Volume 3 - Issue 6 (Cumulated No. 24), June 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-9865
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, Research 0306
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: email@example.com
Titles / Authors
Bone Status in Hyperthyroidism: Impact of Severity, Duration,
and Etiology of Hyperthyroidism on Bone Turnover Markers and
Soma Sherif Abd El Gawad¹, Mohamed Ghonaim², El Hadidy Mohamed
El Hadidy², Mohamed Abou El Atta³
Departments of Clinical Pathology¹, Internal Medicine² and
Diagnostic Radiology³, Faculty of Medicine,
Hyperthyroidism is accompanied by osteoporosis with higher
incidence of fracture rates. The present work aimed to study
bone status in hyperthyroidism and to elucidate the impact of
severity, duration, and etiology of hyperthyroidism on
biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD).
Subjects& Methods: Fifty-two male patients with
hyperthyroidism, 31 with Graves' disease (GD) and 21 with toxic
multinodular goiter (TNG), with an age ranging from 23 to 65
years were included, together with 25 healthy euthyroid men with
matched age as a control group. In addition to full clinical
examination, patients and controls were subjected to measurement
of BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometery scanning of the
lower half of the left radius. Also, biochemical markers of bone
turnover were done for all patients and controls. Results:
Biochemical markers of bone turnover: included serum bone
specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, carboxy terminal
telopeptide of type l collagen also, urinary deoxypyridinoline
cross-links (DXP), urinary DXP/urinary creatinine ratio and
urinary calcium/urinary creatinine ratio were significantly
higher in patients with GD and TNG compared to controls
(P<0.01). However, there was non-significant difference in these
parameters between GD and TNG patients (P>0.05). BMD was
significantly lower in GD and TNG compared to controls, but the
Z-score of BMD at the lower half of the left radius in patients
with GD (-1.7±0.5 SD) was not significantly different from those
with TNG (-1.6±0.6 SD) (>0.05). There was significant positive
correlation between free T3 and free T4 with biochemical markers
of bone turnover, but negative correlation between TSH and these
biochemical markers of bone turnover. The duration of the
thyrotoxic state positively correlated with the assessed bone
turnover markers, but it is negatively correlated with the
Z-score of BMD in the studied hyperthyroid patients (r=-0.68,
P<0.0001). Conclusion: Men with hyperthyroidism have
significant bone loss with higher biochemical markers of bone
turnover. The severity and the duration of the thyrotoxic state
are directly related to the derangement of biochemical markers
of bone turnover and bone loss.
[Soma Sherif Abd El Gawad, Mohamed
Ghonaim, El Hadidy Mohamed El Hadidy and Mohamed Abou El Atta:
Bone Status in Hyperthyroidism.
Researcher. 2011;3(5):1-8]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Bone mineral density, Bone formation markers, Bon resorption
markers, Hyperthyroidism, Osteoporosis.
A Comparative Study of Performance of Male and Female Students
in Engineering Drawing at Ladoke Akintola University of
*Oladeji1, J.T., Sangotayo2, E.O., and
Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of
P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of
P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of
P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
The importance of engineering drawing cannot be overemphasized,
as it is one of core courses in engineering curriculum. Hence,
adequate and in-depth knowledge of the subject is required to
become a successful engineer. This study was carried out to
determine, if there were significant differences in the
performance of male and female students in engineering drawing
at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso. Secondary
data in form of the results or scores for the past five years
were collected from the examination officers of various
departments, through the permission of their heads of
departments. Essentially, cumulative grade point average (CGPA)
of the students was used. Data were analysed using means and
standard deviations at 95 % confidence level. Data were further
subjected to t-test analyses through the employment of
Chi-square tests. The trends performance of students based on
gender, courses, and as well as years of study were also
investigated. The mean scores of 2.725 and 2.6 were obtained for
female students for the period of five years in MEE 201
(Engineering Drawing I) and MEE 202 (Engineering Drawing II)
respectively, while the corresponding mean scores for male
students were 3.0 and 2.925. Statistics revealed that, there was
no significant difference in the overall performance between the
male and female students in engineering drawing. The results of
ANOVA test further showed that, whether based on gender, courses
and years, there were no significant differences in the trend of
performance of both female and male students. The study
concluded that, the males are not academically superiors to
females and that gender analysis of performance is not on
J.T., Sangotayo, E.O., and Adebiyi, K.A. A Comparative Study
of Performance of Male and Female Students in Engineering
University of Technology, Ogbomoso.
Researcher. 2011;3(5):9-12]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Engineering drawing, female students, gender, male students,
of West Bengal, India I.
Arun Kumar Dutta1,
, Krishnendu Acharya
and Applied Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department
of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, -
Bengal Biodiversity Board, Paribesh Bhawan, Salt Lake City,
Different species of Volvariella, under the family
was collected from different places of
Bengal and was found to be predominant in this state. A detailed
macro and microscopic features of those species were presented
in this paper.
[Dutta AK, Pradhan
P, Roy A, Acharya K. Volvariella of West Bengal, India I.
Researcher. 2011;3(5):13-17]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
India, Macrofungi, Volvariella
Self-Management Education to Empower Adolescents with Diabetes
Iman I. Abd Al
Moniem; Madiha A. Morsi* and Salma El-Sayd
Faculty of Nursing-Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
The study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of diabetes
self-management education (DSME) on empowering adolescents
towards seven diabetic self-care management. A purposive sample
of 52 adolescents’ aged from twelve to eighteen years, who have
type I diabetes as a chronic illness, were taken from Diabetic
Pediatric Out-Patient Clinic at Children Hospital affiliated to
Ain Shams University. The tools were used in the study included
demographic data sheet, questionnaire sheet act as a baseline
assessment for knowledge and observation checklist to assess
practice regarding to seven items of DSME and the data
collection tools were used twice pre/post. The study revealed
that, there was a statistically significant difference between
pre/post, pre/follow-up and post/follow-up implementation of
DSME sessions and after six months follow-up. The study
concluded that DSME had empowered adolescents toward achieve
self-care. It could be recommended that DSME could be applied
to all age of children especially adolescents to guide the
intervention and improve the care.
I. Abd Al Moniem;
Madiha A. Morsi and Salma El-Sayd.
Self-Management Education to Empower Adolescents with Diabetes.
Researcher. 2011;3(5):18-26]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Diabetes care. Self management, Education, Empowerment
The Effect of
Storage Condition on the Rheological/Functional Properties of
Soup Thickener Mucuna sloanei (Ukpo)
Department of Food
Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P. M.
B. 1526 Owerri
The effect of
storage conditions on the rheological/functional properties of
‘Ukpo’ (Mucuna sloanei), was studied for 12 weeks and
analysed at 4 week intervals. The seeds were subjected to five
different storage conditions namely refrigeration, ambient, fire
place (Ngiga), plastic, and mud pot. Rheological analysis
showed that the values of the legumes significantly decreased
(p≤0.05) for viscosity, water absorption, oil absorption,
foaming capacity, Emulsifying capacity, swelling index,
wetability and solubility as the storage time increased from I
week to 12 weeks; while there was no significant increase
(p≥0.05) in gelation, and bulk density as time of storage from I
week to 12 weeks. The values of gelation of “Ukpo” stored under
refrigeration increased from (24.00% - 32.00%) as the storage
time increased from 1 week to 12 weeks. The protein content of
“Ukpo” also decreased in fire place (Ngiga) after 12 weeks of
storage from (19.80%) to (17.80%).
[Nwosu, Justina. The
Effect of Storage Condition on the Rheological/Functional
Properties of Soup Thickener Mucuna Sloanei (Ukpo).
Researcher. 2011;3(6):27-32]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Storage Condition; Rheological/Functional Property; Soup
Thickener Mucuna sloanei
of Ikpoba River, Benin City, Nigeria.
Clement1, CHIEJINE Chinedu Michael2.
1 & 2 Department of
Production Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo
There have been
some growing apprehensions about the level of effluent loading
in Ikpoba River and the concomitant implications to human health
and safety of aquatic communities. This paper is on the analysis
of samples of river water and canalized effluent stream carried
out in order to ascertain if the fears are mere obsession. The
research results confirm overloading and suggest that the fears
Anthony Clement, CHIEJINE Chinedu Michael. Pollution survey
Ikpoba River, Benin City, Nigeria.
2011;3(6):33-39]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Biodegradation, environmental order,
inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in diabetic and
non-diabetic coronary artery disease patients
Soma Sh Abd El
Mahmoud M Yossof*, Ahmad A Wafa Soliman*, Ayman A Abd El-Aziz*,
Fagr B El-Shahat**
and Amal K Selim**
Clinical Pathology, Cardiology* and Biochemistry** Faculty of
Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.
Little is known about the role of inducible nitric oxide
synthase (iNOS) in atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease
(CAD) and diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to
evaluate serum level of iNOS and its mRNA expression in patients
with CAD and diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods:
The study conducted on 42 CAD patients (28 with type II diabetes
mellitus & 14 non-diabetics), mean age 58.35+5.38 years.
Diagnosis of CAD was established by presence of characteristic
chest pain, ECG changes, Exercise tread mill test or dobutamine
stress test echocardiography. Twenty healthy subjects of matched
age were included as a control group. All subjected to through
history taking, clinical examination, E.C.G., echocardiography,
laboratory investigations as blood sugar, lipid profiles,
measurement of iNOS serum level by enzyme immunosorbent assay
and detection of iNOS mRNA expression using reverse
transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results:
The level of iNOS was significantly higher in patients group
compared with control group (25.18±5.6 versus 7.61±1.55 IU/ml,
P<0.0001) and in diabetics versus non diabetic patients
(28.48±5.6 versus 16.45±5.62 IU/ml, P<0.0001). Also, iNOS mRNA
expression was found to be positive in 54.8% of all patient
group and 71.4% of diabetic patients compared to 21.4% of non
diabetics. The activity of iNOS and its expression increase
significantly within the patients group with increase age and
presence of dyslipidemia, but ejection fraction was lower in
patients with iNOS mRNA expression than patient without. Positive correlation was detected between serum iNOS and total
cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic, diastolic
and mean blood pressure, but negative correlation with ejection
fraction was detected. Conclusion: This study has
demonstrated that, stimulated expression of iNOS gene and higher
serum levels of iNOS is associated with CAD and/or diabetes
mellitus. The use of iNOS gene transfer or antisense technology
aiming at inhibiting the expression of iNOS may be beneficial
therapeutic value in these conditions.
[Soma Sh Abd El
Mahmoud M Yossof, Ahmad A Wafa Soliman, Ayman A Abd El-Aziz,
Fagr B El-Shahat and Amal K Selim: Expression of inducible
nitric oxide synthase gene in diabetic and non-diabetic coronary
artery disease patients.
Researcher. 2011;3(6):40-48]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Inducible nitric oxide synthase – Coronary artery disease –
An approach towards the solution of NP-Complete Problem
Hari Om Sharan1, Rajeev
Kumar1 and Vikas Solanki2
Science Department College of Engineering,
Teerthanker Mhaveer University, Moradabad.(India)
Science Department, IET, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh,
DNA Computing is an alternative method for computations. It is
based on the observation that in general it is possible to
design of series of biochemical experiments involving DNA
molecules which is equivalent to processing information encoded
in these molecules. Cook’s Theorem tells that
if one algorithm for an NP-complete or an NP-hard problem will
be developed, then other problems will be solved by means of
reduction to that problem. The minimum vertex cover problem is a
classic graph optimization problem and has been shown to be
NP-Complete. In this paper, we propose a DNA algorithm for
solving the minimum vertex-cover problem.
[Hari Om Sharan, Rajeev Kumar and Vikas Solanki. An approach
towards the solution of NP-Complete Problem. Researcher.
2011;3(6):49-52]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
DNA Computing; NP-complete problems; NP-hard problems; Minimum
Vertex Cover Problem; Cook’s Theorem.
Taxonomic studies on Fern and Fern-allies of Nokrek Biosphere
Reserve in Meghalaya State, India
Bikarma Singh (1*), V.N. Singh (1), S.J.
Phukan (1), B.K. Sinha(1) and S.K.
1. Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Circle, Shillong-793002,
2. Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwhati- 781014,
* Corresponding author. Email:
Mobile no.: 09436334789
The present research work is the first survey report on the
Pteridophytic flora of Nokrek Biosphere Reserve, Meghalaya. An
enumeration of 69 species under 38 genera and 24 families has
been provided. Among these 14 species are new records for the
Meghalaya State, while 41 species extend their distribution from
Khasi and Jaintia hills to Garo hills district. Ecologically 36
species recorded growing in terrestrial condition while 26 are
epiphytic and 07 species are lithophytes. This paper deals with
brief taxonomic description, phenology, key to genera and
species for easy identification of the pteridophytes.
[Bikarma Singh, V.N. Singh, S.J. Phukan, B.K. Sinha and S.K.
Taxonomic studies on Fern and Fern-allies of Nokrek Biosphere
Reserve in Meghalaya State, India. Researcher.
2011;3(6):53-54]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Pteridophytes, Nokrek Biosphere Reserve, Garo Hills, Meghalaya.
of Aplocheilus panchax (Cyprinidontiformes :
Aplocheilidae) with Special Reference towards Mosquito larvae
N. Pemola Devi, R.K.
Dept. of Zoology,
D.B.S. (P.G.) College, Dehradun – 248001, India
of Zoology, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Dehradun – 248001, India
there is a lack of study on food intake by larvivorous fish in
general and Aplocheilus panchax (Cyprinidontiformes:
Aplocheilidae) in particular, henceforth a study on food
preference by the fish with special reference to
Anopheline mosquito larvae has been taken up with aims of its
application in field conditions in controlling mosquito population.
fishes were collected from water fragments of Loktak lake in
Manipur state, India. Two experiments were designed - first
experiment on the size range food preference between live and
artificial food when supplied separately while the second one is
based on size range specific preference towards different food
items when supplied together. The consumption rate of fish was
found higher towards mosquito larvae than chironomids larvae and
artificial food. The consumption rate of fish increases on
increasing size range. Two-way ANOVA was followed for 2 source
of variance i.e., size of fish and food types. A
comparison has been made using F-test at 1% level of
Aplocheilus panchax showed higher preference to live food
and that too on Anopheline larvae; it is presumed that this fish
could be one of the efficient biocontrol agents in fields and
thus in reducing mosquito borne diseases.
[N. Pemola Devi,
Food Preference of
Aplocheilus panchax (Cyprinidontiformes: Aplocheilidae)
with Special Reference towards Mosquito larvae.
Researcher. 2011;3(6):55-59]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Aplocheilus panchax; mosquito / chironomids
larvae; artificial food; food preference
Perceptions of mothers on food
safety related and the microbiological contamination of
complimentary foods – A case study in 2 rural areas in
A.M, 2Atanda O.O, 3Ayinde I.A and 4Henshaw,
of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB),
PMB, 2240, Nigeria.
2. Department of Food
services and tourism, UNAAB,
Agric Economics, UNAAB,
Department of Food science and Technology, UNAAB Nigeria.
This study aimed to assess the food safety practices of mothers
with children under 5 years old and to evaluate the
microbiological quality of some traditional complimentary foods
used. Quantitative data were collected from respondents (n =
100) using a Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices (KABP)
questionnaire and face-to face interview. Only
11% of the mothers are educated up to tertiary level, 13% used
tap water as drinking water and 54% used kerosene stoves for
85% wash hands before feeding children, after cleaning child’s
stool, eating or cooking food, but usage of soap is very
limited. The traditional foods commonly used as complimentary
foods include ogi, amala, rice, beans, eba and eko.
The highest microbial count (7.01 + 0.17log cfu/g) was
observed with eko while the least count (3.42 +
0.22 log cfu/g) was observed in amala. The microorganisms
isolated from the food sampled include Escherichia coli,
Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis,
niger, Mucor mucedo
and Penicillium species.
Out of the 240 food samples examined,
was isolated from 210 (87.5%) samples; E.coli was
isolated from 56 food sample while faecal coliform was isolated
from 48 samples.
To achieve global food safety it is necessary to inform
consumers, especially mothers, about fundamental principles of
food safety assurance at home, since food safety begins and ends
in the home of a consumer.
A.M, Atanda O.O, Ayinde I.A and Henshaw, F.O. Perceptions of
mothers on food safety related and the microbiological
contamination of complimentary foods – A case study in 2 rural
areas in Southwestern Nigeria. Researcher. 2011;3(6):60-67].
complimentary foods, ogi, eko, children and
Problem with First Order Conditions
Dr. Mayank Pawar1,Vijendra
Rawat1, Dr. Sanjeev Rajan2 & Rajeev Kumar3
of Mathematics, College of Engineering,
Teerthankar Mahaveer University, Moradabad. India
Mathematics Hindu college, Moradabad. India
of Computer Science, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer
University Moradabad. India
this paper we consider the optimization problem and define the
first order condition that holds the optimization problem. Section 1.1 defines the first order conditions; section 1.2
gives the some example of unconstrained problem.
Pawar,Vijendra Rawat, Sanjeev Rajan & Rajeev Kumar. An
Optimizations Problem with First Order Conditions.
Researcher. 2011;3(6):68-71]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
optimization, Local minimum point, global minimum point.
Education in rural
Sadighi and 2Mehran
1, 2Damavand Branch, Islamic
Azad University, Damavand, Iran
Distance education delivers classes (live or pre-taped) to
students in their home, office, or classroom. It is used by
K-12, higher education, continuing education and business. As
the cost of delivering quality education increases, institutions
find that limited resources prevent them from building
facilities, hiring faculty, or expanding curricula. They are
using distance education to maximize resources and are combining
their assets with others to produce programming. Distance
education is offered internationally, nationally, regionally,
and locally over all forms of conferencing technology. Distance
education delivers classes (live or pre-taped) to students in
their home, office, or classroom. It is used by K-12, higher
education, continuing education and business. As the cost of
delivering quality education increases, institutions find that
limited resources prevent them from building facilities, hiring
faculty, or expanding curricula. They are using distance
education to maximize resources and are combining their assets
with others to produce programming. Distance education is
offered internationally, nationally, regionally, and locally
over all forms of conferencing technology. Distance learning is
expanding and examples of it are increasing dramatically. Fewer
than 10 states were using distance learning in 1987; today,
virtually all states have an interest or effort in distance
education. Distance learning systems connect the teacher with
the students when physical face-to-face interaction is not
possible. Telecommunications systems carry instruction, moving
information instead of people. The technology at distant
locations are important and affect how interaction takes place,
what information resources are used, and how effective the
system is likely to be.
Sadighi and Mehran Bozorgmanesh. Online Education in rural.
Researcher. 2011;3(6):72-77]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Online Education, distance education
Study of plasma erythropoietin hormone level in patients with
Mohamed Alaa El-Din Nouh*,
Hossam I Mohamed*, Emad F Abd-El Halim**, Ashraf A El
Sherbiny***, Wafaa M Ezzat ***, Reham I Siddik***
Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty Of Medicine, Menoufia
Clinical And Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty Of Medicine,
Internal Medicine Department, National Research Center.
Abstract: Background and aims:
(Epo) levels were found to be increased in patients with acute
and chronic liver diseases. This may be due to impaired liver
function and its possible influence on Epo catabolism,
inflammation, through the liberation of cytokines with a
modulating action on Epo.
The aim of the present
study was to evaluate the level of plasma erythropoietin hormone
level and its relation to anemia in cirrhotic patients.
Methods: 60 cirrhotic
patients and 20 healthy
persons of matched age and sex as a control group
were selected. All were
subjected to full clinical; laboratory and ultrasonographic
assessment to diagnose liver cirrhosis and accordingly,
cirrhotic patients were classified into 3 groups (G1a:
Child's grade A; G1b:
Child's grade B; G1c:
Child's grade C) 20 patient in each group. Plasma
Epo was detected to all
subjects. Results: High significant elevation of mean
plasma Epo values as well as Epo Hb normalized ratio in
cirrhotic groups (G1a, G1b & G1c) when compared to control group
(G2) p<0.001. Significant elevation in mean plasma Epo value of
anemic patients when compared to non-anemic patients p<0.05.
Highly significant negative correlation between mean plasma Epo
value and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration p<0.01. Conclusion:
Plasma Epo levels are significantly higher in patients with
liver cirrhosis, plasma Epo levels in anemic cirrhotic patients
are significantly higher than that of non- anemic cirrhotic
patients and Hb concentration is not the only factor responsible
for elevated plasma Epo level in cirrhotic patients.
[Mohamed Alaa El-Din
Nouh, Hossam I Mohamed, Emad F Abd-El Halim, Ashraf A El
Sherbiny, Wafaa M Ezzat, Reham I Siddik. Study of plasma
erythropoietin hormone level in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Researcher. 2011;3(6):78-83]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Erythropoietin –liver cirrhosis –anemia
Empowering rural women in Iran
Abbas Emami and
Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad
University, Damavand, Iran
In the development countries, rural societies which are poverty
for geographic reasons such as being far from urban societies or
because of mountainous of zone and also as the roads are
impassable and some other reason, they became deprived of many
human development programs. Unfortunately these societies are
suffering of mortality because of poverty but what is clear here
is that we can't attribute such privation to geography and
nature of the zone. Every country is tying to solve such
critical conditions by applying depoverty policies. Poverty
spreading in village is a global issue. According to the Fao
finding about % 75 of world’s poor people that are more than 1
milliard people are living in rural zone and more than % 70 of
this poverty people are women. As the most of the people who are
poor are living in village and are women is the reason for
insufficiency of rural development programs. One of the other
basic barriers in development of rural women is their
independent inaccessibility to get credits for investment in
their job. Although their illiteracy is the big barrier to use
of bank credits, but this view that women are dependent people
that their husband should decide about their financial decisions
is the other reason that rural women couldn't access to official
credits. Maybe these barriers are the reason why rural women are
happy about applying micro-credit thought in village.
In micro-credits programs other than offering and
distributing micro loans, there are also small savings and
deposits so that they are designed as form of saving-credit
Empowering rural women in Iran by micro-credit.
Researcher. 2011;3(6):84-87]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Empowerment, Rural Women, Micro-Credit IRAN
Gender on Self-esteem among adolescents
Assistant Professor, Department
of Studies in Education, Yasouj branch, Islamic Azad University,
firstname.lastname@example.org; phone: 00989177430926
In the present study an attempt
is made to see whether male and female adolescents studying in
standard 9 differ in their level self- esteem. A total of 100
adolescent students studying in Yasouj city were randomly
selected. They were administered Self- esteem inventory
developed by Cooper and Smith (1987), which measured self-
esteem of an individual in 5 areas-general self, social self,
home parents, lie scale and school academic. Independent samples
‘t’ test was applied to see the differences between male and
female students. Results revealed that male students found to
have higher levels of self- esteem compared to female students.
[Armin Mahmoudi. Influences
Gender on Self-esteem among adolescents. Researcher.
2011;3(6):88-91]. (ISSN: 1553-9865).
Key words: Self-Esteem, Adolescence, Gender, standard 9th
, male and female
The manuscripts in this
issue were presented as online first for peer-review starting
from May 15, 2011.
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