Science Journal


Nature and Science
(Nat Sci
ISSN 1545-0740 (print); ISSN 2375-7167 (online); doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-0740, Monthly
Volume 13 - Number 12(Cumulated No. 105), December 25, 2015
Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, ns1312


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Titles / Authors





Effect of Dichlorvos on the fertility of adult male albino rats


Ethelbert Uchechukwu Ezeji1, Oluchi Dominica Ogueri1, Angela Chika Udebuani1, Josephath N. Okereke1, Kalu O. Obasi2


1. Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri Nigeria

2. Department of Biological Science, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri Nigeria



Abstract: Continuous use of pesticides could have adverse effects on the reproductive functions of humans and non-target organisms. This study was carried out to examine the effect of dichlorvos the reproductive parameters of adult male albino rats. Twenty (20) adult male Wistar albino rats weighing between 130 – 225g were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals each. Three groups were given water contaminated with 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05% dichlorvos (DDVP) respectively. The control group was given distilled water without dichlorvos. All the animals were maintained on commercial animal feed (growers mash) throughout the period of the experiment which lasted for 28 days. There were significant reductions (p<0.05) in testosterone levels in rats exposed to dichlorvos. Testicular weight (testis and epididymis) and sperm count were significantly lowered in rats exposed to dichlorvos. Histological examination of the testes revealed levels of distortions in the cells of the seminiferous tubules as well as hypertrophy of the spermatogonia cells. These results show that dichlorvos has adverse effects in the reproductive functions of male albino rats.

[Ezeji E. U., Ogueri D. O., Udebuani A. C., Okereke J. N., Obasi K. O. Effect of dichlorvos on the fertility of male albino rats. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 1. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.01.


Keywords: Dichlorvos, fertility, testis, testosterone, albino rats

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Activity of Semi Purified Fractions of T. diversifolia and W.ugandensis against Selected Clinical Isolates of Salmonella Strains


 Peter Ogoti*, Esther Magiri, Gabriel Magoma, Daniel Kariuki

 Department of Biochemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology,

P.o Box 62000-00200, Nairobi.


 Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine in vitro anti-Salmonella activity of semi purified fractions of methanol extract of Tithonia diversifolia leaves, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of Warburgia ugandensis stem bark and roots against four clinical isolates of Salmonella strains.  The methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of the two plants were purified using silica column chromatography. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of the semi purified fractions determined by microdilution assay. The MIC values of the fractions ranged from 1.22-312.5g/ml. These results were comparable with that of ciprofloxacin (1.22-19.53g/ml). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried out to identify the important compounds in the active fractions. A total of thirty three known compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. For example, hexadecanoic acid, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z), 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and beta-sesquiphellandrene identified by GC-MS are known to have antimicrobial property. These findings demonstrate that the semi purified fractions of T.diversifolia and W. ugandensis are diverse and exhibit appreciable amount of anti-Salmonella activity and thus have great potential as a source for natural health products.
[Ogoti P, Magiri E, Magoma G, Kariuki D.
Activity of Semi Purified Fractions of T. diversifolia and W.ugandensis against Selected Clinical Isolates of Salmonella Strains. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):6-15]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 2. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.02.


Keywords: T. diversifolia, W. ugandesis, Anti-Salmonella activity, Microdilution assay, Silica gel column chromatography, GC-MS

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Comparative Study between Blue Ballpoint Pen Inks and Blue Erasable Pen inks by Using Spectroscopic analysis and chromatography method


Mohamed B. Gazy1 Taha M. A. Eldebss2*,  Waleed K. El-Zawawy3, Mohamed R. Helal4 and Khaled E. Rashed5


1 Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science Al-Azher University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo , Egypt

3 Cellulose and paper Department, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt

4General Manager, Expert in Forgery and Counterfeiting Researches, Forensic Medicine Authority, Ministry of Justice, Cairo, Egypt

5Examiner documented Departments of Forgery and counterfeiting research Forensic Medicine authority- ministry of Justice, Cairo, Egypt

khaled25@gmail.com taha_eldebss@yahoo.com


Abstract: The forensic analysis of ink is of great interest particularly in the investigation of forgery cases relating to handwriting and signatures. Documents such as  checks, travelers checks, passports, birth certificates, rent and ownership contracts, bills of exchange, bill of debt promissory notes, receipts secretariat, graduation certificates , parchment,  certificates of army, exits contracts, cash receipts, contracts of employment,  resignations, identity cards, signatures on art picture , currency , paper money, bank money, bank bill , bank book,  credit cards, , bills of  credit , bills of lading , bills of sale , cash deposit form, marriage contract , bills of divorce,   rescripts, anonymous letters, obscene letters, and any doubtful documents….etc. As the documents are usually written with writing pens, it is therefore of interest to characterize the inks of different brands among the ballpoint  pen inks and erasable Pen inks. In this study the ballpoint pen inks and erasable Pen inks components were analyzed by means of Ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis), infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy. UV-Vis analysis is successful in characterizing ballpoint pen inks and blue erasable Pen inks of different brands. IR analysis revealed that each brands could be characterized and then differentiated by looking the pattern of each spectra that related to different functional groups. Raman analysis is useful for comparison of ink brands. Thus all mentioned  Spectra  were adequate methods for analysis of inks components such as dyes, pigments and other components. Also, thin layer Chromatography (TLC) is used in different analytical methods especially forensic sciences as it is less time consuming, low cost, and can be performed with less complicated technique. It has a wide application in inks analysis, as it can be used to differentiate between the blue ballpoint Pen Inks and blue erasable Pen inks.

[Mohamed B. Gazy, Taha M. A. Eldebss, Waleed K. El-Zawawy, Mohamed R. Helal and Khaled E. Rashed. Comparative Study between Blue Ballpoint Pen Inks and Blue Erasable Pen inks by Using Spectroscopic analysis and chromatography method. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):16-27]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 3. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.03.


Keywords: Ballpoint pen ink, erasable Pen inks, questioned documents, spectroscopic analyses, chromatography methods and forensic Sciences.

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Possibility of Improving Growth, Yield and Bunch Quality of Melissa Grapevines Through The Application Of Some Summer Pruning Practices


Abd El-Wadoud, M. Z.


Viticulture Dept., Hort. Res. Instit., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt



Abstract: This investigation was conducted for two successive seasons (2013 & 2014) in a private vineyard located at El-Khatatba, Menoufiya governorate on mature Melissa grapevines to study possibility of using some summer pruning practices to improve vegetative growth, yield and bunch quality. The vines were 8-year-old, grown in a sandy loam soil, spaced at 1.75 X 2.5 meters apart, irrigated by the drip irrigation system, cane-pruned and trellised by the "T" shape system. The vines were pruned during the third week of January for the two seasons of the study so as to leave bud load equal 84 buds (6 canes X 14 buds/cane). Eight summer pruning treatments were carried out before the beginning of bloom for pinching treatments and veraison stage for defoliation treatment as follows; pinching and maintaining laterals, pinching and topping laterals, pinching and removing laterals, defoliation, pinching and maintaining laterals + defoliation, pinching and topping laterals + defoliation as well as pinching and removing laterals + defoliation, in addition to control. The results revealed the possibility of using some summer pruning practices to improve vegetative growth, yield and bunch quality. Pinching and maintaining laterals + defoliation treatment achieved the best yield and its components as well as the best physical properties of bunches, improved the physical characteristics of berries, ensured the best vegetative growth parameters and increased total chlorophyll of leaves and total carbohydrates of canes in comparison with the control for Melissa grapevines.

[Abd El-Wadoud, M. Z. Possibility of Improving Growth, Yield and Bunch Quality of Melissa Grapevines Through The Application Of Some Summer Pruning Practices. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):28-34]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 4. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.04.


Key words: Melissa, summer pruning, canes.

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Usage of some sunscreens to protect the Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapevines growing in hot climates from sunburn


Bedrech S. A. and S. Gh. Farag


Viticulture Department, Horticultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.


Abstract: In this study the effect of some plant sunscreens, Aluminum Silicate (Kaolin, Al2O7Si2), Calcium Carbonate (Purshade, CaCO3) and Potassium Silicate (Agsil, K2SiO3) each at 3% and 5 % was investigated on the control of sunburn effects, berry temperature and  yield quality of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapevines grown under the Egyptian  hot conditions during 2013 and 2014 seasons. The vines received two sprays,twoweeks after fruit setting and at 30 days later. Results showed that on days of maximum temperature of 40C to 45C, Kaolin (Al2O7Si2) berries was about 12C cooler, Purshade (CaCO3) berries was 9C cooler and Agsil (K2SiO3) berries was 7C cooler by increasing the concentration to 5% compared with the control in both cultivars. Kaolin treatment followed by Purshade treatment at 5% were the most effective techniques for controlling sunburn of both cultivars with Agsil treatment being less effective at the same concentration. However, spraying in all treatments effectively reduced sunburned berries %, total acidity and improved yield quality, cluster weight, total soluble solids of both cultivars. On the other hand, Agsil treatment was significantly the best in increasing the anthocyanin for Crimson Seedless comparing with other treatments. We conclude that under the high temperature and high radiation levels experienced in Egyptian hot climate, the technologies which reduce solar radiation and berry temperature were the most effective in reducing the sunburn.

[Bedrech S. A. and S. Gh. Farag. Usage of some sunscreens to protect the Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapevines growing in hot climates from sunburn. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):35-41]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 5. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.05.


Key words: Thompson Seedless grapevine, Crimson Seedless grapevine, sunburn, solar radiation, berry temperature, sunscreens.

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Quds in Arab poetry


Samer chanani


Department of Arabic  Language  and  literature, Abadan Branch , Islamic Azad University , Abadan , Iran


Abstract: The Palestinian issue is still the subject of world politics is the fundamental cause of this problem is the constant struggle of Muslims and Arabs and Jews in the Middle East, the oldest conflicts in the world. The dispute began after the First World War, when the victorious powers, the land of Palestine as a "national home" for the Jewish people and the recognition of the autonomy and establishing a government for the Palestinian Arabs in Palestine refused to start. "A land for two peoples." This is the essence of decades of conflict in the region of twenty and thirty since the takeover and occupation of Palestine by the Jews because of differences with Western support and the hostility between the Jewish inhabitants of the Holy Land ended. After the murder of the Jews during World War II in Germany, Jews over the past get their own state in the land of their early efforts. That is why the United Nations divided Palestine in 1947. Jewish and Muslim neighbors Pzyrftnd.flstynyha UN decision of the Palestinian Arabs rejected it.

[Samer chanani. Quds in Arab poetry. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):42-46]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 6. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.06.


Key  words: Palestinian Muslims, Jews, Arabs, Israel

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Co-Infection Of Typhoid And Malaria Fevers Among The Inhabitants Of A Sub-Urban Community In The Southeastern Nigeria


Onyido AE1, Okafor AC1, Chikezie FM2#, Egbuche CM1, Umeanaeto PU1, Okafor EN3, Ezihee EK1,2, Iwueze MO1, Ogbonna CU4, Anumba JU1,2.


1Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. 2Federal Ministry of Health, National Arbovirus and Vectors Research Centre, Enugu, Nigeria. 3Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria.

Authors’ email addresses: ae.onyido@unizik.edu.ng, okaforafamc@yahoo.com, meetfridayonline@yahoo.com, chukwudiegbuche@yahoo.com, mumamaka@yahoo.com, okaforen@yahoo.com, mirobiukwu@yahoo.com


Abstract: A study aimed at determining the prevalence and co-infection of malaria and typhoid fevers was carried out in Ukpor community, Nnewi South Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria. Biodata of the participants were obtained through oral interviews while malaria and typhoid fevers were diagnosed using venous blood samples collected from apparently healthy individuals who did not show any signs and symptoms of malaria and typoid fevers. Field-stained thick and thin blood films were used to detect malaria parasites the samples. Typhoid fever was diagnosed from the blood samples of the participants using Febrile Diagnostic Test Kit (FDTK) containing the O and H antigens for Paratyphi A and C, and the Typhus D. A total of 155 participants composed of 42 males and 113 females were examined. 64 (41.7%) tested positive for malaria, 60 (38.0%) were positive for typhoid fever and 40 (25.0%) were co-infected with malaria and typhoid. There was no significant difference in co-infection of malaria and typhoid fevers among the gender groups (ᵪ2 >0.05), though males had higher infection (30.9 %) than the females (17.4 %). There were significant differences in malaria and typhoid co-infections among the villages, age, education and occupational groups (ᵪ2 <0.05). Location, age, education and occupational groups were considered important predisposing factors of infections with typhoid and malaria fevers. Improved environmental sanitation, personal hygiene, reduction of breeding sites of malaria vectors and houseflies and health education of the people were suggested to check the transmission of malaria and typhoid in the community.

[Onyido AE, Okafor AC, Chikezie FM, Egbuche CM, Umeanaeto PU, Okafor EN, Ezihee EK, Iwueze MO, Ogbonna CU, Anumba JU . Co-Infection Of Typhoid And Malaria Fevers Among The Inhabitants Of A Sub-Urban Community In The Southeastern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):47-56]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 7. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.07.


Keyword: Typhoid fever, malaria, co-infection, personal hygiene.

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The integration action of stem cells and performance genes in selection of racing horses


Amany Behairy, Hussein A.Heshmat, Wafaa E.Mohamed and Reda M. Abd. El Aziz


Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt



Abstract: Although many recent researches tried to devise new techniques for fitness assessment, more techniques are still needed for routine monitoring of horses in training that lead to fitter horses with lower rates of injury and fatigue. Gene characterization is an important feature for genome annotation. Until now few studies have revealed performance genes in elite athletic performance in racing horses. In our study we tried to find a new tool for selection of racing Arabian horses by breeders and help trainers adapt training and racing programs according to horseś s genetic makeup. In addition, the study aimed to determine the effect of exercise and/or training on certain performance genes and hematopoietic stem cells (CD 34+) in racing horses. Six Arabian horses were chosen from equestrian clubs in Cairo Governorate, characterized as three trained and three untrained horses. Firstly, anthropometric measurement and physical parameters were detected. Then, Peripheral blood samples collected from both groups at rest time and after training from trained Arabian horses. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and genotyping analyses were performed by PCR methods. Manual counting by using hemocytometer used to assess mobilized hematopoietic stem cells (CD 34+). Quantitative real time PCR used to measure ACE and ACTININ 3 gene expression. Our results indicated that there was a significant increase in total RNA in trained Arabian horses at rest and after exercise. Furthermore, there was a highly significant increase in ACE and ACTININ 3 gene expression before and after training in trained horses. No significant difference between genotype in trained and untrained horses. In addition, mobilized stem cells increased by training at rest and after exercise. In conclusion, there is sufficient scientific evidence for usage of ACE and ACTININ 3 gene expression as biomarkers of superior athletic performance in racing horses. Our study shed light on usage total RNA as a tool for assessment athletic performance and a good genetic indicator for individual variation among sporting horses. Moreover, the study revealed the effect of exercise on mobilizing stem cells and thereby enhancing tissue repair mechanisms and is a marker of elite horse. Both increase of stem cells and performance gene expression revealed an integrative action in racing horses selection.

[Amany Behairy, Hussein A. Heshmat, Wafaa E. Mohamed and Reda M. Abd. El Aziz. The integration action of stem cells and performance genes in selection of racing horses. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):57-66]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 8. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.08.


Key words: ACE gene, ACTININ 3 gene, racing horses, total RNA, CD34 +

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Replacing the parties will examine the role of customary law in civil law


Mona Amery pour 1, Dr. Hassan Heidari 2


1.  Department of Law, College Of Humanities, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

2.  Department of Law, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran


Abstract: This research is an attempt to study the role and position of convention in contracts of civil law, that is, when and how convention affects the concluded contract between contracting parties and to what extent convention value and credibility are in law? After providing definitions of convention in this text, sorts, pillars and its elements have been discussed. Then, we have studied the concept of convention from the standpoint of jurisprudence, its basis of authority and credibility conditions of the convention, its role in the major legal system and especially its role in contracts. Then, we discussed those cases of civil law which is aimed at the convention and finally, it is concluded from considering discussion, given that the juristic entity has been proven in jurisprudence and it is considered as one of the sources of law and; unfortunately, despite its importance and impact particularly in contracts, it is not defined in law, hence it is essential to define it. The convention in the legal system within the scope of the contract, illuminates definition of ambiguous words and phrases and will be determined in the silence of the parties towards contract terms and resolving substitute contract ambiguities. Legislator prevents law rigidity and inefficiency by accreditingconvention in interpreting words and has made it synchronized with social development; that is why recognizing most of legal issues and determining their evidences are delegated to the convention.

[Mona Amery pour, Hassan Heidari. Replacing the parties will examine the role of customary law in civil law. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):67-74]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 9. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.09.


Key words: convention, contract, contracting parties’ will, law, silence of the contracting parties, contract words

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Lactobacillus plantarum subsp plantarum: Influence of growth parameter on bacteriocin production and characterization


Okerentugba PO, Ijeoma IO  and Oranusi NA


Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Email: ij4onyi@gmail.com, phillip.okerentugba@uniport.edu.ng, Tel +234 8063365298; +2348033087332


Abstract: This study examine the influence of growth parameters on bacteriocin production and also characterized the crude bacteriocin obtained using the agar well diffusion method. Results were interpreted as the zone of inhibition measured in millimeter. Analysis variance observed a significance at p≤ 0.05. At initial pH levels below 7 bacteriocin production was observed to be growth associated while no influence of NaCl concentration and temperature on bacteriocin was observed. The crude bacteriocin produced was characterized as thermostable, aciduric and efficient at - 20oC temperature of storage. The crude bacteriocin showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus CGMCC 1.260, Enterococcus faecalis CGMCC 1.2629, Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 1.2707 and Listeria monocytogenes CGMCC 1.10753 used as indicator strains indicating its potentials as a biopreservative.

[Okerentugba PO, Ijeoma IO  and Oranusi NA. Lactobacillus plantarum subsp plantarum: Influence of growth parameter on bacteriocin production and characterization. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):75-82]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 10. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.10.


Keywords: Growth parameter, Bacteriocin production, Bacteriocin characterization, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Listeria monocytogenes

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The relationship between Literature and Painting


Majid Yazdan Panah (PhD) 1, Mozhgan tahmasebi Sotodeh (M.A) 2


1. Department of Persian Language and Literature, Payame noor University, Iran

2. Department of Persian Language and Literature, Payame noor University, Iran


Abstract: Literary works of Iran are the mirror of ideas, artistry, and beliefs of people that have thrivingly and prosperously survived all risks and events from long ago. All Iran's literature, culture, and art is a manifestation of poetic and nonpoetic works of such famous writers and poets such as Ferdowsi, Manouchehri-e-Damghani, Khayyam, Aboureihan-e-Biroini, Sanaei, Attar, Rumi, Saadi, Hafiz, Saeb, Dehkhoda, Bahar, Nima Youshij, Sohrab-e-Sepehri,… who benefited from the culture of this country, created everlasting works with their own support of artistry, talent, and ability, and have left behind eternal and everlasting wealth. The profound and accurate study of these works, art from long ago and now, polishes up the soul and fertilizes the mind. Literature, a worthy and noble art, is shown beautifully when it combines with arts such as music, painting, calligraphy, and carving. Iranian music has always been along with poetry and singing. One of the manifestations of the poets and the authors influenced by musisian is their use of elements which are directly or indirectly specific to the art of music. The poets and the authors have created imaginary poetic forms using these elements in their prose and poetry. Examples such as harp or lute, rah, rud, arghanun and reed and so one. In this article examples in the poems of the poets are discussed.

[Majid Yazdan Panah, Mozhgan tahmasebi Sotodeh. The relationship between Literature and Painting. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):83-85]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 11. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.11.


Keywords: Literature, Painting, Image, Art, Poem

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Seasonal Variation In Physico-Chemical Characteristics Of Cross River Estuary, South Eastern Nigeria.


George, Ubong Uwem1, Atakpa, Edidiong Okokon2


1Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

2Department of Zoology, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.



Abstract: The quality of water from Cross River Estuary was investigated using standard methods with the view of assessing the level of pollution and the effect of anthropogenic activities in the system. Seasonal variations of some physical and chemical characteristics of Cross River Estuary were carried out between January 2014 and December, 2014. A total of nine (9) different parameters were investigated. Variations in these physico-chemical parameters were observed both in the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed that some parameters Temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids, Conductivity and Total hydrocarbon concentrations in the Cross river Estuary were within the levels recommended by World Health Organization for potable water. However, the Cross river Estuary, contains other physico-chemical parameters such as Turbidity and Transparency that were above the levels recommended by World Health Organization for potable water which render it unsafe to be consumed raw. Adequate treatment before consumption is strongly recommended in order to avoid waterborne related diseases.

[George, U. U., Atakpa, E. O. Seasonal Variation in Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Cross River Estuary, South Eastern Nigeria. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):86-93]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 12. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.12.


Keywords: Water quality, Cross River Estuary, Seasonal variation, Physico-chemical characteristics, Nigeria.

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Effect Of Weather Variability On Selected Arable Crop Insurance In South-Western Region Of Nigeria (1990- 2014)


Ajiboye B.O1, Adedeji, I.A1, Bamiro, O.M1 And Otunnaiya, A.O2


1. Landmark University, Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension, Omu Aran, Kwara State.

2. Olabisi Onabajo University, Agricultural Economics and Farm Mgt, Ayetoro, Nigeria


Abstract: Farmers have been employing various ways of adaptation to the effect weather variability. Agricultural insurance is seen as one of the best strategies to address farm risks and encourage the affected farmers to get back to business and achieve better and quality yields. This study assessed the effect of weather variability on crop insurance payout method of the Nigerian Agricultural Insurance Corporation (NAIC). The framework used consists of crop yield models, crop yield variance and the insurance payout estimation methods employed to help the affected farmers with the challenges. Primary and secondary data were used for this study. The insured farmers were randomly selected from the insurance policy register of NAIC while the uninsured farmers were selected from the Federal Ministry of Agricultural, Ibadan branch. The secondary data includes weather variables and crop yield data in South- West, Nigeria from 1990 to 2014. The data were collected from the Nigerian Meteorological Station (NIMET). The results showed that the changes in weather affected crop yield levels and variability, rainfall and temperature increases are found to increase yield level and variability. On the other hand, the decrease in yield was caused by heat stress; this is a function of reduced rainfall days induced by the temperature rise. The results also identified that the insured farmers are less productive than the uninsured farmers in term of crop production. This shows that the insured farmers took insurance policies as a pre- requisite to obtain credit from the financial institution which might have been diverted into another thing. An adjusted R2 indicated the proportion of the variation in output of both insured and uninsured farmers. A value of 93.52% was obtained for the specify function of the insured farmer as compare to 84.38% of the uninsured farmer and 90.66% for the pooled result of the two groups of farmers.

[Ajiboye B.O, Adedeji, I.A, Bamiro, O.M And Otunnaiya, A.O. Effect Of Weather Variability On Selected Arable Crop Insurance In South-Western Region Of Nigeria (1990- 2014). Nat Sci 2015;13(12):94-104]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 13. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.13.


Keywords: Agricultural insurance, Weather variability, Insurance payout estimation methods

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Prevalence of Dermatophytoses amongst pupils from schools in some parts of Rivers State, Nigeria.


Ogbuleka, N.A.C., Mbakwem-Aniebo, C. and Frank-Peterside N.


Department of Microbiology, University of Port-Harcourt, Choba P.M.B.5323 Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

E-Mail: chiakaniebo@yahoo.com, Tel: +2348033066296, +2348036753329


Abstract: The prevalence and aetiology of dermatophytic infections amongst pupils in some parts of Rivers State, Nigeria, was monitored. This study was carried out between June 2010 and March 2012. A total of 2,538 pupils from twenty-seven primary schools within the age range of 4 – 16 years were randomly sampled. Clinical samples were aseptically collected and microbiologically analysed using standard methods. The results showed that of the 2,538 pupils, 340(13.4%) pupils had suspected dermatophytic lesions on different parts of their body, 282 (11.1%) were confirmed to be dermatophytic infections and 58 (2.3%) were non-dermatophytic infections. The aetiological agents isolated were - Trichophyton rubum [64(22.7%)] was the most prevalent infectious species. This was closely followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes [58(20.6%)], Microsporum gypseum [54(19.1%)], Microsporum ferregineum [52(18.4%)], Epidemiophyton floccosum [24(8.5%)] and Trichophyton tonsurans [19(6.7%)] while Microsporum canis [11(3.9%)] was the least. The prevalence of the infection amongst the pupils of age range 4-7years was 106 (13.1%) increased to 139(14.2%) for 8-11years, and decreased to -95 (12.6%) for the age range 12-16yrs. The distribution of the infection among female pupils within the age range of 4-16years did not differ significantly but the males in the age range of 8 -11years were significantly (p<0.05) more infected than those in the other age ranges. Thus, the study revealed a high prevalence of dermatophytoses (11.1%) among pupils in Port Harcourt municipal and Obio/Akpor (urban area) and Okoma, Okporowo in Ahoada-East (rural area) Local Government areas.

[Ogbuleka, N.A.C., Mbakwem-Aniebo, C. and Frank-Peterside N. Prevalence of Dermatophytoses amongst pupils from schools in some parts of Rivers State, Nigeria. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):105-111]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 14. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.14.


Keywords: Prevalence, Dermatophytoses, Schools, Nigeria

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Phytochemical Comparative Screening of Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem barks, and Roots of Hura crepitans (L) using GC – FID.


Adindu, Eze Azubuike1*, Elekwa, Iheanyichukwuand Ogwo Joseph Ikedi2


1. Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.

2. X-Trim Research Ltd, Aba , Abia State

*Corresponding author: Email: ezeadindu42@gmail.com +2348037074825


Abstract:  The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extracts of leaves,stem bark and roots of Hura crepitans were analysed using the Gas Chromatography – Flame Ionization Detector (GC – FID) method. The various parts of the plants were collected and air-dried under shade for one month after which they were sent for analysis. All the various parts showed varying amounts of phytochemicals: Flavonoids, Carotenoids, Sterols, Terpenes, Alkaloids, Saponins and Phenolic acids. The Aqueous Root Extracts (ARE) showed the highest amounts of the following phytochemicals when compared with other parts: phenolic acid content of 193.776mg/100g; flavonoids total content of 151.6604g/100g; alkaloid total content of 199.41g/100g; saponin total content of 130.005mg/100g; sterol total content of 4.02985g/100g and terpenes total content of 98.2341%. The leaves showed the highest carotenoid total content of 90.9181g/100g. The rich phytochemical content of these aqueous extracts especially of the roots suggests its potential use as a medicinal plant and may also have other industrial applications as raw materials.

[Adindu, Eze Azubuike, Elekwa, Iheanyichukwu and Ogwo Joseph Ikedi. Phytochemical Comparative Screening of Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem barks, and Roots of Hura crepitans (L) using GC – FID. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):112-119]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 15. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.15.


Key words:  Hura crepitans, Phytochemicals, Gas Chromatography – Flame Ionization Detector, Leaf, Bark, Roots

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Amino Acid Profile and Score of Some Smoke Dried Hill Stream Fishes from the Markets of Manipur, India


Ch. Sarojnalini and Abdul Hei


Manipur University, Dept. of Life Sciences, Canchipur-795003, Manipur, India

E-mail: sarojnalinich@gmail.com, ahei541@gmail.com


Abstract: Fishes are known to be good sources of complete protein. The purpose is to study amino acids profile and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score of the smoke dried hill stream fish Neolisochilus strachyi, Labeo pangusia, Semiplotus manipurensis, Schizothorax sp. and Ompok sp. The highest level was glutamic acid (15.17 to 20.76g /100g) followed by aspartic acid (10.18 to 1.37g/100g protein).The lowest level was found in tryptophan (1.57 to 2.09g/100g). Total essential amino acid contents ranged from 54.43 to 55.08g/100g. Total sum of aromatic amino acid contents ranged from 14.44 to 24.88g/100g and sum of sulphur containing amino acids contents were from 4.15 to 5.64g/100g. Ratios of total essential amino acids of contents to total whole amino acid contents were from 1.64 to 1.98. Comparison of essential amino acids of the fishes with reference pattern shows fairly high level. Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) ranged from 119.93 to 88.97%. Essential amino acid contents were high enough even to complement other essential amino acid deficient diets or mixed diets. The present study shows that the fishes contains good levels of essential amino acids and have good amino acid scores though processing might leave some effect on the amino acids.

[Sarojnalini, Ch. and Hei, Abdul. Amino Acid Profile and Score of Some Smoke Dried Hill Stream Fishes from the Markets of Manipur, India. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):120-126]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 16. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.16.


Keywords: smoked hill stream fishes, amino acids, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS)

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Potential of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) seed extract against larva and pupa of Aedes species: A study


Sharanappa K.Kadabinakatti1*, Sumangala. Patil1, Gowri V. Kulkarni1, Rajesh Kumar2, Mahesh C. Arya 2


1. P C Jabin Science College, Hubli, Karnatak University, Dharwad -580003, Karnataka State, India

2. Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, Nainital-263002, Uttarakhand State, India

* Corresponding Author: E-mail: sharankk22692@gmail.com


Abstract: This study deals with potential of the alcoholic seed extract of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) against larva and pupa of Aedes sp. The study shows that extract is effective against different developmental stages of Aedes sp. Mortality rate of larva was faster than the pupa. The mortality of larva was three times faster than the pupa stage. In general, the seeds extract of Trachyspermum ammi is effective on larva and pupa both and can be considered to develop economic, easy to prepare, ecofriendly remedy against Aedes sp.

[Sharanappa K.Kadabinakatti, Sumangala. Patil, Gowri V. Kulkarni, Rajesh Kumar, Mahesh C. Arya. Potential of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) seed extract against larva and pupa of Aedes species: A study. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):127-130]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 17. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.17.


Key Words: Trachyspermum ammi, seed extract, Aedes sp

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Cervical Preparation before Diagnostic and Operative Hystroscopy


Naglaa Mohamed Hussein; Mona Al Sayed Elkafrawy and Doaa Mahmoud Effat


Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Background: Misoprostol is very effective and approved in cervical ripening in pregnant uterus so we study its effect on non pregnant uterus to facilitate hysteroscopic dilatation and curettage (D&C) and decrease its complications. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of misoprostol in ripening the cervix before diagnostic or operative hysteroscopic procedure in non pregnant women. Patients and Methods: This study was an observational prospective study. It conducted on 150 patients non pregnant who scheduled for an operative hysteroscopy or diagnostic hysteroscopy. The studied groups were divided into three groups, (group A) 50 patients who received misoprostol before diagnostic hysteroscopy, (group B) 50 patients who received misoprostol before operative hysteroscopy, and (group C), as a control group 50 patients all of them did not receive misoprostol, they divided into 25 patients were performing diagnostic hysteroscopy and 25 patients were performing operative hysteroscopy. Four hundred (400) mcg of misoprostol was taken vaginaly 6 hours before the surgery. Then statistically analysis were done to compare the patients received misoprostol and those who did not receive misoprostol regarding the needs of cervical dilatation and complications. Results: This study shows that the incidence of patients who needed cervical dilatation in group C (diagnostic hysteroscopy in patient not prepared by misoprostol) to group A were 40% to 10% respectively with significant P value (0.005). While in operative hysteroscopy the incidence of cases needed cervical dilatation in group C (not prepared by misoprostol) to group B were 76% versus to 28% with highly significant p value (0.000). Also this study shows that an increase in the incidence of complications in patients not prepared by misoprostol than in patients prepared by misoprostol in operative or diagnostic hysteroscopy where the incidence was 36% and 40% respectively, such as pain, bleeding and cervical tears. Conclusion: preoperative vaginal application of misoprostol before gynecological procedures facilitates the cervical dilatation. Also decreases the cervical complications during and after hysteroscopy.

[Naglaa Mohamed Hussein; Mona Al Sayed Elkafrawy, Doaa Mahmoud Effat. Cervical Preparation before Diagnostic and Operative Hysteroscopy. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):131-136]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 18. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.18.


Keywords: Hysteroscopy, misoprostol, cervical ripening, none pregnant women

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Quantitative inheritance of total soluble solids and flour color in sweet-field corn crosses


Wahba, B. K., Zaki, H. E. M., Moustafa, Y. M. M., Abdel Ati, Y.Y. and Gadelhak, S.H.


Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, El-Minia 61517, Egypt



Abstract: In Egypt, field corn is growing well and fully adapted with the Egyptian environment however, it lacks sweetness which could be found in sweet corn. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the genetic parameters in two different sweet-field corn crosses using the generation mean analysis for total soluble solids (TSS) and kernels color. The F1, F2, BC1P1 and BC1P2 were produced from cross1 (Country Gentleman "P1" X yellow field corn inbred 2605-1288Y"P2") and cross2 (white field corn inbred 82 "P1" X Golden Bantam "P2"). Sweet corn cultivars had the highest TSS compared with field corn inbreds. However, the F1 means in both crosses were higher than mid parent’s values, but did not exceed those of their high parent suggesting partial dominance. Values of A, B and C of the scaling test were significant confirming the existence of non-allelic gene interaction. Broad and narrow sense heritability values were higher in cross 1than cross 2 and this increased the possibility of selection for high TSS contents in the studied materials. Additive and dominance gene effects of TSS values were significant and their values had similar or opposite signs. Kernel color was evaluated by Hunter L*, a* and b* parameters. The two parents of each cross were differed significantly for Hunter L*, a*, b* readings. The estimated genetic parameters of both three and six models on the studied populations indicated that additive and non-additive genetic effects were involved in the causes of the existing genetic variations of the L*, a* and b* color scale. Positive b* is an index of yellow color, the higher the values, the greater pigments content. In the studied crosses, F1 values were between the midparent and lower parent in both crosses indicated the recessiveness. The estimated C values of the scaling model were significant when the A values were insignificant in both crosses. B values were insignificant in the cross1 and significant cross 2.The arithmetic and geometric F2 means which suggest non-additive and additive genetic effects are contributed to the observed b* variations in both crosses. Furthermore, the estimated heritabilitieswere relatively high in broad sense, whereas those values in narrow sense were low in both crosses. The relative high heritability of b*values suggested that improving yellow color in sweet-field corn populations could be done.

[Wahba, B. K., Zaki, H. E. M., Moustafa, Y. M. M., Abdel Ati, Y.Y. and Gadelhak, S.H. Quantitative inheritance of total soluble solids and flour color in sweet-field corn crosses. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):137-145]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 19. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.19.


Keywords: Quantitative inheritance, Total soluble solids, Kernel color, Hunter L*, a*, b* readings, Sweet-field corn crosses

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Mycelial Growth, Protein Patterns and Molecular Characterizations by RAPD-PCR of Fusariumoxysporum Fungus Affected by of 1,8-Cineol, Eugenol, Linalool, Methyl Cinnamate and Thymol


Mohamed, A. A. Shaymaa1; El-Shiekh, Y. W. A.1; and Nour El-Din, A. Hanan2


(1) Pesticides Formulation Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center

(2) Microbial Molecular Biology Department, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center

E-mail: shaymaa_abdelwahab@yahoo.com


Abstract: A study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal activities of naturally occurring compounds namely; thymol, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, linalool and 1,8-cineol against Fusariumoxysporum which was economically important phytopathogic fungus in the Egyptian environment. The LC25 and LC50’s of the tested compounds against were determined according to the relationship drawn between the logarithm of concentration and the percent of growth inhibition (ldp lines), and the toxicity indexes and relative potencies were calculated. Thymol was the most effective compound followed by eugenol, methyl cinnamate and linalool, descendingly. The LC50’s of thymol, eugenol and methyl cinnamate against F. oxysporum were 81.89, 214.74 and 290.66 g/ml, respectively. The 1,8-cineol compound didn’t show any fungicidal activity. The present study is also attempted to determine the differences between treated and untreated samples at the molecular level based on the analysis of protein analysis and RAPD-PCR.

[Mohamed, A. A. Shaymaa El-Shiekh, Y. W. A. and Nour El-Din, A. Hanan. Mycelial Growth, Protein Patterns and Molecular Characterizations by RAPD-PCR of FusariumoxysporumFungus Affected by of 1,8-Cineol, Eugenol, Linalool, Methyl Cinnamate and Thymol. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):146-160]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 20. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.20.


Key words: antifungal, Fusariumoxysporum, thymol, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, linalool, 1,8-cineol, protein profile, RAPD-PCR.

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Study of the effectiveness of locally manufactured alarms in treating children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis


Abd El-Hamid El-Hamshary1, Ghada El-Mashad2, Mohamed Bayoumy1


1Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

2 Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufi, Egypt

amirayosri2010@gmail.com, hemauncut33@gmail.com


Abstract: Objectives: This study aims at determining the effectiveness of locally manufactured alarms in treating children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Background: monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis represents a major problem affecting about 20% of children aged 5 years causing multiple troubles to both the child and his family. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted prospectively upon 100 child who wet their beds minimally 3 times/week, (65% males and 35% females) whose age ranges (7-13 years). They were prospectively collected from Menouf general hospital and Benha university hospital during the period from June 2014 to May 2015 and followed up for 3 months and for 6month after treatment by bedwetting alarm. Results: success was achieved in 68% of the sample (dry nights for 14 successive nights) while the other 32% of the sample failed to attain initial success. On 3months follow up of responded group 85% of them succeeded to maintain response and on following them up for 6months 88% of them continued to have response. Conclusion: Usage of bed wetting alarm in treatment of patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is effective.

[Abd El-Hamid El-Hamshary, Ghada El-Mashad, and Mohamed Bayoumy. Study of the effectiveness of locally manufactured alarms in treating children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Nat Sci 2015;13(12):161-167]. (ISSN: 1545-0740). http://www.sciencepub.net/nature. 21. doi:10.7537/marsnsj131215.21.


Keywords: Nocturnal enuresis, Monosymptomatic, Alarm.

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from November 12, 2015.

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