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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 6 - Number 5 (Cumulated No. 51); May 25, 2013, ISSN 1554-0200

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0605

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Determination of Bioactive Components of Decholestrate, a polyherbal formulation by GC-MS Analysis

 

J. Mercy Jasmine1, K. Latha2, R. Vanaja3

 

1 Institute of Biochemistry, Madras Medical College, Chennai – 600 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

2Project coordinator, Herbal division, T. Stanes & Co. Ltd., Coimbatore – 641 018, Tamil Nadu, India.

3Department of Biochemistry, A. C. S Medical College and Hospital, Chennai – 600 077, Tamil Nadu, India.

jasmine.mercy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study, the bioactive compounds of Decholestrate, a polyherbal formulation, have been evaluated using GC-MS technique. The chemical composition of the aqueous extract of decholestrate was investigated using Perkin-Elmer Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy. This analysis revealed the presence of Bicyclo[5.2.0]nonane, 4-methylene-2,8,8-trimethyl-2-vinyl- (23.79), 1,6,10-Dodecatrien-3-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl- [S-(Z)]- (13.80), 1,3-Bis-(2-cyclopropyl,2-methylcyclopropyl)-but-2-en-1-one (13.05). The compounds found in the study are reported to possess cardio toning properties and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. The results of this study offer a platform to reconfirm the properties of the components in decholestrate that are used as antihyperlipidemic agents.

[J. Mercy Jasmine, K. Latha, R. Vanaja. Determination of Bioactive Components of Decholestrate, a polyherbal formulation by GC-MS Analysis. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):1-5]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.01

 

Keywords: GC-MS analysis; bioactivity of phytoconstituents; polyherbal formulation

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[N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):6-9]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.02

 Withdrawn

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Microbiological Quality Assessment of Drinking Water at Ed-Dueim Town, Sudan.

 

Mamoun A. Homaida, Arafat M. Goja

 

Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Bakht Alruda, Ed-Dueim, Sudan. E-mail: arafatmohammed9@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Water is precious values of human life and should have quality safe and suitable for drinking. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial quality of drinking water. The bacterial load was determined according to the pour plate standard methods and most probable number techniques for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci. The results of the viable count of drinking water obtained from Polyvinyl chloride High Density (PVC.HD), Polyvinyl chloride Low Density (PVC.LD), and Asbestos pipes were ranged from 0.3 104 to 9.3 107 cfu/ml. Total coliform MPN values were ranged from 0.0 to 11MPN/100 ml. Faecal coliform 0.0 to 7MPN/100 ml, while for faecal streptococci MPN were ranged from 0.0 to 3/100ml. The most predominant bacterial genera found in drinking water were Bacillus (44%), Corynebacterium (31%), Micrococcus (13%), Staphylococcus (6%) and Streptococcus (6%). In addition, in this study, the physicochemical parameters (e.g. Turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, total dissolved solid, chloride, fluoride, calcium, iodine, magnesium and sulfate) were investigated, and the results show all the values except turbidity falls below the maximum limit of Sudanese Standard Metrology Organization (SSMO) and WHO guideline standard. From the results, it may be concluded that the drinking water in Ed-Dueim town has adequate physical and chemical quality and suitable for drinking. However, the bacteriological quality needs more consideration.

[Mamoun A. Homaida, Arafat M. Goja. Microbiological Quality Assessment of Drinking Water at Ed-Dueim Town, Sudan. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):10-16]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.03

 

Keywords: Microbiological quality, Drinking water, Ed-Dueim, Asbestos

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Insecticidal Activities Of Two Citrus Oils Against Tribolium Castaneum (HERBST)

 

1Muhammad Saleem, 1hafiz.M. Saleem, 1dilbar Hussain, 2ghulam Ghouse

 

1-Entomological Research Institute, Ayub Agriculture Research Institute Faisalabad, Pakistan

2-Department of Pest Warning & Quality Control of Pesticide Punjab.

Corresponding author’s e-mail:- frienduaf_1361@yahoo.com

 

ABSTARCT: The effect of volatile compounds of Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis oils were studied on the stored grain pest Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) the oils were extracted from the fruit peels and seeds using hydrodistillation. Result indicated that the essential oil of Citrus reticulata showed more toxic effects than that of Citrus sinensis against larvae and adult of Tribolium castaneum. The LC50 of Citrus reticulata against larvae of Tribolium castaneum was 20.70 l and 14.82 l at 48 and 72 h exposure. Similarly the LC50 of Citrus sinensis was 41.58 l and 40.28 l at 48 and 72 h exposure. The LC50 of Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis against adult of T. castaneum was 53.00 l, 43.81 l, 53.28 l, and 44.55 l at 48 and 72 h exposure respectively.

[Muhammad Saleem, hafiz.M. Saleem, dilbar Hussain, ghulam Ghouse. Insecticidal Activities Of Two Citrus Oils Against Tribolium Castaneum (HERBST). N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):17-20]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.04

 

Keywords: citrus reticulate, citrus sinensis, insecticidal activity, Tribolium castaneum

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Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations in the Brain Tissue of the African Toad, Bufo regularis Exposed to Endosulfan

 

*Tongo Isioma1, Ezemonye Lawrence2

 

1Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Nigeria.

2National Centre for Energy and Environment, Energy Commission of Nigeria, University of Benin, Nigeria.

isioma.tongo@uniben.edu, isquared27@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was carried out to assess the biochemical and histopathological effects of endosulfan, an organochlorine insecticide, on the brain tissues of the African toad, Bufo regularis. Toads were exposed to sublethal endosulfan concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 mg/l for 28 days. Changes in Glutathione S-Transferase (GST), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Corticosterone, Total protein, and Glucose levels were investigated. Results showed that brain GST levels increased significantly after exposure while Corticosterone and Total Protein levels decreased significantly compared to the control. The pesticide also caused differential increase in glucose levels indicating hyperglycemia. No clear trend was however observed for Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels. Brain histopathology after 28 days endosulfan exposure showed oedema, with an associated inflammatory infiltration of eosinophilic granule cells, necrosis in the cerebrum, dark-stained degenerating Purkinje neurons and vacuolar changes with empty spaces appearing as "moth eaten” areas which were absent in the control toad. More pronounced poisoning symptoms was observed at higher concentrations. The results indicate that exposure of the brain tissue of B. regularis to sublethal concentration of endosulfan caused biochemical and histopathlogical alterations occurring in a dose-dependent manner. The biochemical and histopathological alterations observed in the amphibian brain could thus be used as suitable biomarkers for evaluating the residual effects of pesticide toxicity and can provide early warning information on the impacts of endosulfan contamination on amphibians.

[Tongo I, Ezemonye LIN. Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations in the Brain Tissue of the African Toad, Bufo regularis Exposed to Endosulfan. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):21-28]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.05

 

Keywords: Bufo regularis, Endosulfan, Biochemical Alterations, Histology

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Integration of Fuzzy Prioritization Method and TOPSIS for Strategy Ranking

 

Ali Mohaghar 1, Hossein Bazargani 2, Abdol Hossein Jafarzadeh 2, Mohammad Hosein Soleimani-Sarvestani 3

 

1 Associated Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

 2 M.S. Candidates of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 M.S. of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

M.h.soleimani@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Choosing among strategic alternatives is usually a difficult task. Managers encounter this difficulty because they lack perfect foresight. They must choose a strategy today, whose success depends on future conditions, without knowing exactly what the future looks like. The purpose of this paper is applying a new integrated method for Strategy Ranking. Proposed approach is based on Fuzzy Prioritization Method and TOPSIS. Fuzzy Prioritization Method is used in determining the weights of the criteria by decision makers and then ranking of Strategies are determined by TOPSIS method. In this paper a numerical example demonstrates the application of the proposed method. [Ali Mohaghar, Hossein Bazargani, Abdol Hossein Jafarzadeh, Mohammad Hosein Soleimani-Sarvestani. Integration of Fuzzy Prioritization Method and TOPSIS for Strategy Ranking. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):29-33]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.06

 

Keywords: Fuzzy Prioritization Method (FPM), TOPSIS, strategy ranking.

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The floristic composition of Rocky habitat of Al Mansora in Al- Jabal Al- Akhdar- Libya

 

Abusaief, H. M. A.1 and Dakhil, A. H2

 

1Agron. Fac. Agric., Omar Al-Mukhtar Univ. 2Bot. Fac. Sci. Omar Al-Mukhtar Univ

Bossef_mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Due to the absence of a survey on all species in Al Mansora habitat, So conducted Floristic composition, to study the number of species and the families, order and life forms of the species found in the rocky habitat during four seasons of autumn 2010 to summer 2011 of Al Mansora site in Al Jabal Al Akhdar in Libya. The research area is located latitude 32̊, 50 ,44.8″ N and longitude ,50َ ,21ْ 30.3″ E. Used Raunkiaer׳s system to classify in life-forms the vascular plants present in 12 random 25 m2 quadrate. Founded about 175 species belonging to 43 families and 142 genera were recorded in Al-Mansora area. They are represented by 78 perennial, 92 annual and 5 biennial species. The most characteristic families in rocky habitat are Asteraceae (15.4%) containing 27, Poaceae (12.6%) represented by 22 species, Fabaceae (12%) represented by 21, Lamiaceae (6.9%) 12 species. Noticed that 53 % of species was annuals, 3% was biennials and 45% was perennials. In autumn and summer season increase perennials of 85.7% and 75%, respectively, wherein spring and winter increase annuals species by 54.1 % and 40.7%, respectively. The life forms the vascular plants were Therophytes 59.4%, is represented by the largest number of species, Chamaephytes has 13.1%, Hemicryptophytes has a moderate value of 11.4%, Geophytes represents about (10.3%). Relationship the life forms with seasons increase Therophytes in spring and autumn, respectively. Chamaephytes highly during season autumn and summer. Hemicryptophytes low in all seasons except spring season. Geophytes highest in autumn and winter, lowest during summer and spring season. Phanerophytes high during summer and autumn season. Also, founded 22 order were recorded, given the order Asterales of the largest number of species Arrived to 27 species (15%), followed by Lamiales, Poales and Fabales order.

[Abusaief, H. M. A. and Dakhil, A. H. The floristic composition of Rocky habitat of Al Mansora in Al- Jabal Al- Akhdar- Libya. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):34-45]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.07

 

Keyword: Rocky habitat, floristic composition and life forms

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Assessment of Diversity and Resource Potential of Non-Timber Forest Product(NTFP) in Selected Sites of Bishnupur Forest Division of Bankura District, West Bengal, India

 

Partha Sarathi Basu 1, Arnab Banerjee1, Debnath Palit2

 

1. Department of Conservation Biology (P.G.); Durgapur Govt College; J N Avenue; Durgapur-14.

2. Dept. of Botany and of Conservation Biology (P.G.); Durgapur Govt College; J N Avenue; Durgapur-14.

debnath_palit@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A study was undertaken to assess the diversity of non-timber forest products (NTFPS) and its resource potential in selected sites of Bishnupur Forest Division of Bankura District, West Bengal.Information about NTFPs are being collected at seven market places of the concerned study sites. The diversity however varies with availability and local knowledge. 5 major categories of nontimber forest products were recorded during our survey work at the present investigation which includes different forms of food items, fuel, jhati, snail and dry leaves among the different studied sites. The present investigation revealed that although there is high resource potential in the study sites but lack of awareness, scientific knowledge, expertise and inadequate market information, income through commercialization of such species were found to be very low. The forest dwellers are progressively dependent on NTFPs for sustaining their daily livelihood instead of utilizing it as a prospective income source and for their socio-economic development.

[Partha Sarathi Basu, Arnab Banerjee, Debnath Palit. Assessment of Diversity and Resource Potential of Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) in Selected Sites of Bishnupur Forest Division of Bankura District, West Bengal, India. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):46-53]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.08

 

Keywords: Non-timber forest produces(NTFPs),Bishnupur Forest Division. Bankura

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Evaluating the Job Satisfaction in Iranian Petrochemical Industry: A Case Study

 

Mohammad Torkabadi1 (Corresponding author), Behdad Kheirkhah2

1. MBA student, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

mhmd.torkabadi@gmail.com

 2. MSc student of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

b.kheirkhah@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Job satisfaction is of great importance to improve the productivity level of the employees. Regular measurement of the level of job satisfaction should be taken into account more than ever specifically in risky work environments such as petrochemical industry where the performance of employees plays a major role in achieving the objectives of the organization. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the level of job satisfaction in Iranian petrochemical industry based on MSQ. A comprehensive literature study is presented by this paper. Related theories and previous researches are introduced and classified in terms of the objective, methodology and results.

This research testifies and compares the significance of all facets from Minnesota questioner in studied industry. The research applies the survey method to testify the hypothesis.

[Mohammad Torkabadi, Behdad Kheirkhah. Evaluating the Job Satisfaction in Iranian Petrochemical Industry: A Case Study. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):54-60]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.09

 

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Minnesota Questionnaire, Petrochemical Industry.

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Prevalence of Listeria Species in Fresh and Frozen Pigeon Carcasses with Studying Effect of Nigella Sativa Oil on Isolated L. monocytogenes

 

*S. Shafik; Rizk, M.K. and El-Dosoky H.F.A.

 

Animal Health Research Institute, Mansoura Provincial Lab., Egypt.

Saleh-shafik@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A total of 250 examined samples from 100 pigeon carcasses "50 fresh and 50 frozen" representing 150 fresh pigeon samples (50 skin, 50 muscles and 50 liver) and 100 frozen pigeon samples (50 skin and 50 muscles) were randomly purchased from poultry shops as well as supermarkets in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt, and examined for the presence of Listeria species. The overall prevalence rate of Listeria species were 21.3% and 35% in fresh and frozen pigeon samples, meanwhile L. monocytogenes were 4% and 9% respectively. The other Listeria species (L. innocea, L. grayi, L. murri and L. wellshomeri) were isolated in an incidence of 8%, 4%, 3.3% and 2% respectively from fresh pigeon samples. From frozen pigeon samples, same listeria species were isolated in addition to L. ivanovi in an incidence of 14%, 6%, 3%, 2% and 1% respectively. The highest incidence of Listeria species was recorded in skin samples of both fresh and frozen pigeon samples as 30% and 44% respectively. The most predominant isolates was L. innocea 8.79% and 14% from fresh and frozen samples respectively. Fifty isolate of L. monocytogones were confirmed by PCR test, and pathogenisity to white mice of these isolate proved to be fetal for all inoculated experimental animals. Effect of Nigella sativa oil in a concentration of 10% after immersion for 2 minutes result in reduction CF 68% of inoculated L. monocytogenes in pigeon carcasses. The public health importance was discussed.

[S. Shafik; Rizk, M.K. and El-Dosoky H.F.A.Prevalence of Listeria Species in Fresh and Frozen Pigeon Carcasses with Studying Effect of Nigella Sativa Oil on Isolated L. Monocytogenes. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):61-65]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.10

 

Key words: Frozen Pigeon, Fresh and Frozen Pigeon, L. monocytogenes, Nigella Sativa Oil.

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Relationship among Marketing Activities, Employees’ Knowledge & Brand Equity, and Its’ Impact on the Firms’ Performance

 

Mohammad Aamir 1, Syed Muhammad Ali 1, Khalid Zaman1

 

1. Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan

khalidzaman@ciit.net.pk

 

Abstract: Marketing activities, employees’ knowledge and brand equity have got strong impact on the over all firms’ performance. Firms should evolve their strategies according to the existing customers’ needs and also concentrate on improving their employees’ skills and knowledge. Brand equity is established through the proper positioning of he brands in the mind of the customers. Majority of the firms have agreed that effective marketing activities, their proper application, employees’ knowledge and brand equity have got positive impact on the firms’ performance. 40 percent respondents are of the opinion that there is significant importance of brand equity. 53 percent of the firms are not taking any kind of marketing activities, though they know the importance of marketing in their particular business.

[Aamir M, Ali SM, Zaman K. Relationship among Marketing Activities, Employees’ Knowledge & Brand Equity, and Its’ Impact on the Firms’ Performance. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):66-73]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.11

 

Keywords: Marketing Activities; Employees’ knowledge; Brand equity; Firms’ Performance.

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Studying educative dimensions of responsibility in order to improve objectives of educational system of Iran

 

Maryam Saif Naraghi1, Marziyeh Kahnouji2 (Corresponding author), Ezatollah Naderi3

 

1. Professor of Tehran Islamic Azad University, science and research branch

 2. Philosophy of education PhD from Islamic Azad University of Tehran, science& research unit

 3. Professor of Tehran Islamic Azad University, science and research branch

 

Abstract: This study is aimed to investigate responsibility from Molavi’s point of view in order to improve educational system of primary and high schools in Iran. Research methodology is descriptive based on applied researches. Statistical population includes all works of Molavi and those of other experts (about Molavi’s thoughts) regarding responsibility. Accessible samples have been used. Data were gathered by interviewing with professionals in this field and note taking was made from library information. In this direction, in addition to offering strategies for growth and development of responsibility, some suggestions have been offered that their application can lead educational settings to reach objectives.

[Maryam Saif Naraghi, Marziyeh Kahnouji (Corresponding author), Ezatollah Naderi. Studying educative dimensions of responsibility in order to improve objectives of educational system of Iran. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):74-77]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12.

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.12

 

Keywords: responsibility, pedagogy, objectives of educational periods.

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Collision of ICT for Cloud Computing in e- Governance

 

Rajeev Kumar1, Dr. M.K. Sharma2

 

1Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science, Bhagwant University Ajmer (Rajasthan)

Email: rajeev2009mca@gmail.com

2Associate Professor & Head MCA Program, Department of Computer Science, Amrapali Institute -Haldwani (Uttarakhand)Email ID:sharmamkhld@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper we discuss the many different wire free services in new & future government technology and produce the fast technologies services in few seconds and deliver the services fast and cost effective in mobile- government services. Mobile-Government is a subset of e-government. E-government is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to improve the activities of government sector organizations like IT sector for example “National information center”. In this technology we can reduce the manual work and reduce the time complexity. If we used these services then government takes many more benefits and reduce the all brokers who has enter in the mid of all poor peoples and take benefits. In the case of m-government, those ICTs are limited to mobile or wireless technologies like cellular phones, and laptops and PDAs (personal digital assistants) connected to wireless local area networks (WLANs). Mobile and wireless technology support to government work process in different sector. Mobile-Government can help make public information and government services available anytime and anywhere.

[Rajeev Kumar, M.K. Sharma. Collision of ICT for Cloud Computing in e- Governance. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):78-80]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.13

 

Keywords: Mobile Technology, wireless services, Information and communication technology,Cloud Computing, e- Governance.

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Role of Energy aware routing protocols in e-Governance

 

Rajeev Kumar1 and Dr. M.K. Sharma2

 

1Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science,Bhagwant University Ajmer (Rajasthan)

Email: rajeev2009mca@gmail.com

2Associate Professor & Head MCA Program Department of Computer Science, Amrapali Institute -Haldwani (Uttarakhand) Email ID: sharmamkhld@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The design of energy efficient routing protocols is a major problem in a Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET). There are different protocols, each one based on different characteristics and properties. And Some of these protocols have been studied and their performances have been evaluated focusing on aspects like routing overhead, communication latency and route distance. In this paper we discuss different approach to minimize energy consumption so long lived node can survive in MANET. And we will discuss the performance of the routing protocols with respect to energy consumption and evaluating how the different approaches and algorithms affect the energy usage in the mobile devices. We raised some issues which causes wastage of energy resources in mobile ad hoc network due to imbalance of load, routing of packet in multi hop, ideal timing of node.

[Rajeev Kumar,. M.K. Sharma. Role of Energy aware routing protocols in e-Governance. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):81-83]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.14

 

Keywords: Information and Communication Technology, wireless networks, e-Governance, e- Governance Applications, Cloud Computing.

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Dimensions of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) diffusion in rural

 

Amirhossein Pirmoradi

 

Former Graduate Student (M. S), science and research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: amirhosseinpirmoradi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In rural Internet and other information communication technologies (ICT) are mainly used by young, educated, well paid and urban consumers. Elderly, low-educated, low-paid and rural residents are among those who use the Internet the least. This great group consistent with men have had active role at areas of social-economic activities and always have had major part on economic production of society. ICT is now recognized as a technological tool which can serve as a catalytic intervention in respect of transforming the lives and livelihoods of rural families. The economic and income divides between urban and rural areas can be overcome only by the technological upgradation of rural professions. In our post-modern network society they are at the risk of social exclusion. This paper is aimed at the analysis of ICT diffusion in rural communities of Lithuania, exploring the main social patterns of diffusion and characteristics of rural Internet users. The study is based on focus group discussions and questionnaire-based survey of Lithuanian rural residents. The paper discusses types of change agents involved in the processes of ICT diffusion in rural communities and the main motives for using the Internet.

[Amirhossein Pirmoradi. Dimensions of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) diffusion in rural. N Y Sci J 2013;6(5):84-88]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnys060513.15

 

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), rural communities, developing countries

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 18, 2013. 
 
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