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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

纽约科学杂志

Volume 3 - Number 9 (Cumulated No. 19); ISSN 1554-0200, September 1, 2010

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: newyorksci@sciencepub.net

CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

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1

Comparative study on the protective effect of Biphenyl Dimethyl Dicarboxylate (DDB) and Silymarin in Hepatitis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats

 

Hoda. A. Megahed1, Hanan G. Zahran 2, Mahmoud. S. Arbid3, A. Osman4 and Soha M.Kandil5

1.Medical Biochemistry Department ,2. Thraputical Chemistry Department ,3. Pharmacology Department ,4. Vet. Medicine C.U. and 5 Kaser El Ainy new Hospitals C.U (C.U = Cairo University) , 1,2,3. National Reacher center.

drhodamegahed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Study on the possible protective effect of (DDB) and Silymarin on Hepatitis induced by CCl4 was carried out. Injection of CCl4 daily orally administered to rats in a dose of 2.5ml/kg for three days significantly increase the activity of AST, ALT, ALK. Ph. Bilirubin and GGT by several folds of increase, also urea and creatinin were elevated by CCl4 given orally. Administration of DDB and Silymarin orally seven day after administration of CCl4 for three days Significantly decrease liver and kidney enzyme DDB and Silymarin administered before CCl4 to rats also significantly decrease the activity of liver and kidney enzymes. Histopathological investigation of this study show good confirmation to biochemical analysis. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):1-11]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.01

Keywords: Hepatitis, DDB, Silymarin, rats.

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2

Impact of pollution with lead, mercury and cadmium on the immune response of Oreochromis niloticus

 

Omima A.S.A. Aboud

 

Department of Fish Diseases Animal Health Research Institute Dokki, Giza,Egypt

Omimaaboud65@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Evaluation of the effects of lead, mercury and cadmium on both humoral and cellular immune response of Oreochromis niloticus “T. nilotica” fish was carried out toward an important fish pathogenic bacteria “Pseudomonas flourscens”. The effects on cell mediated immune response was determined by using the phagocytic assay “phag. index”. The results revealed that, lead, mercury and cadmium have inhibitory effect on phagcytic acgivity of fish macrophages and so having an inhibitory effect on cell mediated immune response. The results also revealed that. The inhibitory effect of lead, mercury was of the same level along the time of exposure while in cdmium the inhibitory effect was high in the first weet of exposure then the percentage of phagocytosis re-increased after 3 weeks and re-increased again after 6 weeks. The effect of these metals on humoral immune response revealed also that these metals having inhibitory effect on humoral immune functions which is manifested by low levels of antibodies and high mortality rates in fish exposed to these metals than in the control fish after experimental infection by Pseudomonas flourscens. No doubt that there was suppression of humoral and cell mediated immune response. Immune response by these metals provides opportunities for the entry of pathogens and developing of many diseases in fish. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):12-16]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.02

Key words: lead; mercury; cadmium; tilapia nilotica; phagocytic assay; antibody titer; pseudomonas flourscens

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Determination of Capsaicin Content and Pungency Level of Five Different Peppers Grown in Nigeria.

1C.O. Nwokem*, 2E.B. Agbaji, 2J.A. Kagbu, 2E.J. Ekanem

1National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Zaria, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

onyenwokem@yahoo.com

Abstract: The determination of capsaicin content in five different peppers grown in Nigeria without the need for a derivatization step is here presented. Extraction of capsaicin was done using methanol as solvent and capillary Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry used for quantitation. “Nsukka” Yellow pepper (Capsicum chinense) had the highest concentration of capsaicin (9.177 0.268mg/g) and pungency level (146,823.20 SHU), whereas, “Zaria tatashe” (Capsicum annuum) had the lowest concentration (1.189 0.073mg/g) and pungency level (19,015.20 SHU). All the peppers analyzed in this study can be classified as very highly pungent as the Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) values exceed 80,000, except the tatase, Zaria (Capsicum annuum) which has a mean SHU value of 19,015.20. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):17-21]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.03

Keywords: Pepper, Capsaicin, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

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Threatening of the Severity of Acid Sulfate soils to the Adjacent Environment in the Cox’s Bazar Coastal Plains of Bangladesh

 

Farook Ahmed 1 and Md. Harunor Rashid Khan2

1. Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan

2. Department of Soil, Water and Environment, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

farookahmed12@yahoo.com, duharun@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A field survey was conducted in the Badarkhali area of Cox’s Bazar coastal plains in Bangladesh at different spots (latitude 2402/ N and longitude 8908/ E) to evaluate the severity of the acid sulfate soils covering an area of about 26,000 hectare. The profile study evaluated taking the samples at every 10 cm towards the depth of 100cm. The impact of acid sulfate soils on the water bodies were also studied by taking the water samples from the nearby ditches and ponds. The high base saturation percentage was found in the studied soil profile. The highest value was recorded 64.18 cmolkg-1 which might be due to the high content of Na. The highest amount of Total Sulfuric Acidity (TSA) of the studied soil profile was 48.00 cmol kg-1 which indicates that a huge amount of lime (CaCO3) of lime per hectare will be required to neutralize the surface 20 cm of the soil which is very expensive. The Al contents of the studied water samples were very (as compared to the tolerable limit) higher in the Pre-monsoon season (March -May) than the autumn (October) due to the flash flood early in the pre-monsoon season, not only causing the killing of fishes and other aquatic lives but also detrimental effect to the skin of the people. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):22-27]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.04

Keywords: acid sulfate soils, Base saturation percentage, Total sulfuric acidity

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Residual Response of the Sulfidic Material on the Yield of Tomato and Onion Grown in Two Sulfur Deficient Soils in Bangladesh

 

Farook Ahmed1 and Md. Harunor Rashid Khan2

1Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan

2Department of Soil, Water and Environment, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

farookahmed12@yahoo.com, duharun@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The residual response of sulfidic materials (SM) and gypsum (G) on the yield of Onio and Tomato grown in two sulfur deficient soils of Kamarkhond series ( Sirajgonj soil) and Kalma series (Gazipur soil) of Bangladesh were evaluated in a greenhouse study. The crops were grown on the residual soil after the immediate growth of rice (Oryza sativa L. Var: BR-26 Sraboni). The best yield performance of Tomato were recorded by SM45 treatment in both Kamarkhond series (Sirajgonj soil) and Kalma series (Gazipur soil) the followed by the SM30>G45 treatments. The application of SM increased the tomato yield by 49.3% (increased over control: IOC) for Sirajgonj soil and 126.4% for Gazipur Soil. The best yield performance of Onion were recorded by SM45 treatment in both Kamarkhond series (Sirajgonj soil) and Kalma series (Gazipur soil) the followed by the SM30>SM15>G45 treatments. The application of SM increased the Onion yield by 123% (increased over control: IOC) for Sirajgonj soil and 112.1% for Gazipur Soil. That indicating SM is potentially more effective than gypsum as a source of sulfur fertilizer in the growth of Tomato and Onion production. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):28-33]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.05

Keywords: Sulfidic material, Residual response, Yield performance

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A Process Model for Developing Semantic Web Systems

Amjad Farooq and M. Junaid Arshad

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (54890), Pakistan

amjadfarooq@uet.edu.pk junaidarshad@uet.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Before the Web era various software development methodologies have been proposed for the development of software applications for different domains. The main objectives of those methodologies were to meet user’s requirements, find out means to suggest a systematic software development and reduce the maintenance cost of the developed software. On the emergence of the Web and to develop the web-based software systems, some existing methodologies have been extended. Also, new approaches (or informal methodologies) are introduced for the development of web-based systems because the development process for these systems is not considered as an extension of the classical software engineering, although both development processes for web-based systems and non web-based systems have the same basic objective which is software development. Of course, the development of the web-based systems needs a new kind of development methodologies which should meet and capture their unique and different requirements. Currently available software development methodologies are inappropriate and unsuitable to use for the development of web-based software systems, especially for the third generation web, called Semantic Web.  In this paper, we present a brief review of the existing software development methodologies for the development of web-based systems. Some informal software development methodologies (or approaches) for the semantic web are also reviewed. Then, based on this analytical review, we propose a model for the development of semantic web systems. This model can be used as a benchmark to propose formal methodologies for the development of the semantic web systems. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):34-39]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.06

Key words: Semantic Web, Ontology, Process Model, Software Engineering, Web development

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Use Of Probability Distribution In Rainfall Analysis

 

Mohita Anand Sharma and Jai Bhagwan Singh

School of Basic and Applied Science, Shobhit University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, 250110, India. Email: mohita_anand@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The daily rainfall data of 37 years were collected from the IMD approved Meteorological Observatory situated at GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India. The data were then processed to identify the maximum rainfall received on any one day (24hrs duration), in any week (7 days), in a month (4 weeks), in a monsoon season (4 months) and in a year (365 days period). The data were also analyzed to find out the standard deviation and coefficient of variation during all the four periods of study. The data showed that the annual daily maximum rainfall received at any time ranged between 49.32mm (minimum) to 229.40mm (maximum) indicating a very large range of fluctuation during the period of study. The rainfall data were analysed to identify the best fit probability distribution for each period of study and the trend has been presented in this study. Three statistical goodness of fit test were carried out in order to select the best fit probability distribution on the basis of highest rank with minimum value of test statistic. Fourth probability distribution was identified using maximum overall score based on sum of individual point score obtained from three selected goodness of fit test. Random numbers were generated for actual and estimated maximum daily rainfall for each period of study using the parameters of selected distributions. The best fit probability distribution was identified based on the minimum deviation between actual and estimated values. The lognormal and gamma distribution were found as the best fit probability distribution for the annual and monsoon season period of study, respectively. Generalized extreme value distribution was observed in most of the weekly period as best fit probability distribution. The best fit probability distribution of monthly data was found to be different for each month. The scientific results clearly established that the analytical procedure devised and tested in this study may be suitably applied for the identification of the best fit probability distribution of weather parameters. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):40-49]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.07

Keywords: Peak rainfall, probability distributions, goodness-of-fit tests

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8

Relationship between Chad and China

 

Ndjedanem Demtade Nadingar 1, *, shuwang yang 1

1. China University of Geosciences (Wuhan)

388 Lumo Road, Wuhan, P.R. China Postcode: 430074. alafi2004@yahoo.fr

 

Abstract: In an international context in which China seeks to strengthen its cooperation with Africa in order to make sure its raw material for its industry. We will clarify the situation of this cooperation between Chad and China in this article. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):50-54]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.08

Keywords: China; Africa; Chad

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9

Effect of GA3 on seed germination of Pyracantha crenulata (D. Don.) M. Roem Sunil Chandra Joshi, Debarati, Preeti, S.S. Parihar and HCS Negi

 

Division of Seed Science and Technology,

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-12

Email: scj.seed@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of GA3 on seed germination and vigour of Pyracantha crenulata (D. Don.) M. Roem. The seeds were collected from Kumaun region of Uttrakhand. The seeds were soaked in GA3 250 and 500 ppm solution for 18 and 24 hrs. The data indicated that the highest germination (68%) was recorded for GA3 250 ppm after 24 hrs of soaking followed by GA3 250 ppm after 18 hrs. of soaking. Maximum Seedling length 2.72 cm observed in GA3 250 ppm after 24 hrs of soaking. GA3 500 ppm concentration reduced the germination percentage as 38% and 28% in 18 and 24 hrs respectly. So result indicates that the concentration and duration of GA3 treatment if increased it reduced the germination and vigour of Pyracantha seeds. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):55-57]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.09

Key words: GA3, Pyracantha crenulata, ppm, germination, vigour

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10

The Intelligent Hybrid

 

Dr. M. F. A. Alrazak

theintelligenthybrid@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The origin of the human species has been a constant research of both science and religions for countless years, with both sides offering their own unique perspectives. However a new theory has come into light which presents itself from both science and religious facts, with each providing evidence to aid the other. This distinguishes the theory from many others, as it removes the common assumption that science and religion are in constant opposition regarding human origin and evolution. Human Beings are an Intelligent Hybrid species, an offspring of reproduction between Mankind (who in this case descendants of Adam) and Humankind (who in this case descendants of Homo sapiens).” The recent discovery of the IDA fossil in Germany plans is another evidence and an important part in the scientific chain of events, as its presence implies that it most likely the renowned “missing link”. Knowledge gathered and combined from such figures as the Greek philosopher Empedocles, the Arabic biologist Al-Jahiz and the Muslim philosopher Ibn Miskawayh and the Chinese philosopher Zhuangzi and others was the core of any evolution idea that emerge later and tried to explained the origin, the adaptation, the existence of the species including mankind and human species. The idea of evolution and  transmutation of species  by Al-Jahiz, Ibn Miskawayh's al-Fawz al-Asghar and the Brethren of Purity's Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity (The Epistles of Ikhwan al-Safa) developed theories on evolution  was most likely studied by Charles Darwin, Alfred Wallace and many others. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):58-62]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.10

Keywords: intelligent; hybrid; humankind ;mankind; IDA; genes; inheritance; conscience; differentiation; Ibn Miskawayh; Empedocles; Al-Jahiz; Darwin; evolution; species

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Notes on the composition, abundance and zonation of benthic invertebrate of an artificial rocky shore, Tarkwa bay, Lagos, Nigeria

 

Clement Aghatise Edokpayi 1, Taiwo Azeez Adenle 1, Muyideen Owonire Lawal 1

1. Benthic Ecology Lab, Department of Marine Sciences,

University of Lagos, Nigeria.

klemedokpayi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The composition abundance spatial and temporal distribution of benthic invertebrates on the artificial rocky shore of Tarkwa bay was investigated between May 2003 and April 2004. Samples were collected or counted in-situ in a 1m2 quadrate along a transect at 2m intervals on the west mole. A total of 15 taxa made up of 14 genera dominated by crustaceans (Chthamalidae) and gastropods (Littorinidae and Patellidae) both accounting for more than 60% of the total number of individuals observed. Using the spatial distribution of the dominant species, two broad zones, Chthamalus/Patella zone, (0 – 6m) and the Littorina zone (4 – 12m) were observed. All species were recorded throughout the study period except for Tectarius granosus and Brachyodonte niger which were not observed in some months. These species appears to be seasonally distributed as they occurred only during late rainy season (August) and dry season months (September – October). Ligia gracilipes and Plagosia depressa were found on the littoral fringes, while the pin-hole limpet, Fissurrella nebecula and the sea urchin, Arbacia lixula were restricted to the sublitoral zone. In general, the distribution of macrobenthic fauna observed at the Tarkwa bay was typical of exposed rocky shore influenced by strong wave and tides. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):63-67]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.11

Keywords: Tarkwa Bay: benthos: zonation: rocky shore: Nigeria

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Survival Rate In Poly Culture Of Catfish Heteroclarias /Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus), Fed 2% Body Weight

 

Solomon, J.R And Boro, S.G.

 

Department Of Biological Sciences

Faculty Of Science, University Of Abuja, Nigeria (+234).

johnsol2004@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: A twelve week experiment was conducted in the botanical garden of the department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, To assess survival rate in Polyculture of catfish Heteroclarias/ Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at different stocking ratios of 8 Heteroclarias/ 8 Oreochromis niloticus, 8 Heteroclarias/ 16 Oreochromis niloticus and 8 Heteroclarias/ 32 Oreochromis niloticus (1:1, 1:2 and 1:4) were fed formulated diet twice daily of  fish meal and rice bran containing 28% crude protein, 8% crude fat, 1.6% crude fiber, 4.5% moisture and 6.2% ash at 2% body weight. The result of the present study showed, statistically significant different (p<.5%) two-way ANOVA for Heteroclarias/ Oreochromis niloticus 1:1, while no significant different (p>.5%) two- way ANOVA for Heteroclarias/ Oreochromis niloticus 1:2 and 1: 4. The study proved that, fingerlings Heteroclarias/ Oreochromis niloticus should be stocked at ratio of Heteroclarias/ Oreochromis niloticus 1:1. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):68-78]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.12

Key Words:  Fish meal, rice bran, Heteroclarias and Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

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Impact of coal mining on plant diversity and tree population structure in Jaintia Hills district of Meghalaya, North East India

 

Kiranmay Sarma1, S.P.S. Kushwaha2, Khuraijam Jibankumar Singh3

1University School of Environment Management, GGS Indraprastha University, Kashmere Gate,

Delhi–110 403, INDIA (Email: kiranmayipu@gmail.com)

2 Forestry and Ecology Division, Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun–248 001, INDIA

(Email: spskushwaha@gmail.com)

3 R&D Division, North East Centre for Environmental Education and Research, Sagolband Tera Sapam Leirak, Imphal–795001, Manipur, INDIA. (Email: neceer.imp@gmail.com)

 

Abstract: The present study was undertaken to analyze the impact of coal mining on plant diversity and tree population structure as affected by its proximity. The study revealed that the number of tree species was low in all the mining sites due to various activities during the mining as compared to adjacent unmined area, however, mining sites was represented by higher number of herbaceous species (31-41 species) than the unmined area (23 species). Pinus kesiya in the mining area, and Camellia caudata, Castanopsis purpurella and Quercus griffithii in unmined area were among the dominant trees. Majority of species showed contagious distribution pattern in the unmined and mined areas. The dominance-distribution pattern showed log-normal distribution in unmined area while it was resemble with broken-stick series model in the mined area. Shannon diversity index for tree and shrub species were low in mined areas as compared to that of the unmined area, however, diversity index of ground vegetation did not differ among the mined and unmined areas. Simpson’s dominance index shows a reverse trend to that of diversity index. The tree density was more (1040 stems ha-1) in the unmined area than the mined areas (515 and 646 stems ha-1) while density of herbaceous species was higher in mined areas than the unmined area. The trees of medium girth class contributed to the maximum stand density in the mined areas, while in the unmined site the trees of low girth class contributed to the maximum stand density. The higher basal area in the mined areas, in spite of low stand density, could be mainly due to the existence of trees of high girth as they were not damaged by the miners during the mining operations. [New York Science Journal 2010;6(9):79-85]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.13

Keywords: Coal mining, distance gradient, rat-hole, species diversity, stand density

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Good Laboratory Practice (Glp) Requirements: An Overview

 

Harish C.  Andola and Vijay Kant Purohit

 

Centre for Aromatic Plants, Herbal Research and Development Institute Selaqui, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre (HAPPRC), H.N.B. Garhwal (A Central University), University, Srinagar Garhwal, 246 174 - Uttarakhand, India

Corresponding Author: Harish Chandra Andola

Email: andolah@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Developments (OECD) member countries have recently passed legislation to control chemical substances and others are about to do so. This legislation usually requires the manufacturer to perform laboratory studies and to submit the results of these studies to a governmental authority for assessment of the potential hazard to human health and the environment. Government and industry are increasingly concerned with the quality of studies upon which hazard assessments are based. As a consequence, several OECD Member countries have, or plan to establish, criteria for the performance of these studies. This article offers an overview on the laboratory practice requirements. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):86-90]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.14

Keywords: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Developments (OECD); legislation; hazard assessment; laboratory; practice

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Studies on Acceleration of Ras Cheese Ripening by Aminopeptidase Enzyme from Buffaloes' Pancreas

II- Utilization of Buffaloes' pancreas aminopeptidase in acceleration of Ras cheese ripening

 

Mahmouh El-Hofi; Azza Ismail; Fawzia  Abd Rabo*; Samia El-Dieb* and Osama Ibrahim

* Dairy Science Department; Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Dairy Department; National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

mahmoudhofi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aminopeptidases are an exopeptidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acid residues from the N-terminus of peptide or protein substrates, these are believed to act in concert to completely degrade the products of proteolysis into amino acids. The presence of free amino acids in Cheddar cheese and their contribution to aged flavor clearly and debittering effect in cheese indicates the importance of aminopeptidases in the ripening process. Fresh mixture of buffaloes’ and cows’ milk (1:1) was divided into five portions. The first portion was left without treatment and served as a control (C). The aminopeptidase was added at levels of 0.03 (T1), 0.06 (T2), 0.09 (T3) and 0.15 (T4) units / kg milk. All five milk samples were manufactured into ras cheese. Ras cheese samples were taken periodically when fresh and after 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 days of storage at 14 1C for analysis. After 60 days of ripening, sample T2 was more superior as it had an acceptable acidity and pH value and the difference between it and control was significant. The moisture and total nitrogen contents of sample T2 were 36.65 and 4.643% and there is no significant difference between T2 and control. The level of soluble nitrogen in the control cheese was lower than those of treated cheeses and the difference between sample T2 and control was significant. The use of buffaloes’ pancreas aminopeptidase increased soluble tyrosine and tryptophan contents in the resultant cheeses as compared with the control. Specific assessment of proteolysis by measuring decrease in the intensity of protein bands by urea-PAGE showed considerable decreases in intact αs1 and β-casein in sample T2 compared to the control. Organolyptically treatment 2 had the highest total score among treatments followed by sample T1 then T3, T4 and finally control cheese. Therefore addition of 0.06 units of buffaloes’ pancreas aminopeptidase / kg milk would accelerate the ripening process of Ras cheese through 60 days without any defects in its properties. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):91-96]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.15

Keywords: Buffaloes’ pancreas, Aminopeptidase, Ras cheese, Cheese ripening

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Effect Of Crude Ethanol Extract Of Nauclea Latifolia On Some Clinical Isolates Of Food Importance And Its Toxicological Potentials

* Ogueke, C.C. 1, Chikwendu C.I. 2, Iwouno, J. O.1 And Ogbulie, J. N.2

1. Department of Food Science Technology, Federal University of Technology   Owerri, Nigeria. PMB. 1526 Owerri, Nigeria.

2. Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria. PMB. 1526 Owerri, Nigeria.

e-mail;  chikaogueke@yahoo.com

Abstract: The leaves of Nauclea latifolia used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea were extracted in hot and cold ethanol with the aim of determining their antibacterial activities and toxicological potentials. Soxhlet extraction method was used for the hot ethanol extraction while for the cold ethanol ground samples were soaked in ethanol for 48h.  The Agar diffusion method was used for the antibacterial assay at different concentrations on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Albino rats were used for toxicological studies by injecting varying doses of the extracts through the intraperitoneal route for 14 days. The growth of S. typhi was not inhibited by the extract. However the hot ethanol extract had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 3.24mg/ml, 3.28mg/ml and 4.82mg/ml on E. coli, S aureus and P. aeruginosa respectively, while the cold ethanol extract produced MICs of 4.74mg/ml, 5.14mg/ml and 5.61 mg/ml respectively on the isolates. Hematological analyses revealed that RBC, PCV and Hb values decreased with increase in doses of extract while ESR and WBC values increased. MCHC values were lower than that obtained from the control. However, statistical analyses revealed that there were significant differences in the values obtained for RBC, PCV and Hb at the lower doses and the controls. The extracts contained alkaloids, tannins and saponins. The antibacterial assay justifies the use of the plant in palm wine preservation and possible use in preservation of other foods, and the treatment of diarrhoea. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):97-105]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.16

Key words:  Antibacterial; toxicological; preservation; ethanol extracts; Nauclea latifolia; clinical isolates

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The Effects of Processing on the Anti-Nutritional Properties of ‘Oze’ (Bosqueia angolensis) Seeds

 

Nwosu, J. N.1*, Ubbaonu, C. N.1, Banigo, E.O.I.1, Uzomah, A.1

 1. Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

ifytina19972003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: ‘Oze’ (Bosqueia angolensis) is found in the tropical rain forest and grows in thick humid forest of undisturbed land. It belongs to the family Moracea. Wholesome ‘oze’ (Bosqueia angolensis) seeds were given different treatments, which included blanching, cooking, roasting and malting. The samples obtained from these treatments were analyzed for anti-nutritional properties. The ‘oze’ seeds had up to eleven anti-nutrients with alkaloids (2730 mg/100 g) and Total phenols (2500 mg/100 g) predominating. Except for Total phenols and Trypsin inhibitors (37.3 TIU/100 g) all the other anti-nutrients were found more in the hulls than the edible cotyledons. Also all anti-nutrients except phytates and oxalates were eliminated by malting. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):106-111]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.17

Key words: anti-nutritional factors, malting, blanching

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Improving the leather performance via treatment with different adducts and grafting with 1-Vinyl-2- pyrrolidinone

 H.E. Nasr and A. Ismail

 Department of Polymers and Pigments, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo-Egypt

ismaelahmed1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Leather was treated with different aldehyde and ketone sodium bisulphite adducts to improve physical and mechanical properties. Acetaldehyde sodium bisulphite (AcSBS), glutraldehyde sodium bisulphate (GSBS), cyclohexanone sodium bisulphite (ChSBS) and octylaldehyde sodium bisulphate (OSBS) adducts were prepared to be used for treatment of leather. The treatments were carried out at different adduct concentrations (0.5-3.0%). The performance of leather treatment was evaluated in terms of tensile strength (TS) and elongation percent at break (E%), hardness as well as water uptake %. The data obtained showed that all the studied adducts increase the leather performance compared with the untreated one. Moreover, leather treated with octyldehyde sodium bisulphate adduct showed the highest tensile strength with the lowest hardness and water uptake %. The treated leather was grafted with  1-Vinyl-2- pyrrolidinone (VP) monomer using redox initiation system composed of potassium persulphate (KPS) as oxidizing agent and the previously used adduct modifying agent as reducing one. The optimum graft yield was studied by changing type of adducts, liquor ratio, temperature and time of the reaction as well as initiator and monomer concentrations. Higher graft yield of ca. 15.42 % was obtained by using octaldehyde sodium bisulphite adduct at 60oC for 1 hr using 1/20 liquor ratio and KPS and VP concentrations of 0.5 and 4 gm respectively. The grafted leather is characterized with respect to FTIR, SEM and thermal gravimetric analysis. The obtained grafted modified leather samples showed greater dyeing performance with acid dyes and an appropriate improvement in hardness and TS compared with the blank leather sample. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):112-119]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.18

Keywords: Leather, grafting,1-Vinyl-2- pyrrolidinone, characterization, dyeing

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Response of Anise Plants to Nitrogen Fertilizer and Foliar Spray of Tryptophan under Agricultural Drainage Water

 

1Yassen, A.A; *2Azza, A.M. Mazher and 1 Sahar, M. Zaghloul

 1Plant nutrition Dept, 2Ornamental plants and woody trees Dept. National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza , Egypt.

*azza856@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at Tamiya Province Fayoum Governorate over two growing seasons (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) to study the response of anise plants (Pimpinella anisum L) for two nitrogen forms (ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate) fertilizer and spraying of tryptophan at rates of (0,25 and50 ppm) on different growth parameters (plant height , shoot , umbels dry weight and seeds yield), oil percentage and chemical composition under irrigation with  agricultural drainage water. It had been deduced that application of nitrogen fertilizer was effective in increasing all tested growth parameters and oil percentage compared with unfertilized treatment. The results indicated that the interaction between nitrogen forms and foliar spray of tryptophan at 25 and 50ppm increased oil percentage, N, P, K content and uptake in shoots and seeds compared to the use of nitrogen fertilizer alone. The highest values were noticed when ammonium sulphate was added with tryptophan (25ppm) in shoots and seeds. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):120-127]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.19

Key words:   Anise - nitrogen fertilizer - tryptophan – drainage water – growth – yield oil component – NPK

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An Application Based Energy Efficient Management for Wireless Networks

 

*Vikas Gahlot 1, Rajender Kumar 2 and Anuj Goel 3

 1.       Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, U.I.E.T., Kurukshetra University, INDIA

2.       Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, N.I.T., Kurukshetra, INDIA

3.      Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, M.M.U., Mullana, INDIA

*vikasgahlot@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Energy management is one of the hot issues and the most important research topics in the fields of wireless networks. This paper introduces high performance architecture to demonstrate a triple play/Double play services delivery over Wireless converged networks. Applications including VoD (video on demand), VoIP and IPTV have been added to the emulated converged network. The methodology is tested on MICA and MICAZ Wireless Networks which provided a novel approach for energy efficient management for different type of applications. The main objective is to first identify the network resources viz. Received signal strength-RSS, Transmission power, different path loss, latency in transmission, offered throughput, etc. Further these metrics also gives an insight on the performance of an advanced wireless system when subjected to different channel impairments. Further it is severely dependent on type of service a user has been intended to i.e. whether a voice service or data or video type. Further some parameters will be identified, formulated, modeled and finally an analysis report will be developed which will help to characterize the optimization of resources for the emerging wireless standards like Wireless Sensor Network and WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave access) etc. [New York Science Journal 2010;3(9):128-133]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

doi:10.7537/marsnys030910.20

Keywords: Wireless networks, Voice over internet, wireless Fidelity, IEEE 802.11, Nodes, transmission power

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The manuscripts in this issue were online first for peer-review starting July 12, 2010
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