Science Journal


 World Rural Observations

(World Rural Observ)

ISSN: 1944-6543 (print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (online), Quarterly

Volume 7 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 23), March 25, 2015
Cover (print), Cover (online), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, WRO0701, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1944-6543

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Examination of two brands of sachet water and tap water for pathogenic microorganisms


Mbah C.E1. and Muhammed H2.


1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo

2Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria


Abstract: Water, popularly called ‘pure water’ in Nigeria is commercially packaged, easy-to-open 50-60 ml polyethylene sacs of water. It is usually sold at the rate of five Naira (5.00) per sachet and is readily available to a large percentage of the population who cannot afford bottled water. It is an important drinking water in Nigeria because safe drinking water is very scarce and there is an ever increasing demand for drinking water. Potable water is any packaged water that has been processes, sealed and released into the market under sealed food grade material or other appropriate containers for human consumption. With increase in the sale of packaged drinking water and continuous demand by the consumers, adherence to analytical standards is doubtful as most of the factories operate from residential apartments and lack the appropriate technology for achieving the standards. A total of 36 water samples were collected, 10 samples of Lifespan water, 10 samples of Aquadivine water, 10 samples of Ahmadu Bello University tap water and 2 samples each of the main source of these water. The samples were analysed for microbial contamination using the most Probable Number Method (PNM) and Total Aerobic Mesophilic Count (TAMC). The isolates were characterized using colonial morphology on different culture media and biochemical test. The bacterial colony counts were compared with WHO standard for potable drinking water. The sachet water with the highest bacterial colony count was Lifespan water with 3.84 × 103cfu/ml followed by Tap water with 2.41 × 103 cfu/ml and Aquadivine water 0.36 × 103 cfu/ml. Bacteria isolated from the water include; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Enterobacter cloacae. The sachet water and tap water in the University were loaded with a wide spectrum of pathogenic bacteria. This study advocates proper water treatment by water manufacturers and strict monitoring by the regulatory agency.

[Mbah C.E. and Muhammed H. Examination of two brands of sachet water and tap water for pathogenic microorganisms. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):1-7]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 1



Keywords: Sachet water, tap water, water-borne pathogen

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Factors Contributing Towards Rural Poverty (A Case Study of Upper Sindh, Pakistan)


Fazal Ali Khan1, Kifayat Ullah2*


1Rural Economist, Rural Support Network (RSPN), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan

2Integrated Mountain Area Research Centre (IMARC), Karakoram International University Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:


Abstract: Using primary data collected from 307 sample households in five districts of upper Sindh, this paper attempts to look at the incidence, depth and severity of poverty in the rural areas of upper Sindh. The paper also looks at the rural specific and household specific variables in an attempt to determine their contribution in raising (or otherwise) the per – capita income of rural populace. We used, land ownership, household size, education level of household head, age of household head, dependency ratio, participation ratio, other productive assets and female male ration as our explanatory variables and regress it on per capita income. We found that except the female male ratio rest of the variables have significant roles in influencing the household per-capita income. We also found that some of the landless household do also escaped from poverty and some of the land owning households are still poor. This is interesting given that in rural areas land is considered to be most important assets to escape poverty and it is also considered as a very important symbol of social status and political power for those who own it. This highlights the fact that apart from the land assets, investing on other productive assets and non-farm activities such education and increasing the participation rate of rural people will help them to escape poverty.

[Fazal Ali Khan, Kifayat Ullah. Factors Contributing Towards Rural Poverty (A Case Study of Upper Sindh, Pakistan). World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):8-13]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 2



Key words: Poverty; Inequality; Land ownership (LO); Female-Male Ratio; Dependency Ratio

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Response of Some Vegetable Legume Plants to Foliar Application of Some Antioxidants


Wael. M. Abd El-Hakim


Vegetable Res. Dept., Hort., Res. Inst., ARC, Giza, Egypt


Abstract: In this investigation, two field experiments were carried out at the experimental farm of Mallawy Agricultural Research Station, Minia, Egypt, during the two successive fall and winter seasons of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014, respectively. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Nebraska and Pisum sativum cv. Master B, Vicia faba cv. Nubaria-1 (formely Giza Blanca) were used to study the influence of three antioxidants organic acids namely, Salicylic acid (SA), Vitamin E and Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) on some yield characters, chemical constituents and antioxidative activities of total phenolic compounds (TPCs). Five concentrations i.e., 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mM were used from each antioxidant substance. Some physical properties and approximate analysis (dry matter DM, crude protein CP; crude fiber CF, crude lipids CL and ash content AC) were studied. The results indicate that the investigated legumes are rich and good sources of CP, CF and AC. Number of dry pods per plant, 100-seed weight and dry seeds yield of the three studied crops were significantly affected by using the antioxidant treatments. The best compound that gave, in average, the highest values was acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) at 1 mM concentration, on the other hand at 0.1 and 0.5 mM concentrations the highest value was obtained by using Vitamin E. The nitrite concentration (NO2-1 mg/kg) in the three legumes ranged from 4.20 to 6.5 and did not reach toxic limit level (i.e. 10 mg/kg). The highest level of nitrite was recorded in Master B and the lowest one in Nebraska. These results meaning that the consumption of these vegetable legume seeds is save. All seed samples contain less than 200 mg NO3-1 ion/kg and the highest concentration (155 mg/kg NO31-ion) was recorded in extracts of Master B and the lowest one in Nubaria 1. Concentrations of SA in legume seed samples were higher in all treatments compared with the untreated samples (control) and the uptake of SA differs according to the given doses. Changes in SA levels causing by spraying treatment was also studied and showed sharp increases in SA contents. The concentrations of TPCs and total flavonoids (TFs) in the crude extracts of whole seeds of the studied legumes were assayed and the results indicate that seeds of Nubaria-1 (dark coat seeds) contain higher levels of TPCs (8.3 mg/g) than those determined in seeds of Nebraska (7.4 mg/g) and much higher than Master B (6.5 mg/g) whereas, TFs concentration was the highest in extracts of Nebraska.

[Wael. M. Abd El-Hakim. Response Of Some Vegetable Legume Plants To Foliar Application Of Some Antioxidants. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):14-25]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 3



Keywords: Legumes, antioxidants, yield, physical and chemical constituents.

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Branching structure analysis of Scotch pine plantation


Rui Xiao1,2, Meng Li2, Fengri Li1


1Forestry School, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, P. R. China

2Forestry institute of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150080, P. R China



Abstract: Based on the branch analysis data from 30 sample trees of 6 monumental plots for Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) plantation, the branching structure of crown were discussed by analyzing the branching probability, branching pattern, branching angles of primary and secondary branches for different stand conditions and tree sizes in Scotch pine plantation. The mean branching number of primary and secondary branches were 3.84 and 2.80, respectively, and both of the branching probability were followed the normal distribution. The distribution of around the bole for primary and secondary branches is mainly distributed in the range of azimuth (46°-225°) where have a good light condition. A uniform was appropriate to reflect branching pattern around the bole for primary branches, not for secondary branches. The branching angle at upper part of crown was smaller than middle and lower part of crown, and mean branching angle in upper crown and middle or lower crown was 45.6°and 49.4°, respectively. The branching structure of primary branches for different sizes showed the average number of branches in each whorl was similar between dominant and suppressed trees, 3.89 and 3.94, respectively, and they were larger about 0.5 than middle trees. The difference of horizontal distribution for primary branches in each azimuth intervals (45° class size) were 0.24%-2.81% and it was not significant from ANOVA for different tree sizes. The mean branching angles for dominant, middle, and suppressed trees were 48.5°, 42.2°, 50.7°, respectively.

[Rui Xiao, Meng Li, Fengri Li. Branching structure analysis of Scotch pine plantation. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):26-31]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 4



Key words: Scotch pine, branching probability, branching pattern, branching angle

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Demographic Profiles and Access to Education in Primary Educational Zone in Zadibal, Srinagar, J & K, India


Hafiz Mudasir1, M.Y Ganaie 2.


1.  Ph.D Research Scholar, Dr. C.V Raman University, Chhattisgarh, India

2.  Associate Professor, Dept. of Education, University of Kashmir, India


Abstract: The present study entitled “Demographic Profiles and Access to Education in Primary Educational Zone in Zadibal. The Sample for the study consisted of 10 Educational Institutions of which 8 were Private and 2 were Govt. Schools which were selected randomly from Zadibal Zone in Srinagar. As far as parental education is concerned, the Study revealed that 03 of the parents where primary pass, 04 Middle, 18 Higher secondary, 16 Graduate, 03 Post Graduate, 01 Ph.D, 03 M.B.B.S, 05 B.E, 01 L.L.B and 05 illiterate. As far as enrolment is concerned, the study revealed that the total enrollment of Govt. schools in Zadibal zone is 577 and the total no. of Male students are 323 and their percentage is (55.97%) where as the no. and percentage of female students enrolled is 254 (44.07%). As far as parental occupation is concerned, the study revealed that that the no. of Doctor (fathers) in the said zone are 10 and their percentage is 2.58%, Engineers are 07 and their percentage is 1.8%, Advocate are 10 and their percentage is 2.5%, Govt. Employee are 70 and their percentage is 18%, Businessmen are 120 and their percentage is 31%, Retailer are 40 and their percentage is 10.33%, Contractor are 20 and their percentage is 5.16%, Labor are 40 and their percentage is 10.33%, Crafting are 10 and percentage is 2.58%, Wholesalers are 20 and their percentage is 5.16%, Professor are 10 and their percentage is 2.58%,Teacher are 30 and percentage is 7.75%. This project provides an in-depth review and analysis of literature on dropping out from school, and focuses on children who have gained access, but fail to complete a basic education cycle. The main discussion is around why and how children drop out from school. Here drop out is not presented as a distinct event, but rather a process where a range of supply-demand factors interact to influence schooling access.

[Hafiz Mudasir, M.Y Ganaie. Demographic Profiles and Access to Education in Primary Educational Zone in Zadibal, Srinagar, J & K, India. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):32-39]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 5



Key words: Demographic Profile, Out of School, Efficiency, Productivity, National Policy on Education (NPE)

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Micronutrient and phytochemical screening of a commercial Morinda citrifolia juice and a popular blackcurrant fruit juice commonly used by Athletes in Nigeria


Anugweje KC


Department of Health Services, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323 Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, 500102, Nigeria.

E-mail:; Tel: +2348033382154


Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the phytochemical constituents of a commercial Morinda citrifolia juice and a popular blackcurrant fruit juice used by athletes in Nigeria. The popular fruit juice was used as a placebo in the study which compared its ergogenic effect to that of Morinda citrifolia juice. The placebo juice was chosen in this double-blind study because it is indistinguishable from the Morinda citrifolia juice in colour, flavor and taste. The Morinda citrifolia and a popular blackcurrant fruit juice were tested for the presence of bioactive compounds using standard methods. Three milliliter (ml) of each juice was measured into a test tube for each test. Phytochemicals tested for were phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, acidic components, resins and phylobatannin using standard methods. While the micronutrients tested for include proteins, carbohydrates, reducing sugars and lipids. Two duplicates were maintained for each test. From qualitative phytochemical screening, it was observed that the fruit juice of M. citrifolia L. contains secondary metabolites such as reducing sugars, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, and acidic components. They do not contain anthraquinones, phylobatannins and resins. The result also showed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. The results also show slight presence of protein, carbohydrate, reducing sugars, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, lipids and fats, as well as acidic compounds in the placebo juice. There were no cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, anthraquinones, phylobatannins and resins. From quantitative phytochemical screening, it was observed that the crude extracts of M. citrifolia and the placebo juice contain different amounts of secondary metabolites such as tannins, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids. M. citrifolia juice has higher amounts of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids than the placebo juice. So, although these two juices are used as energy drinks by sports persons and healthwatchers, they differ in their production of secondary metabolites. Further analysis showed that M. citrifolia juice does not contain any toxic or prohibited substance. The result highlights the fact that the studied drinks are potential sources of phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial agents which may be useful for pharmaceutical industries and could be used as an effective nutraceuticals. However, further studies are needed to isolate and purify the bioactive compounds of this useful traditional plant Morinda citrifolia for industrial drug formulation and drug development programmes.

[Anugweje KC. Micronutrient and phytochemical screening of a commercial Morinda citrifolia juice and a popular blackcurrant fruit juice commonly used by Athletes in Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):40-48]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 6



Keywords: Phytochemicals, Micronutrients, Morinda citrifolia, Placebo, Juice

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Determinants of Adaptation Measures to Climate Change by Arable Crop Farmers in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria


*1Fatuase AI, 1Aborisade AS, Omisope ET2


1Department of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

2 National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


Abstract: This study examined determinants of adaptation measures to climate change by arable crop farmers in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. The study drew a sample of 120 crop farmers through a multi-stage sampling technique and the data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Tobit regression model. Result revealed that majority of the farmers perceived climate to be changing. The findings also revealed that agricultural systems (96.7%), household livelihoods (86.7%), protective measures (70.8%), soil conservation techniques (55.8%) and farming operation (41.7%) were the main adaptation measures employed by the farmers. Household size, education, farm size, income, experience and access to extension agents were the factors that were statistically and significantly affected the rate of utilizing adaptation measures using Tobit model. The main barriers limiting the farmers from fully adapting to climate change were inadequate funds (98%) and information to climate change (81%). It is therefore recommended that climate change adaptation advocacy should be intensified by creating more awareness on climate change couple with more innovative and effective adaptation measures that are accessible, available and affordable by the crop farmers.

[Fatuase AI, Aborisade AS, Omisope ET. Determinants of Adaptation Measures to Climate Change by Arable Crop Farmers in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):49-57]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 7



Key words: Adaptation, barriers, climate change, crop farmers, perception

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Development of High Yielding Rice Lines Tolerant to Drought and Heat Stress Conditions in Egypt


Abd Allah A. Abd Allah


Rice Research and Training Center, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt


Abstract: Shortage of irrigation water is a major production constraint of rice in some cultivated areas in Egypt, because our share in the River Nile water is not sufficient for both reclaiming and irrigation purposes. The limitation of water resources and increase the population had forced research workers to find ways for saving more irrigation water. The present study was carried out during the period from 2000 to 2011 rice growing seasons; to develop new promising lines, produce more rice with less water and tolerant to heat stress. These lines will be grown to the drought and heat stress affected areas due to the shortage of irrigation water and at the terminals which receives irrigation water irregularly as well as to face high temperature problem. Some promising lines were derived from Sakha102 /Morobereaken, Sakha 101/ Gaori and Giza 177/IET1444 populations. The selection was based on the traits more associated with drought and heat tolerance among sergeants, to identify genotypes that confer drought and heat resistance through selection procedures. The progenies from each cross were advanced under drought and heat conditions using the pedigree method technique. The best selected lines from Fn generation were promoted to the yield trial experiments annually. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The amount of irrigation water applied was determined by using flow meter. These lines proved to possess useful traits associated with drought and heat tolerance such as early maturity, medium tillering ability, intermediate plant height, deep and thick roots, high root volume, high root: shoot ratio, plasticity in leaf rolling and unrolling, in addition to high water use efficiency. Water saving around 40 % as compared to continuous submergence, with a rice yield of 7-9 tons/ ha. These lines could be grown under both water deficit and heat stress conditions by producing rice with less water without significant reduction in the yield.

[Abd Allah A. Abd Allah. Development of High Yielding Rice Lines Tolerant to Drought and Heat Stress Conditions in Egypt. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):58-64]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 8



Key words: Rice, promising lines, drought and heat tolerance.

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China Rural Credit Market


Sai Tang1, Changsheng Li2


1, 2School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001, China


Abstract: Rural credit plays very important role in poverty alleviation, outcomes increase and welfare improvement. This paper focuses on the evolving rural credit market in China, where borrowing from the social network has been common but the recent economic transition has made this informal credit market inadequate in addressing rural credit needs. We try to identify the social and economic factors that explain the farmers’ credit constraint and influence farmers’ decisions to switch from informal to formal credit markets by analyzing the data which was collected from China. We found that the credit demand is significantly affected by household’s production capacity as supported by the fact that household size, land size, head’s education all significantly increase household’s probability to borrow, but the impact of these factors varies considerably by credit market.

[Sai Tang, Changsheng Li. China Rural Credit Market. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):65-70]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 9



Key words: Formal and Informal, Credit Markets, Rural Credit, China

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An Investigation Of the Impact Of SPSS Workshop On Tendency To Research (A Case Study Of The Employees Of Tejarat Bank Branches in Ahwaz)


Mohammad Khodamoradi1, Nazanin Hosseini2


1.Department of Statistics, IZEH Branch, Islamic Azad University,Khuzestan, Iran

2.Department of Accounting, Islamic Azad University, IZEH Branch, Khuzestan, Iran


Abstract: In The Present Study, the Impact Of SPSS Workshop On Employees (Officials ) Of Tejarat Bank Branches in Ahwaz Was Investigated To DO So, a Total Of 20 Employees Taking Part in SPSS Software And Data Analysis Sources Were Selected. The Selected Employees Were Tested After They Had Passed 17 Sessions On How To Work With SPSS Software. Data Analysis Was Performed Through Descriptive And Inferential Statistics After 17 training Sessions, Findings Showed An Increase in Tendency To Research, And The Subjects (Employees) Suggested That The Advanced Course Be Held Again.

[Mohammad Khodamoradi, Nazanin Hosseini. An Investigation Of the Impact Of SPSS Workshop On Tendency To Research (A Case Study Of The Employees Of Tejarat Bank Branches in Ahwaz). World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):71-73]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 10



Keywords: SPSS Software Training,Tendency To Research, Tejarat Bank, Employees.

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The Environmental Impacts Assessment Of Tourism Accomodations In Urban Areas (Case: Mashhad City In Iran)


Sara Hoseini1, Rostam Saberifar2, Mohsen Zeraat pisheh3


1Ms in Geography and Urban Planning, Payam Noor University of Sari, Iran, Postal address: no643, Block 10th, Banafsheh St, Banafsheh 10th, Sajjad Blvd, Mashhad, Khorasan razavi, Iran, Tel:+985117629157, cell:+989388122644,, fax+985118909552

2Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran, Iran,

3Ma in Architecture, Department of Architecture and Arts,Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran,


Abstract: Tourism is one of the factors that can affect the urban areas and an integral part of it is accommodation that its impact on environment is undeniable. This is the reason why the present research has been conducted and Mashhad has been considered as a case study for it to illustrate the effect of accommodation sector on a tourism destination. On the one hand the economy of this urban region is linked to tourism, and its future sustainability, on the other hand. A lucrative and profitable business and sustainability are two goals in this part which should be considered by hotels’ managers and they could take some measures to internalize environmental cost in the short term and diminish disastrous environmental consequences in the long term. According to research, many hotel owners in Mashhad have little information on the AIP and sustainability. Most of the hotel owners are not paying attention to the issue of sustainable tourism due to the lack of information and deficiency in education.

[Sara Hoseini, Rostam Saberifar,Mohsen Zeraat pisheh. The Environmental Impacts Assessment Of Tourism Accomodations In Urban Areas (Case: Mashhad City In Iran). World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):74-82]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 11



Key words: Tourist, Tourism, Environmental impact, Sustainable tourism

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Effecting of Chinese trade surplus on export enterprises


Peng Zhu, Dewei Wang


School of Marxism, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, China



Abstract: Since the reform and opening up, Chinese foreign trade has made rapid progress, especially into the world these years. China has become the largest trade exporting country in the world; his exports are over 200 countries and regions. Since 1993, China has been foreign trade surplus country, and presents the trend of increasing. The focus of this paper is effecting of the Chinese huge trade surplus on export enterprises. Some suggestions are made combining with current situation, and they are to change the status from the optimization of the industrial structure, change the mode of economic growth; expand domestic demand and change government's foreign trade policy and so on.

[Peng Zhu, Dewei Wang. Effecting of Chinese trade surplus on export enterprises. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):83-87]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 12



Keywords: International trade, trade surplus, trade friction, development strategy

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Intercropping Fenugreek (Trigonela Foenum Graecum L) On The Faba Bean (ViciaFaba) To Reduce The Incidence Of (OrobancheCrenata).


Nagwa R. Ahmed *; Nagat G. Abdallah**; Reem M. Abd- El raoufn ***


*Crop Intensification Res. Dept and** Food Legume Crops Res. Sec., Field Crop Res. Inst., A.R.C., Giza, Egypt

Dept. of medicinal and aromatic plants Hort. Res. Inst., A.R.C., Giza, Egypt**


Abstract: Grain legume production in the Mediterranean Area is threatened by the holophrastic plant Orobanchecrenata, to which little Resistance is available in affected crops. Control strategies have centered around agronomic practices and the use of herbicides, although success has been marginal. Several authors have described fenugreek as a suitable crop for intercropping with legumes, reducing the infection level of Orobanchecrenata; however, there is an important lack of experimental data and of a systematic research of the mechanisms involved in the reduction of parasitic infection. Two field trials were carried out at Malawi Research Station, Minagovernorate during 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons, to evaluate intercropping fenugreek on the two varieties of faba bean (partially resistant to Orobanchecrenata Infection), and to study the best rate of fenugreek reduce the incidence of Orobanchecrenata and increased seed yield faba bean. Experimental design used was a split-plot with three replicates. Results showed clear attachments of Orobanchecrenata on fenugreek roots and this is the first report of this fetid broomrape infecting fenugreek. The level of infection was very low number of broomrape/plot compared to solo percentage 53.49%, 45.83% (Giza-3) and 50.81%, 36.38% (Giza-843) and also decreasing in the incidence of weight of Orobanchecrenata kg /plot when intercropping fenugreek on faba bean crop and also it grew beans for solo percentage 57.26%, 51.75% (Giza-3) and 42.70%, 30.63% (Giza-843) in the two seasons respectively. On the other hand seed yield / fed, of faba bean with fenugreek was increased by 45.34%, 38.73 %(Giza-3) and 63.96%, 79.03 % (Giza - 843) in the two seasons, respectively. From the obtained results intercropping fenugreek on faba bean rate of 20% (8kg/fed), 40% (16kg/fed) and 60% (24kg/fed) of solo under two methods of agriculture sowing broad casting of fenugreek and sowing seeds it between ridge with two varieties of faba bean. Finally Sowing fenugreek seeds drill between ridge faba beans variety Giza- 843 at rate of 40 % (16 kg/fed) of sole crop Led to a decline in O. crenata resulting increasing of seed yield ard / fed on faba bean Compared to monoculture. Recommended as a beneficial intercropping arrangement of fenugreek on the faba bean to reduce the incidence of Orobanchecrenata in Medial Egypt conditions.

[Nagwa R. Ahmed; Nagat G. Abdallah; Reem M. Abd- El raoufn. Intercropping Fenugreek (Trigonela Foenum Graecum L) On The Faba Bean (Vicia Faba) To Reduce The Incidence Of (OrobancheCrenata). World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):88-99]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 13



Key words: faba bean, intercropping, Orobanchecrenata, infestation, fenugreek.

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Behaviour of Superior Grapevines to Foliar Application of Some Vitamins and Amino Acids


Faissal F. Ahmed 1; Farouk H. Abdelaziz, 1 Ali. A. Gobara1, Emad A.H. El- Mamlouk2 and Moustafa H.A. Hashem2


1 Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

2 Central Lab. of Organi Agric. ARC, Giza, Egypt.



Abstract: During 2012, 2013 and 2014 seasons, Superior grapevines were treated four times with some vitamins namely C at 500 ppm, B, K, E, D and A each at 100 ppm and/ or amino acids (tryptophane, methionene and cysteine) at 100 ppm as an attempt for improving yield and quality of the berries. Spraying all vitamins and/ or amino acids was very effective in enhancing growth characters, plant pigments, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu, berry setting yield and quality of the berries comparing with the control. Percentage of shoot berries was greatly controlled due to using all vitamins and amino acids. Using amino acids was superior than using vitamins in this respect. The best vitamin was C, B, K, E, D and A, in descending order. Four sprays at growth start, just before blooming, just after berry setting and at one month later with vitamins C at 500 ppm, B, K, E, D and A each at 100 ppm besides amino acids at 100 ppm was responsible for enhancing yield and quality of Superior grapevines.

[Faissal F. Ahmed; Farouk H. Abdelaziz, Ali. A. Gobara, Emad A.H. El- Mamlouk and Moustafa H.A. Hashem. Behaviour of Superior Grapevines to Foliar Application of Some Vitamins and Amino Acids. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):100-107]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 14



Keywords: Vitamins, amino acids, growth, yield, quality, Superior grapes.

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Productive Capacity of Manfalouty Pomegranate Trees in Relation to Spraying of Silicon and Vitamins B


Ahmed , M.M.A. Akl; Moawad, A. Mohamed; Hamdy, I.M. Ibrahim and Ragab, H.M. Mohamed.


Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt

E. mail:


Abstract: During 2013 and 2014 seasons, Manfalouty pomegranate trees grown under Assiut environmental conditions subjected to spraying potassium silicate at 0.05 to 0.2% and / or vitamins B at 25 to 100ppm three times. The merit of this study was elucidating the impact of using single or combined application of silicon and vitamins B on growth , nutritional status of the trees, fruit splitting % and fruiting of such pomegranate cv. Single and combined applications of potassium silicate at 0.05 to 0.2% and vitamins B at 25 to 100 ppm considerably improved all growth characters, plant pigments, nutrients in the leaves, yield and fruit quality. Percentage of fruit splitting was remarkably declined in response to these treatments. Increasing concentrations from 0.1 to 0.2% of potassium silicate and from 50 to 100 ppm vitamins B had meaningless effect on such parameters. For reducing fruit splitting and improving yield and fruit quality of Manfalouty pomegranate trees, it is suggested to use a mixture of potassium silicate at 0.1 and vitamins B (B1 + B2 + B6 + B12) at 50 ppm three times at growth start, just after fruit setting and at one month later.

[Ahmed , M.M.A. Akl; Moawad, A. Mohamed; Hamdy, I.M. Ibrahim and Ragab, H.M. Mohamed. Producrtive Capacity of Manfalouty Pomegranate Trees in Relation to Spraying of Silicon and Vitamins B. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):108-118]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 15



Keywords: Silicon, vitamins B, Manfalouty pomegranate trees, fruit splitting yield and fruit quality

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Response of Sakkoti Date Palms to Spraying Salicylic Acid


Faissal F. Ahmed, Hamdy I.M. Ibrahim and  Moustafa M.H. Abd El- Megeed


Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Minia Univ. Egypt.

E. mail :


Abstract: During 2012 & 2013 seasons , Sakkoti date palms grown under Aswan region conditions received one, two, three or four  sprays of salicylic acid at 0.05 to 0.2%. Growth, palm nutritional status, yield and fruit quality in response to salicylic acid treatments were investigated. Using salicylic acid once, twice, thrice or four times at 0.05 to 0.2% had an announced promotion on all growth characters , plant pigments , nutrients, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits relative to the control treatment . No variations on these parameters were observed when salicylic acid was used at concentrations above 0.05 % and frequencies higher than twice. Yield per palm tended to reduce with increasing concentrations. Carrying out two sprays of salicylic acid before pollination and just after fruit setting at 0.05 % gave the best results with regard to yield and fruit quality of Sakkoti date palms grown under Aswan region conditions.

[Faissal F. Ahmed, Hamdy I.M. Ibrahim and  Moustafa M.H. Abd El- Megeed. Response of Sakkoti Date Palms to Spraying Salicylic Acid. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):119-125]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 16



Keywords: Salicylic acid, growth, yield and fruit quality, Sakkoti date palms.

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Expansion of Secondary Education in Kashmir Valley since Accession: A Case Study of District Pulwama


Mr. Maroof Maqbool   and Dr G. H. Mir


Research Scholar, Department of Adult, Continuing Education and Extension, University of Delhi.

Director, Directorate of Lifelong Learning, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal Srinagar.



Abstract: The present paper deals with the expansion and development of the secondary level of education in post 1947 in Pulwama district. It is an attempt on part of the investigator t dig deep in to the process of education both qualitative and quantitative changes that took place since then. As in 1947 Kashmir acceded to Indian union, the education system in India has direct bearings on the policies and programmes of education in Kashmir and the southern Kashmir is not an exception in it. The history and the comparison of the public and the private sector in the secondary education system reveals that the private sector is far ahead to the public sector in spite of the fact that private sector has limited allocations as compared to public one. This grim picture of the public sector is attributed to unaccountability of the public institutions. The researcher by making use of the primary sources with thoughtful insights from secondary works has made an in-depth study and tried to penetrate deep down into the system of secondary education of the Pulwama district.

[Maroof Maqbool and G. H. Mir. Expansion of Secondary Education in Kashmir Valley since Accession: A Case Study of District Pulwama. World Rural Observ 2015;7(1):126-129]. ISSN: 1944-6543 (Print); ISSN: 1944-6551 (Online). 17



Keywords: Secondary Education, Kashmir Valley, Pulwama

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