opinion 2011;3(4):23-29]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030411.04

Keywords: Distance education, adult education

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5

Lesson Plans for Adults: methods and challenges

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Though rarer today then in the past, some teachers discount the importance of learning styles. They continue to teach in their one major method without trying to vary instructional methods. This is a mistake that will lead to less learning in the classroom.  On the other hand, many students and to a lesser degree some teachers make the mistake of thinking that they cannot learn using methods that are not focused on their learning style. This is also a huge mistake that in the end will result in less learning. If teachers do not help their students find ways to be successful learning information presented in any style, they are not helping them succeed in the future. The fact is that students will be faced with many different styles of teaching during the educational career. Only by finding ways to adapt and learn using other styles, will students end up succeeding.

 [Sharareh Khodamoradi  and Mohammad Abedi]. Lesson Plans for Adults: methods and challenges. Report and Opinion 2011;3(4):30-35]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030411.05

Keywords: adult learning, Lesson Plans

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6

Assessing of Adult Teaching Principles

 

Mohammad Abedi

 

Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

* abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: When the student is ready, the teacher appears” is a Buddhist proverb packed with wisdom. No matter how hard a teacher tries, if the student isn’t ready to learn, chances are good he or she won’t. What does this mean for you as a teacher of adults? Luckily, your students are in your classroom because they want to be. They’ve already determined that the time is right. It’s your job to listen carefully for teaching moments and take advantage of them. When a student says or does something that triggers a topic on your agenda, be flexible and teach it right then. If that would wreak havoc on your schedule, which is often the case, teach a bit about it rather than saying flat out that they’ll have to wait until later in the program. By then, you may have lost their interest.

 [Mohammad Abedi]. Assessing of Adult Teaching Principles. Report and Opinion 2011;3(4):36-42]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030411.06

 

Keywords: adult education, Teaching Principles

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7

Some Andragogy assumptions and its technological concepts

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Children in conditions of complete dependence on the world are entering their every need (except biological functions) should be provided by someone else.'s First baby picture of himself as a separate personality dependent personality towards her when actually takes his life by itself be managed. At home, at play, at church, school and society expects of her adolescence and adulthood goes to impose his will. This concept to encourage the adult environment is dependent. In fact, the definition of community as an individual child is learning his job all the time and this is a passive role, one receives the inforHere, the child self is formed and he sees himself that the necessary capacity for decision making for own decisions in his first test takes a small and does not exceed the adult world, but gradually increased and the range of decisions than he is the concept of children in their own way of guidance is movingmation and shall save and teachers should be that children decide what information.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi  and Mohammad Abedi]. Some Andragogy assumptions and its technological concepts. Report and Opinion 2011;3(4):43-47]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030411.07

 

Keywords: adult education

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8

Information Amount and Entropy of Black Holes(BH) Mb and its

Hawking Quantum Radiation(HQR) mss

== The total information amount Im of a BH of Mb, Im = 4GMb2/C. The minimum information unit Io of any mss of any BH included Mbm = mp, Io = h/2π = 1 bit .The entropy SBbm of Mbm = mp, SBbm= p. The total entropy SBM of a BH of Mb, SBM = (π/Io) Im = (π/Io) 4GMb2/C = 2p2Rb2C3/hG==

 

Dongsheng   Zhang    张洞生

Graduated in 1957 from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. China

Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com

 

Abstract】。Hawking theories about BHs have been the epoch-making significances, they were build on the foundations of quantum mechanics and thermo-mechanics. Hawking proposed any BH being temperature on its Event Horizon (EH) Rb, and having Hawking quantum radiations(HQR) mee to be emitted out. As the result, BHs could lose its energy-matters Mb reduce its Rb and disappear finally in Planck ERa. It is said, any BH must accord with the same general law of life and death as anything in the Universe. [1].Although Hawking  derived out the famous temperature Tb formula on Rb of BHs, i.e, Tb Mb = (C 3/4G) (h /2πκ), it is the greatest contribution to the theories of BHs. The second famous formula about BHs is Schwarzchild solution to EGTR, i.e, GMb/Rb = C 2/2, it is the existent condition of any BH.  However, those two formulas are not enough to solve many important problems about the properties and destiny of BHs, because the amount of mss could not be found out by Hawking. He might be over-wholeheartedly busy to look for mss from virtual particles in Dirac’s sea as to neglect to find out mss from classical theories. In this article, author can find out the relationships of exact numerable values between HQR mss and Mb, Io, Im, SB, SBm etc.

[Dongsheng Zhang. Information Amount and Entropy of Black Holes(BH) Mb and its Hawking Quantum Radiation(HQR) mss. Report and Opinion 2011;3(4):48-51]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030411.08

 

Key Words. Black Hole(BH); Hawking Quantum Radiation(HQR-- mss); Information amount Im and Io of BHs and mss; Entropy of BHs-- SB, SBm

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9

Post Harvest Microbial Deterioration of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Fruits

 

Matthew, Titus

 

Department of Biology, College of Education, Minna.

titus_matthew@yahoo.com  Mobile Phone: +2348051148803

 

ABSTRACT: This research looked into microbial, chemical and environmental causes of the rotting of this all important vegetable. A total of eight microorganisms (Fungi and Bacteria) were isolated from deteriorating tomato fruits. These isolates were used to carry out pathogenicity tests on wounded and unwounded healthy fruits and it was found out that fungi generally cause more deterioration than bacteria. Tests were carried out to ascertain the effect of temperature and milton on the rotting of the fruits. It was observed that deterioration increases with increase in temperature. Treatment with milton effectively reduced rotting. Ascorbic acid level in the fresh and deteriorating fruits was also experimented. The results showed a decrease in ascorbic level with increased deterioration.

[Matthew, Titus. Post Harvest Microbial Deterioration of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Fruits. Report and Opinion 2011;3(4):52-57]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsroj030411.09

 

KEY WORDS: Post-harvest,  Microbial, Deterioration, Tomato, Fruits

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10

Hiv/Aids Scourge: A Threat To Health And National Development.

 

Muhammad Sanusi Abdul (Ph.D)

 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

NIGER STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, MINNA

 

Abstract: Researchers and scientists all over the World are working round the clock each day to find a clue to the AIDS scourge.  AIDS with its present record has claimed lives more than the first and second World War put together (Adekunle, 2007). The global epidemiological report and estimation on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a killer disease of global repute is posing an “Operation kill them all posture”.  It appears as if the disease is determined to wipe out the entire human race.  Therefore, all necessary measures must be embarked to stop the disease. The main thrust of this paper therefore, is to educate the public on HIV/AIDS, its causes, symptoms, prevention and threat to health and national development. The paper finally recommended global propaganda against the scourge among others.

[Muhammad Sanusi Abdul. Hiv/Aids Scourge: A Threat To Health And National Development. Report and Opinion 2011;3(4):58-64]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net

doi:10.7537/marsroj030411.10

 

KEY WORDS: HIV/AIDS, Threat, Health, Nutritional, Development

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11

Staphylococcus aureus-induced Otitis media in the General Hospital Maiduguri,Nigeria and Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the Aetiological Bacterial Agent.

 

Lamido T. Zaria1, Ibrahim A. Raufu1, Linda C. Osaji2

1. Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

2. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri. Nigeria.

raufuib@yahoo.com

Abstract: Investigations were carried out on Staphylococcus aureus-induced otitis media in patients attending the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of the General Hospital Maiduguri Nigeria between August-September 2008 including the antibiotic sensitivity of the aetiological bacterial agent. A total of 108 swab samples were collected aseptically from ear discharges of male and female out-patients with major complaints of infections of the middle ear (otitis media) and clinically diagnosed of having chronic suppurative otitis media with or without discharges. Out of the 108 patients examined, 42 (38.89%) were positive for S. aureus. Results also showed that more males suffered from S. aureus induced otitis media when compared to the female patients and is most prevalent among teenagers in the age group of 1-15years. Antimicrobial susceptibility test result revealed that the causative organism was susceptible to Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Clindamycin. The organism was resistant to Ampiclox, Cephalexin, Cotrimoxazole and Amoxicillin. Hence, precautionary measures such as more stringent diagnostic criteria, judicious use of antibiotic and effective infection control are recommended.

[Lamido T. Zaria, Ibrahim A. Raufu, Linda C. Osaji Staphylococcus aureus-induced Otitis media in the General Hospital Maiduguri, Nigeria. Report and Opinion 2011;3(4):65-69]. (ISSN: 1553-9873). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsroj030411.11

Keywords: otitis media; Staphylococcus aureus; antibiotic susceptibility; Nigeria

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 1, 2011. 
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