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Science Journal

 

New York Science Journal

(N Y Sci J)

Volume 8 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 72); February 25, 2015, ISSN 1554-0200 (print); ISSN 2375-723X (online), Monthly

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ny0802, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1554-0200

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

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No.

1

Effects of Metacognitive Therapy Instructions on the Depressed Patients' Irrational Thinking

 

Mohammadreza Zarbakhsh1, Shabnam Birjandi2, Parastou Taghavi Dinani2

 

1. PhD., Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Iran

2. M. A. in Clinical Psychology

shbpersian_psy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The present research has aimed at exploring the effectiveness of meta-cognitive therapy instructions on the depressed patients' irrational thinking. Method: The statistical population of the research consisted of 120 depressed patients who had been introduced to Boroujerd Farhangian Clinic by psychiatrists. 70 patients were randomly selected among them in order to reply to an Irrational Thinking Questionnaire, whereby 45 members gained scores above 5 in, at least, and 6 beliefs. Then, in a totally random manner, 30 subjects were taken as members of the research sample divided into an experiment group and a control group each one consisting of 15 patients. The experiment group members received metacognitive therapy instructions for 8 sessions of 90 minutes. The data gathered were analyzed against a multivariable covariance test through the SPSS software. Findings: The irrational beliefs of the experiment group subjects who had received metacognitive therapy instructions were significantly decreased in comparison with those of the control group members (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Teaching metacognitive therapy techniques can be used as an effective method of decreasing irrational beliefs in depressed patients.

[Mohammadreza Zarbakhsh, Shabnam Birjandi, Parastou Taghavi Dinani. Effects of Metacognitive Therapy Instructions on the Depressed Patients' Irrational Thinking. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):1-6]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 1

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.01

 

Keywords: Metacognition, irrational belief, depression

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2

The impact of brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand associations, perceived quality and brand image on Sony brand products from the perspective of consumers

 

Azam Abdullahi Lakeh1, Hamid Reza Mir Riahi2, Ali Askari Rad2

 

1. Lecturer in the Islamic Azad University (International Branch Khalije Fars)

2. MBA – Business Management, Islamic Azad University (International Branch Khalije Fars), Abadan, Iran

hrmr2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The brand is one of the most valuable assets of a firm. Based on concepts - such as brand management for brand value - due to its rightful place in the minds of customers, it's so important. This study has emphasized the model Aaker (1991) and a consumer-based approach, the survey in order to achieve the dimensions of brand equity in the Aaker (Perceived quality, brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand associations, brand image) from the consumer's perspective. In this study, 145 individuals with regard to the choice of Sony's consumer brands as sample And using the software SPSS and AMOS structural equation modeling methods to analyze data obtained deals. The results indicate an overall model test measurements indicate significant relationships between latent variables and indicators of good and fit the model variables.

[Azam Abdullahi Lakeh, Hamid Reza Mir Riahi, Ali Askari Rad. The impact of brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand associations, perceived quality and brand image on Sony brand products from the perspective of consumers. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):7-14]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 2

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.02

 

Keywords: brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, brand image, perceived quality

 

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3

Use of ServQUAL in the Evaluation of Service Quality library of Islamic Azad University branch of Bandar Abbas

 

Sharooz mahmoodi* , Alireza salarzadeh , payam paslari

 

Department of Humanities , Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran, PO Box 79159–1311

Mikimah2010@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the service quality of Islamic Azad University branch of Bandar abbas. The study was a descriptive survey. The statistical population consists of Islamic Azad University branch of Bandar abbas students and 373 students were chosen through stratified random sampling method as the sample of the study. The data were collected using the SERVQUAL standardized questionnaire. Data analysis was done through using paired samples t-test and Friedmans test. The findings of the study showed a significant difference between the students' expectations and perceptions in all five dimensions of service quality and in all dimensions, students expectations had a higher level than that of the perceptions. Moreover, the comparison of the five dimensions showed that the students perception of the received service quality was not the same, so the highest and the lowest service quality were given to tangibility and empathy, respectively.

[Mahmoodi S, Salarzadeh A, Paslari P. Use of ServQUAL in the Evaluation of Service Quality library of Islamic Azad University branch of Bandar Abbas. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):15-22]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 3

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.03

 

Keywords: SERVQUAL, Service quality, Islamic Azad University branch of Bandar abbas

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4

The Rapid Propagation Technique of the Medicinal Plant Clinacanthus nutans by Tissue Culture

 

Bihua Chen 1,2,3, Juan Zhang 1,2, Cui Zhang 3, Yumei Xiao3

 

1. Fujian Academy of Forestry Sciences, Fuzhou 350012, China

2. Key Laboratory of Timber Forest Breeding and Cultivation for Mountainous Areas in Southern China, Fuzhou 350012, China

3. Fujian Qingliu County Forestry Bureau, Qingliu 365300, China

chenbihua@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The traditional medicinal plant Clinacanthus nutans is usually propagated by cutting propagation which has low reproductive capacity. The development of rapid propagation methods for C. nutans is needed to satisfy human demand for its medicinal products. This study developed a pratical tissue culture micropropagation technique for C. nutans by shoot initiation instead of callus induction. The results showed the optimal proliferation medium for C. nutans was Murashige and Skoog (MS) with 1.0 mg L-1 BA + 0.02 mg L-1 NAA providing 3.9 multiplication rate. A rooting medium composed of MS + 0.25 mg L-1 IBA provided 100% rooting and vigourous plantlets. These methods provide reliable mass-propagation of C. nutans for medicinal purposes.

[Chen B, Zhang J, Zhang W, Zhang C, Xiao Y. The Rapid Propagation Technique of the Medicinal Plant Clinacanthus nutans by Tissue Culture. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):23-27]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 4

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.04

 

Keywords: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau; tissue culture; medium; plant growth regulator

 

Abbreviation: BA-benzyladenine; NAA-naphthaleneacetic acid; IBA-indole butyric acid

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5

The study of angels and soul

 

Mahdi kahnoji 1, Seyyed a bdol saleh jelviani2

 

1. Assistant professor of IKI

2. Qom Branch, Islamic Azad university, Qom, Iran

 

Abstract: Angels and soul are one of the subjects that have been discussed in the Ghoran Karim and narratives and even in the speech of great humans. Some characteristics and qualities about angels has been mentioned in the Ghoran and narratives like, they are agent of descending inspiration to human, agent of seizing human’ soul, watching servant’s deeds, keeping human from the bad events and misfortune and also, they are bearer of God ‘throne and intercessor of sinners, helping believers in the difficult events and delegate of torturing of refractory nations. But always there have been differences between soul and nature among the people. Ghoran Karim has defined the soul as a source of life, certainly the life that will be the basis of sense and authority. Also according to verses of Ghoran, soul is a truth higher than angels and is the origin of every kind of life and even the angels take their life from it with God’ permission. Also it has been mentioned that seizing of humans are different according their deeds and there is difference between death of left hand (ashabe shemal) and right hand (ashabe yamin).

[Mahdi kahnoji, Seyyed a bdol saleh jelviani. The study of angels and soul. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):28-30]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 5

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.05

 

Key Words: Angels, soul, seizing soul, left hand, right hand.

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Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Some Members Of Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Salad Vegetables In Calabar

 

Iyonawan Elvis ODIGIE1 , Bolaji David AKINBO2, Adedeji David ATERE3, Nosakhare Lawrence IDEMUDIA4, Anne ASUQUO1

 

1Medical microbiology/Parasitology Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.

Email: odigie4luv@yahool.com; Phone number: +2348036347042

2Haematology Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo, Nigeria.

Email: davidkings0384@gmail.com; Phone number: +2347030857729

3Chemical pathology Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Achievers University, Owo, Nigeria.

Email: ateread@gmail.com; Phone number: +2348039501172

4Department of Medical microbiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

Email: lawnosa@gmail.com; Phone number: +2348039258854

 

Abstract: There is potential for the normal faecal flora of humans to be augmented by antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria acquired in the course of eating fresh uncooked vegetable salads. The purpose of this study was to find out whether colonization of fresh vegetable by antibiotic resistant bacteria contributes to this resistance. One hundred vegetable samples were studied, of which fifty samples were washed and fifty of the samples unwashed. From these samples, 105 different strains of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae were isolated, Klebsiella, Proteus and Escherichia coli species were rare. The 105 isolated were investigated for susceptibility to common antibiotics. Peflacin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective. Resistance to the drugs was found only in 3.15% for each of the drugs. Four percent of the isolates were resistant to tarivid while 9.45% were resistant to augmentin. Percentage resistant of 13.65, 18.9 and 25.2 was recorded for gentamicin, septrin and ampicillin respectively. Consequently, bacteria from vegetables are not responsible for the high prevalence of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Faecal flora in Calabar.

[Iyonawan Elvis ODIGIE, Bolaji David AKINBO, Adedeji David ATERE, Nosakhare Lawrence IDEMUDIA, Anne ASUQUO. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Some Members Of Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Salad Vegetables In Calabar. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):31-36]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 6

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.06

 

Keywords: Vegetables Salad, Enterobacteriaceae, Antibiotic resistant, Faecal

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7

E-Health In Sindh: Study Of Initiatives, Challenges And Implications

 

Shazma Tahseen1, Shah Muhammad Kamran2

 

1 Department of Information Technology, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro Sindh Pakistan.

2 School of Economics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) Wuhan, P R China.

 

Abstract: Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to examine e-health progress focusing on initiatives and challenges in usage and implementation of e-health programs in medical universities of Sindh. Methodology: A survey type study was focused on the challenges being faced by medical institutes and organizations while implementing e-health systems. The method of data collection used was questionnaire from medical professionals and health care providers beside this; interviews were also conducted with prominent administrative heads for expert opinion. Results: At the time of survey there was seven degree awarding institutes in the province, two are in Hyderabad and five are in Karachi. All the Seven medical universities were included in survey and they all positively responded except one. Conclusion: To increase the chances of success, it is important to assess the readiness of health-care institutions before implementing e-health programs. If users are not well aware about technology they won’t be able to judge or accept it positively ultimately resulting negative effects instead of improvements. There is a need of comprehensive policy and master plan before initiating a project.

[Shazma Tahseen, Shah Muhammad Kamran. E-health in sindh: study of initiatives, challenges and implications. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):37-40]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 7

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.07

 

Keywords: Initiatives, Challenges, E-Health, ICT, Sindh

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8

Green Economy And Agriculture In Nigeria: A Synthesis From Literature

 

1Tasie C.M*, 2Nwosu C.S. and 3J.S. Orebiyi

 

1Department of Agricultural Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt.

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Imo State University, Owerri.

3Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, Owerri.

E-mail – tasiecm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Green economy is related to sustainable development in developing countries like Nigeria and will impact positively on the people with good policies and institutional framework in place. It is well known that over dependence on crude oil had led to ecosystem degradation in the Niger Delta and a mono-economy in Nigeria. So, we need to diversify the Nigerian economy. We need to make the Nigeria economy green. Agriculture provides significant opportunities for growth, investment and jobs to help make it happen. Agriculture feeds our entire population and produce fiber for clothing, feed for livestock and bio-energy. In Nigeria, agriculture contributes significantly to GDP growth, leads the way in poverty reduction and accounts for the lion’s share of employment opportunities, especially women. Agriculture also has one of the highest potentials for reducing carbon emissions and helping vulnerable people adapt to climate change.

[Tasie C.M, Nwosu C.S. and J.S. Orebiyi. Green Economy And Agriculture In Nigeria: A Synthesis From Literature. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):41-47]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 8

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.08

 

Key words: Green Economy, Sustainable Development, Climate change, Agriculture, Food Security, Poverty Alleviation

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9

ICT as a Tool for Teaching Learning Process and Achievement in Subjects of High School Students in District Kulgam

 

Hafiz Mudasir 1, Ab Waheed Shah 2

 

1.  . Research Scholar, Deptt. Of Education, Dr. C.V Raman University, Chhattisgarh

2.  Research Scholar, Deptt. Of Education, Kashmir University

hafizmudasir@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to find the effectiveness of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its use as a Tool for Teaching Learning Process and academic Achievement. A total of 120 respondents were selected amongst the high school students in Zone Devsar district Kulgam. The Students were classified into two groups namely the Treatment Group (teaching using ICT) and the Control Group (teaching without using ICT). The t-test showed higher value for the Treatment Group as compared to the Control Group. The result indicated that ICT enhanced achievement of students. The use of ICT as a tool during lessons conducted in classes has improved the learning outcomes of both male and female students and therefore the contribution should be recognized by all teachers in order to enhance students’ achievement in academic. Based on the findings, it is mandatory to use ICT as a tool for teaching learning process for high school students to improve their academic achievement.

[Hafiz Mudasir, Ab Waheed Shah. ICT as a Tool for Teaching Learning Process and Achievement in Subjects of High School Students in District Kulgam. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):48-54]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 9

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.09

 

Keywords: Information and Communication Technology, Teaching and learning Process, School Subjects, Education, Achievement, High School.

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The Role of marketing communication services on performance improvement: The case of

Sudan Telecommunication Company

 

Somaia Osman Mohamed Abdelgadir

 

Department of Business Administration, Imam Mohamed Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

somaiagadir@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This research investigated the marketing activities that carried out by the Sudan Telecommunication Company (SUDATEL) in Khartoum State, Sudan. The study identified the role of marketing communication contribution to development and promotion of the company. Secondary data collected from books, company documents and other relevant sources, while primary data were obtained by using a pretested questionnaire. The study results revealed that the marketing activities adopted by the company enabled it to compete at local telecom market. The company support to social services (health and education) generated customers’ satisfaction. The company adopted effective marketing activities to attract the public. The most important recommendations is the need to focus customer centers service, which operates to respond to the customers’ inquiries, and to meet their interest. The company should follow the latest types of services offered by telecommunications companies around the world and try to become a leader in the field of telecommunications locally and globally.

[Somaia Osman Mohamed. The Role of marketing communication services on performance improvement. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):55-61]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 10

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.10

 

Keywords: marketing services, communications, marketing activities

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11

Effect of Environmental Variables on Biofilm Formation by Selected Gram-Positive Bacteria

 

Olubusola A. Odeniyi 1, Olumayowa T. Amoo 2

 

1.Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2.Department of Biological Sciences, Wesley University of Science and Technology, Ondo, Nigeria

busolaodeniyi@gmail.com, deemayolte@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Biofilm formation occurs in many environments where they exert mostly negative effects and examples include plaque formation in teeth, infection of implants. The research compared the biofilm-formation potentials of some Gram-positive bacteria under different environmental conditions. The effect of varied temperature, pH, ultraviolet (UV) light, incubation periods and nutrient composition on the biofilm-forming abilities of vegetative cells of selected Gram-positive bacteria on polystyrene surface was investigated. Supplementation of basal medium with glycerol enhanced biofilm formation in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens I58 and Streptococcus salivarius C46, recording increases as high as 98.6% and 16.7% respectively, while it reduced biofilm formation in Bacillus pumilus I30. Sucrose stimulated biofilm formation in both B. amyloliquefaciens I58 and S. salivarius C46 while B. pumilus I30 showed no increase in their capacity to produce biofilm. S. salivarius C46 and B. pumilus I30 both produced biofilm with the highest intensities at pH 5, while B. amyloliquefaciens I58 formed biofilm with the highest density at pH 6. Increasing concentration of sodium chloride (1 and 2%) added to the basal medium facilitated an increase in the intensity of the biofilm formed by B. amyloliquefaciens I58 representing 12.1% and 12.6% increase when compared to the control. Weaker biofilms were formed in B. pumilus I30 and S. salivarius C46. Ultraviolet (UV) light caused a reduction in the intensity of the biofilm produced by all the isolates, 25.1%, 62.2%, and 75.8% respectively in B. amyloliquefaciens I58, B. pumilus I30 and S. salivarius C46, boiling the cells resulted in more pronounced reduction in the intensity of the biofilm produced, 29.9%, 89.8%, and 85.9% respectively. Dual species mixture of B. amyloliquefaciens I58 with either B. pumilus I30 or S. salivarius C46 formed stronger biofilms compared to when it was cultivated singly.

[Olubusola A. Odeniyi, Olumayowa T. Amoo. Effect of Environmental Variables on Biofilm Formation by Selected Gram-Positive Bacteria. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):62-69]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 11

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.11

 

Keywords: Biofilm, vegetative cells, incubation periods, temperature, nutrient composition, polystyrene surface.

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Effect of different temperatures on the incubation period and hatching of eggs of bamboo locust, Choroedocus illustris Walker (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

 

S. Tariq Ahmad1 and Shabnum Nabi2

 

1. Entomology Research Division, Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir-190006, India

2. Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, U.P., India

drtariqento@kashmiruniversity.ac.in; drtariqiari@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: The paper deals with the role of different temperatures on incubation period and hatching of eggs of bamboo locust, Choroedocus illustris under laboratory conditions. The egg–pods exposed to different temperatures, 100C, 250C, 300C, 350C and 4510C had average number of eggs/pod as 33.90, 30.75, 34.15, 35.10 and 34.00, respectively. The average lowest percentage of eggs hatched (60.15%) was at 2510C and the average highest percentage of hatching was 76.35% at 3510C. Likewise, the average incubation period was the longest (51.14 days) at 2510C and the shortest (24.17 days) at 3510C; there was no hatching at 1010C and 4510C, respectively. It clearly indicates that 3510C is the most suitable temperature for hatching with minimum time (24.17days) for incubation, while 2510C was observed to be least favoured for hatching with the incubation period of 51.14days. Furthermore, the fastest development of eggs/day was recorded (4.13%) at 350C, while the developmental rate was slowest (1.95%) at 250C. It is noteworthy to mention that no hatching was observed at 1010C and 4510C; indicating that these temperatures were unfavourable and 250C to 350C were the most favourable temperatures for hatching and development. The observations recorded under controlled conditions corresponded to that of natural conditions, where the hatching was maximum when the atmospheric temperature was around 300C with 70% R.H.

 [S. Tariq Ahmad & Shabnum Nabi. Effect of different temperatures on the incubation period and hatching of eggs of bamboo locust, Choroedocus illustris Walker (Orthoptera: Acrididae). N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):70-73]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 12

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.12

 

Keywords: C. illustris, eggs, Temperature, Incubation Period, Hatching

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Concrete waste production and the cost of three different concrete work methods in construction projects: a case study approach in Iran

 

Amir B. Meibodi, Dr. H. Kew, Dr. H. Haroglu

 

School of Civil Engineering and Construction, Kingston University London, KT1 2EE, UK

amir.meibodi@kingston.ac.uk

 

Abstract: In recent decades, construction waste has become a serious environmental problem in many large cities around the globe. The construction sector in Tehran (the capital of Iran) produced 50,000 tonnes of waste each day in 2010 alone. Furthermore the growing young population, changing lifestyles and rising demand for housing increases the consumption of construction material, hence generating more waste. Two main materials are used to construct buildings in Iran: steel and concrete. It is therefore important to pay attention to concrete construction waste in Iran. There are different methods of concrete construction and each of these approaches has its own weaknesses and strengths in terms of minimising concrete waste. This paper aims to explore the three methods of concrete construction that are used in the Iranian construction industry, namely in-situ concrete, ready-mixed concrete and pre-fabricated concrete elements. The use of ready-mixed concrete and pre-fabricated concrete elements are known as the two effective methods for minimising concrete waste as opposed to traditional in-situ concrete construction. A case study in Tehran was used to illustrate the concrete waste generation of the three different methods in a construction project. It also explores the cost aspect of each method when implementing. In this case study, structured observations and note taking have been conducted to record the performance of each method. The use of a digital camera has also been used to record each method. The findings revealed that the use of pre-fabricated concrete elements generates less on-site concrete waste than the other two methods while in-situ concrete is found to be the most cost effective.

[Amir B. Meibodi, H. Kew, Dr. H. Haroglu. Concrete waste production and the cost of three different concrete work methods in construction projects: a case study approach in Iran. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):74-80]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 13

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.13

 

Keywords: On-Site (IN-Situ) Concrete, Pre-fabricated concrete, concrete waste, Ready Mix concrete, Waste minimization

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The Ratification process of criminal Responsibility of Legal PersonsinLegal System of Iran

 

Dr. Hossein Aghaei janatmakan1, Esmaeil Sanaei2

 

1.Assistant Professor in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

2. Persian Gulf International Branch, Islamic Azad university, khorramshahr, Iran

 

Abstract: The liability of legal person same as to natural person divided into two categories: civil liability and criminal liability. In the past, civil aspects of legal person was more important and less priority was gave to criminal liability. Iran's Jurisdictional system was also accepted it but today in most countries, this kind of liability accepted under specific circumstances. Iran's legislator unlike previous Islamic criminal law that doesn't mention criminal liability of legal person, beside punishing natural person, also punishing legal person too. Thus criminal liability of legal person is one of basic challenging matter's of Iran's criminal law, but also the general view of legislator before approbation of network criminal law in 1388, was not accept it Acceptance of criminal liability of legal person make some mutations in general instructions of criminal law and investigation for accusing a legal person which bring up many more views and arguments in Iran's legal system. So in first step we should discuss the acceptance process of this kind of liability In Iran's law system. Through Iran's law system, three kinds of responsibility related to legal person anticipated: (1) First: criminal liability for executives and high position managers which is legal person liability. (2) Second: civil liability which makes legal person in charge for any damage. (3) Third: social liability (security) that in regard to crucial status of legal person con be implied and criminal liability of this kind not long ago granted by legislator in 1388. In this article, more than recognition of legal person concept and it's origins of liability, also recognition of criminal liability related to legal person concerned.

[Hossein Aghaei janatmakan, Esmaeil Sanaei. The Ratification process of criminal Responsibility of Legal PersonsinLegal System of Iran. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):81-85]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 14

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.14

 

Key words: legal person, criminal liability, civil liability, natural person

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Effects of Advanced Cell Phone Technology on the Duration of Sleep

 

Urooj Bhatti 1, Keenjhar Rani 1, Muhammad Qasim Memon 1, Hafsa Wali 2

 

1Department of Physiology, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS) Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

2MBBS Student of, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS) Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

Urooj.lumhs@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Electronic media have often been considered to have negative impact on the sleep of adolescents, but there are no comprehensive research reviews in the area of advanced mobile technology to old ones. The present study identified the investigated relationship between old vs new mobile phones with advanced applications. The variables investigated were delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time and it has been found to associate with new versions of latest technology mobile phones. A model of mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research.

[Urooj Bhatti, Keenjhar Rani, Muhammad Qasim Memon, Hafsa Wali. Effects of Advanced Cell Phone Technology on the Duration of Sleep. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):86-88]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 15

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.15

 

Keywords: Cell Phones Sleep, Advanced technology of radiation.

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On the biology of agriculturally important pentatomid pests Dolycoris indicus Stal and Eurydema pulchrum Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

 

Nafisa Akhter, S. Tariq Ahmad* & M. Nayyar Azim

 

Entomology Research Division, Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir-190006, India

*Corresponding Author: drtariqento@kashmiruniversity.ac.in; drtariqiari@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: The present paper highlights the role of biological studies in two important pests attacking agricultural crops in Kashmir. It discusses some ex situ observations on the life history strategies of Dolycoris indicus Stal and Eurydema pulchrum Westwood, the two pentatomid pests infesting cruciferous crops in Kashmir Valley. In Dolycoris indicus, copulation takes place in 8-10 days. Preoviposition varies from 1 to 2 days. A single female usually lays 5-6 batches of eggs which vary from female to female. The colour of eggs remains same upto hatching. The egg burster is well developed and T-shaped, present beneath pseudoperculum. The incubation period varies from 2-3 Days while in case of Eurydema pulchrum almost similar observations were found like in D. indicus except that freshly laid eggs are creamy white in colour with black bands which appear after few hours. The incubation period varies from 3 to 4 days.

[Nafisa Akhter, S. Tariq Ahmad & M. Nayyar Azim. On the biology of agriculturally important pentatomid pests Dolycoris indicus Stal and Eurydema pulchrum Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):89-91]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 16

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.16

 

Keywords: Pentatomid pests, Biology, Pest infestation, Cruciferous crops

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Determination of pH, caffeine and reducing sugar in energy drinks available in Bangladesh

 

Md. Mozammel Hossain, Iffat Jahan, Mohammad Mahfuz Ali Khan Shawan, Afroza Parvin, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Kazi Rasel Uddin, Salina Akter, Subrata Banik, Md. Ashraful Hasan, Mahbubul Morshed, Md. Nazibur Rahman, S. M. Badier Rahman

 

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh

mhossain@juniv.edu, mozammel1129@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Though the popularity of energy drinks is increasing day by day no considerable chemical studies on it has not yet been done in Bangladesh. This investigation was carried out to determine the pH, levels of caffeine and reducing sugar contents in five energy drinks available in local market in Rajshahi, Bangladesh. pH were measured by pH meter. Quantitative estimation of caffeine was performed by a simple and fast standard UV spectrophotometric method, using carbon tetrachloride as the extracting solvent. Reducing sugar content of the energy drink was also determined spectrophotometrically. Results showed that the pH of the beverages were perfectly acidic ranging from 2.85 to 3.11. The minimum caffeine level was observed in Brand-4 (40.34 mg/serving), while Brand-5 showed the highest caffeine content (244.57 mg/serving) showing a range from 40.34 to 244.57 mg/serving. The levels of caffeine in all energy drink samples are well below the maximum allowable limits set by the food regulatory bodies, except Brand-5. The reducing sugar content of the energy drinks ranged from 73.80 mg/serving to 136.08 mg/serving. Brand-1 has the lowest and Brand-4 has the highest reducing sugar providing an idea about the sugar contents of energy drinks. Further investigations are needed to determine the suitability of these energy drinks.

[Hossain MM, Jahan I, Shawan MMAK, Parvin A, Hasan MM, Uddin KR, Akter S, Banik S, Hasan MA, Morshed M, Rahman MN, Rahman SMB. Determination of pH, caffeine and reducing sugar in energy drinks available in Bangladesh. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):92-96]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 17

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.17

 

Keywords: Energy drinks, pH, Caffeine, Reducing sugar, Bangladesh, Rajshahi

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18

Regeneration status on the afforested bank of Manasbal lake, Kashmir

 

Nasir Rashid Wani, Arshad Hussain Mughal

 

Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar (J & K) India

nasirwani2012@gmail.com

 

Abstract:  The study was carried out on the North-Western afforested bank of Manasbal Lake, Kashmir with the objective of studying regeneration status of tree and shrub species. After survey of the entire area, eight quadrats of size 2 x 2 m for trees and 1 x 1 m for shrubs were laid out on either side of the base line in a staggered fashion after every 200 m. During the course of study, Robinia pseudoacacia figured at top among all the tree species in terms of number per hectare at recruit, seedling and sapling stage. Maximum average height and average collar diameter in all the three stages viz., recruits, seedlings and saplings respectively was also recorded in Robinia pseudoacacia. Minimum number per hectare in recruits, seedlings and saplings respectively was recorded in Ulmus wallichiana with an average height and average collar diameter at sapling stage. Among shrubs Cytisus scoparius ranked first in terms of number per hectare in recruits, seedlings and saplings. However, Berberis pseudoumbellata was far better than any other shrub species in terms of average height and average collar diameter in all the three stages viz., recruits, seedlings and saplings.

[Nasir Rashid Wani, Arshad Hussain Mughal. Regeneration status on the afforested bank of Manasbal lake, Kashmir. N Y Sci J 2015;8(2):97-100]. (ISSN: 1554-0200). http://www.sciencepub.net/newyork. 18

doi:10.7537/marsnys080215.18

 

Keywords: Afforestation; Manasbal Lake; Regeneration status

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The manuscripts in this issue were presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 29, 2015

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