Science Journal


World Rural Observations


ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), Quarterly

Volume 2 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 4), June 30, 2010
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0202



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Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya-Operations, Achievements and Challenges of the National Agriculture and Livestock Extension Programme (NALEP)

 1* Titus Wambua Mutisya, 2 Nenkari Juma. and 1 Luo Zejiao 

1School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan)
Lumo Road 388, Wuhan City, 430074 Hubei Province, P.R. China, 

AbstractThis paper gives an historical analysis of the soil and water conservation activities in Kenya, introduces the national soil and water conservation project and then gives an insight in to the National Agriculture and Livestock Extension Programme (NALEP) ,which was designed after several previous projects failed to address the sustainability of such development projects leading to progressive decline in soil fertility and agricultural output. The achievements and challenges faced while implementing the programme activities are discussed. The general project information was gathered from the various policy documents, programme documents and workshop reports while the achievements and challenges were drawn as a result of the involvement of two of the authors in the programme activities in 45 focal areas that have been implementing it since inception. The strong stakeholder involvement in all the stages of project development is the basis of the anticipated sustainability. The synergy between the key stakeholders is necessary for a sustainable development programme. Activities which involved the farmers, Government staff, and other development partners were found to be more successful than those that involved only one institution. NALEP framework is worth being replicated in any development project in the country. Scaling-up and replication of the success cases is recommended to improve the general household food security, economic empowerment and environmental conservation. This is the first paper analyzing the soil and water conservation, NALEP and its sustainability measures. The stakeholders could use the information to improve the programme.

[Titus Wambua Mutisya, Nenkari Juma. and Luo Zejiao. Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya-Operations, Achievements and Challenges of the National Agriculture and Livestock Extension Programme (NALEP). World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):1-9]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 1



Key words: Soil and water conservation, NALEP, sustainability, stakeholders

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Synergistic Effects of Plants Extracts on Bacteria


*Ojo, O.O1. and Anibijuwon I.I 2

 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

P.M.B 5363, Ado- Ekiti, Ekiti- State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author:


ABSTRACT: The antibacterial activities of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina were tested invitro against seven bacterial species, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumonia by agar diffusion method. The pattern of inhibition varied with the plant extract, the solvent used for extraction and the organisms tested. The antibacterial activities of the ethanol extracts were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the antibacterial activities of the aqueous extracts of the two plants. Among the individual samples, V. amygdalina had the most impressive activities and compares favorably with that of the combination of V. amygdalina and O. gratissimum. The combinations of the leaf extracts exhibited a higher effect on the test bacterial species (16mm to 24mm) than any of the individual plant extracts (12mm to 16mm). Results of this kind herald the interesting promise of designing a potentially active antibacterial synergized agent of plant origin.

[Ojo, O.O. and Anibijuwon I.I. Synergistic Effects of Plants Extracts on Bacteria. World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):10-14]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 2


Keywords: Plant extracts, antimicrobial activity, synergy, bacteria strain

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Phytoremediation and the Deserts towards a Sustainable Environmental Development


1 Garba, S. T.*, and 2 Barminas, J.T.

 1Department of Chemistry, P.M.B. 1069. University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, P. M. B. 2076. Federal University of Technology Yola (FUTY),

 Adamawa State, Nigeria.


Abstract: Desertification is fast spreading in North Africa and the northern Nigeria in particular which share border with the sahara desert of the north African countries. The leading causes of this desert encroachment has been identified as; overgrazing, conversion of rangelands into croplands, incessant deforestation and bush burning thus leaving the soil bare, barren, and the entire environment unprotected. Apart from windstorm that carries suspended particulate matter especially heavy metals in form of dust, urban environment suffer greatly from the negative effect of pollutants. Relentless effort has been made by various governments in many ways to check the problem but the effort has either been poorly implemented or not properly regulated. Desert encroachment is fast spreading in the northern part of Nigeria, thus leaving the environment open, the soils bare and barren with lots of contaminants owing to the overwhelming dependence on trees for fire wood in place of kerosene that is hard to get or not available at all. It therefore becomes necessary to find a means of covering the soil to check erosion , immobilized the pollutants, plant trees to replaced the lost ones, decontaminate the soils and check windstorms and sandstorms that comes from the neighbouring countries in the sahara. One of this means that is cheap and environmentally friendly is phytoremediation. This is therefore aimed at discussing the laudable in-situ techniques of phytoremediation and their potential abilities in decontaminating contaminated environment.

[Garba, S. T., and Barminas, J.T. Phytoremediation and the Deserts towards a Sustainable Environmental Development. World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):15-20]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 3


Key Words: Deforestation; phytoextraction; pollutants; urban environment; North Africa; Northern Nigeria

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Morphological Factors Responsible For The Great Success Of Chromolaena Odorata In Imo State


Ezeibekwe, I.O; Okeke, S.E; Unamba, C.I.N And Mmom, G.A.


Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.


ABSTRACT: An investigation into the morphological factors responsible for the great success of Chromolaena odorata in Imo State of Nigeria was carried out. Results show that the factors include (a) Production of flowers in capitulum, each capitulum of which contains 56-71 flowers; (b) presence of the average of 20 capitula per –plant; (c) production of 32-51 seeds per capitulum and an average of 813 per plant; (d) reproduction of both sexual and asexual methods which guarantees the high seed output; (e) ability of the plant to perennate; (f) ability of regrowth after accidents; (g) tremendous spread, and; (h) capacity for colonization.

[Ezeibekwe, I.O; Okeke, S.E; Unamba, C.I.N And Mmom, G.A. Morphological Factors Responsible For The Great Success Of Chromolaena Odorata In Imo State. World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):21-28]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 4



Keywords: Morphological Factor; Chromolaena Odorata; Imo State

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Socio-cultural Characteristics of Educated Small Holder Pig Farmers and the Effects of Their Feeding Practices on the Performance of Pigs in Imo State, Nigeria


I. C. Okoli1, Ogechi R. Alaoma1, M. N. Opara1, M. C. Uchegbu1, C. T. Ezeokeke, C. S. Durunna1, F. N. Nnadi2 F. C. Iheukwumere3 and N. J. Okeudo1

 1Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology PMB 1526 Owerri, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Extension, Federal University of Technology PMB 1526 Owerri, Nigeria

3Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, Abia State University, PMB 7010 Umuahia, Nigeria


Abstract: Five smallholder piggery farms (A, B, C, D and E) were used to determine the socio cultural characteristics of smallholder pig farmers and the effects of their choice of feeding practices on the performance of pigs during a 14 weeks study period. The farms were categorized into small, medium and large sizes farms, with small farms stocking 70-80, medium 120 – 130 and larger 230-270 pigs. Scheduled interviews were used to elicit information’s on socio cultural characteristics of the farmers and their farms. In each farm, six weaner pigs of Large white, Landrace and Duroc breeds were selected on their wearing days and their ages and initial body weights determined. The feeds offered to the weaners were physically characterized for their ingredient contents. Thereafter, representative samples of the feeds were subjected to proximate analysis on the first, seventh and thirteenth weeks of the study. The study revealed that the, small, medium and large sized farms were managed by men aged between 40 and 56 years. Four out of the five had their degrees in agriculture and had farming experiences of 1 to12 years. The farms have been in existences for mostly 12-22 years. Corrugated iron roofing and concrete flooring were common. All the farms utilized palm kernel cake as their major energy feedstuffs, in addition to soy bean, cattle blood, local fish meals and vitamins premix. The mean crude protein values of the feed samples were of similar range (13.49-14.20%), while crude fiber and ether extract values were very high. Calculated metabolizable energy values were also relatively low for growing pigs. There was significance (p<0.05) difference in the final body weight of the grower pigs after 14 weeks of feeding across the farms. However, there was no significance (p>0.05) difference in weight gain, with farm A, B, C, D and E returning 33.84, 33.72, 32.99, 31 86 and 33.69 kg respectively. The feed conversion ratio across the different farms was 5.0, 4.5, 5.1, 3.9 and 5.0 for farms A, B, C, D and E respectively. The 3.9 feed conversion ratio returned for duroc breed, indicted superior performance of the breed under the feeding and management practices investigated. While growth performance and proximate values of on-farm formulated feeds obtained tended to be lower then those obtained from experimental stations, the educated farmers studied here seemed to prefer their present performance results. There is need to evaluate the production components that drive this choice in order to properly situate pig production and performance in the study area.

[I. C. Okoli, Ogechi R. Alaoma, M. N. Opara, M. C. Uchegbu, C. T. Ezeokeke, C. S. Durunna, F. N. Nnadi F. C. Iheukwumere and N. J. Okeudo. Socio-cultural Characteristics of Educated Small Holder Pig Farmers and the Effects of Their Feeding Practices on the Performance of Pigs in Imo State, Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):29-36]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 5


 Keywords: Pigs, educated farmers, feed, feeding practices, Nigeria

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Regional groundwater flow modeling in Western Nile Delta, Egypt

 Rani Fouad Mohamed (1), (2), Chen Zhi Hua (1)

 (1) School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, Wuchang,Wuhan, Hubei, P.R.China; Zip code: 430074.

(2) Faculty of Engineering, Alazhar University, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt; Zip code: 11341; Tel: 00862762626996


Abstract: Western Nile delta is an important area in Egypt in which the government plans to establish new reclamation projects. The already present agricultural activities are mainly based on groundwater for irrigation. However, irrigation requirements have become so large that they cause depletion of the groundwater levels in most of the existed wells. A hydrogeological model for western Nile delta has been developed using MODFLOW code. The developed model was calibrated for steady state, and used to evaluate groundwater potentiality and reserves. The results have shown that; a reduction in groundwater abstraction by at least 20% becomes necessary to achieve sustainable conditions. This study can be considered as a preliminary regional evaluation for testing the future alternative water management scenarios in Western Nile Delta area.

[Rani Fouad Mohamed, Chen Zhi Hua. Regional groundwater flow modeling in Western Nile Delta, Egypt. World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):37-42]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 6



 Keywords: Groundwater modeling, Groundwater/surface-water interaction, western Nile delta

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Farmers Profile, Local Fowl and their Egg Quality in Imo State, Nigeria


*C.T. Ezeokeke, C.S. Durunna, M.C. Uchegbu, H.O. Obikaonu and I.C. Okoli

 Department of Animal Science & Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

*Author for correspondence: E-mail:


Abstract: The study was carried out to determine gender influence on the raising of local chicken in six randomly selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Imo State, Nigeria. Eggs produced by such local fowls were also assessed for their internal quality. A total of 300 families were visited. The mean populations of local fowls in the first 3 LGAs were 151, 411, 321, 273, while the second 3 LGAs yielded 243, 203, 157 and 273 cocks, hens, growers and chicks respectively. Women were more involved in rearing of the fowls than men and the management systems practiced was mostly semi intensive and extensive types. The cocks weighed more than the hens. Common diseases encountered included New Castle, coccidiosis and chronic respiratory disease (CRD) among others. Yolk index, Haugh unit, shell thickness and egg weight varied significantly (p<0.05) among the second set of LGAs. Conservation to stem extinction and improvement of the fowl needs to be encouraged.

[C.T. Ezeokeke, C.S. Durunna, M.C. Uchegbu, H.O. Obikaonu and I.C. Okoli. Farmers Profile, Local Fowl and their Egg Quality in Imo State, Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):43-47]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 7



 Keywords: Farmer; Fowl; Egg; Quality

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Preliminary Production Of Sauce From Clupeids


Fakunle, J.O.1, Sadiku, S.O.E2, Ubanga, U.I.1 and Babinisi, O. 1

 1Department of Fisheries Technology, Federal College of Freshwater Fisheries Technology, New Bussa, Niger state, Nigeria.

2Department of Water resources, Aquaculture and Fisheries Technology, School of Agriculture Technology of the Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.

E-mail: fakunleolubunmi@yahoo.Com,


ABSTRACT: Sauce a salty; flavoured brown liquid was produced from Clupeids with the use of plastic bucket. Sample A (clupeid with salt) and B, which is the control (clupeids only without salt). The bucket was tightly covered with the help of paper tape, which was used to bind the edges of the bucket so as to prevent the entrance of air. This was buried in the ground to mimic fermentation tanks for a period of three months. The temperatures of the environment were measured and the sauces sampled monthly to quantify sauce and paste production (7% and 70% respectively) with proximate composition. At the end of the last month the sauces were examined for pH, which ranges between 6.8-8.6 specific gravity, 1.09 and 1.06 for samples A and B respectively. The Total Nitrogen was found to be between 20.15-30.5, salt content15g/l for A, iodine values, 3.05 for A and 2.30 for B and peroxide values114 and 81 respectively. The Proximate analysis showed that crude protein and fat increased from 1st month to the 2nd month and dropped at the last month. The crude fibre for B decreases but that of A increased from first month to the last month. The amino acid profile of the sauces A and B differed in concentrations both essential and non-essential amino acids although it conforms to F.A.O/W.H.O standard.

[Fakunle, J.O., Sadiku, S.O.E, Ubanga, U.I. and Babinisi, O. Preliminary Production Of Sauce From Clupeids. World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):48-52]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 8



 Key words; Sauce, Amino acids profile, proximate composition, Specific Gravity and pH

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Productivity of Intercropping Systems Using Amaranthus cruentus L and Abelmoschus esculentus (Moench) in Edo State, Nigeria


B.O. Obadoni, J.K. Mensah and S.A. Emua

 Department of Botany, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo state, Nigeria.



Abstract: Amaranthus cruentus L. (Large green) and Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench) (Okra) were grown at various replacement ratios (100/0, 67/33, 50/50, 33/67 and 0/100) in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Experiments were conducted during the growing seasons (November – February) of 2006 and 2007 in Ekpoma in the rainforest zone of Nigeria. At 4 and 6 WAP, large green in equal proportions with okra significantly (P<0.05) produced higher dry matter per plant while at 8 and 10 WAP, 67% large green grown in mixtures with 33% okra gave higher dry matter yield. Dry matter yield in Okra did not significantly (P>0.05) vary at all planting combinations. There was a significant linear correlation (r=0.51) between total dry matter production and yield. Combining large green and okra at 67/33% respectively gave a higher yield and consequently greater monetary returns than all other planting frequencies. In the mixtures, large green yield was slightly significant while okra (fruit yield) varied depending on its proportion in the mixtures: the lower the proportion of okra, the higher its yield. It is therefore more economical to intercrop these two crops.

[B.O. Obadoni, J.K. Mensah and S.A. Emua. Productivity of Intercropping Systems Using Amaranthus cruentus L and Abelmoschus esculentus (Moench) in Edo State, Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):53-60]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 9


 Key words: Productivity, Inter-cropping, large green/okra, Nigeria

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Body Characteristics, Yield Indices And Proximate Composition Of Moonfish (Vomer setapinnis) Kolade

O.Y, Adejonwo O.A, Oramadike C.E, Ibrahim O.A.

 Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research Victoria Island Lagos.

Corresponding Author:


ABSTRACT: The body characteristics, yield indices and proximate composition of moonfish (Vomer setapinnis) in Nigeria’s Coastal Waters were carried out with a view to obtaining the flesh yield, waste yield and their utilization potentials. The mean values of length (cm) and weight (g) were 22.76 1.75 and 1 31.7 respectively. Anatomical fractionation showed that Moonfish contained on the average 42.4% fillet, 26.1% head, 23.3% body frame and 4.9% gut. The proximate composition analysis showed that the fish sample contained 77.1% water content, 0.98% lipid, 20.4% protein and 1.5% ash. Moonfish thus constitutes a source of high protein as well as an ideal dietetic fish food.

[Kolade O.Y, Adejonwo O.A, Oramadike C.E, Ibrahim O.A. Body Characteristics, Yield Indices And Proximate Composition Of Moonfish (Vomer setapinnis). World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):61-64]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 10


Keywords: Weight, Length, Anatomical, yield, Moonfish

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Comparative Studies On Effects Of Garlic (Allium Sativum) And Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Extracts On Cowpea Insects Pest Attack.

 Isirima Chekwa, Ben1, Umesi Ndubuisi2 and Nnah Maxwell B.3

1&3School of Vocational Education, Department of Agricultural Education, 2School of Science, Integrated Science Department. Federal College of Education(Technical ) Omoku.


ABSTRACT: In an investigation conducted at the Teaching and Research Farming of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology Port Harcourt to compare the effects of plants extract of Garlic and Ginger on the growth and yield characteristics of cowpea, garlic bulbs and ginger rhizomes were weighed(0,30,and 60g/l) and ground into paste. Each rate of the pastes were steeped into two spoonfuls of vegetable oil and mixed with 10g of detergent(to serve as adjuvant) .Each rate of the garlic or ginger, vegetable oil and detergent mixture was diluted in 10 liters of water and applied as foliar spray on growing cowpea 3Weeks after planting. Subsequent spray scheduled was done at 10-day intervals. It was a 234 split plot factorial experiment fitted into a completely randomize design and replicated three times. Leaf damage decreased with increasing application of the plant extracts (garlic and ginger). Though a linear increase in insects pest population was observed as levels of the plant extracts increased , flower abscission decreased with increase in rates of the plant extract treatments. Again weight per 100 seeds and grain yield increased significantly with increasing rates of the plant extract treatments. The observed increase in cowpea insect pest incidence with increase in the rates of the plant extracts, implies that the plant extracts posses attractant properties while at the same time exhibiting antifeedant characteristic making it possible for an increase in grain yield as was observed in this study.

[Isirima Chekwa, Ben, Umesi Ndubuisi and Nnah Maxwell B. Comparative Studies On Effects Of Garlic (Allium Sativum) And Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Extracts On Cowpea Insects Pest Attack. World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):65-71]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 11


Key words: Comparative, Extracts, Ginger, Garlic, attractants, Antifeedants

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2- D Electrical Imaging And Its Application In Groundwater Exploration In Part Of Kubanni River Basin-Zaria, Nigeria

Ameloko A. Anthony, *Rotimi O. John

Department of Petroleum Engineering Covenant Universty Ota Ogun State Nigeria

Corresponding e-mail/Tel: 2348036878319


 ABSTRACT: A modern field system, Terrameter (Signal Averaging System) SAS 4000/1000, was used to accomplished the task of exploring groundwater in Kubanni River Basin. 23 image lines were measured at different strategic locations of the study area based on the fractured map of the area and previous information obtained from the area. Four straight line profiles with a spread of 200 m per section were traversed during the course of this survey with three of them generally trending along a North-South direction while the fourth, trends approximately along the East- West direction. The four profiles has a total coverage distance of about 4.2 km. The data used for this survey was acquired by measuring a series of constant traverse along the same line but with the electrode spacing being increased with each successive traverse. Since increasing separation leads to greater depth penetration, the measured apparent resistivities was used to construct a vertical contoured section displaying the variation of resistivity both laterally and vertically over the section. Interpretation of the data aquired using this equipment revealed the suitability of the Southern part of the study area for location of boreholes, as the resistivity values of rock obtained around this zone reflects aquiferous materials. More layers of rock units around Area BZ and Tudun Sarki were revealed than what was reported by previous workers. Also observed were slight variation in depth to bed rock around area BZ and the Nigerian College of Aviation Technology as compared with observations made by previous workers. However, the observation of the increasing undulating bedrock geometry with depth towards the southern part of the study area was consistent with that of the previous workers.

[Ameloko A. Anthony, Rotimi O. John. 2- D Electrical Imaging And Its Application In Groundwater Exploration In Part Of Kubanni River Basin-Zaria, Nigeria. World Rural Observations 2010;2(2):72-]; ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 12


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